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# Pedagogy of science

Deductive method

Deductive method

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### Pedagogy of science

1. 1. PEDAGOGY OF SCIENCE DEDUCTIVE METHOD
2. 2. • Inductive Method (specific general) • Deductive method (general specific)
3. 3. DEDUCTIVE METHOD • A Deductive approach to instruction is a more teacher-centered approach . This means that the teacher gives the students a new concept ,explains it and then has the students practice using the concept. • The Deductive approach is teacher dominated . It begins with abstract rules, generalization, principle and ends with specific examples and concrete details. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Inductive-Deductive Model General Principles 1) Induction 2) Deduction Observed Phenomena From observations one proceeds by inductive inference(1) to General Principles which explain the observations in virtue of the fact that those same observations can be deduced (2) from the principles.
4. 4. OBJECTIVES OF DEDUCTIVE METHOD • Teacher -dominated approach. • It begins with the abstract rule, generalization,principle and end with specific examples and concrete details. • Cover a wide scope of subject matter. • Learning is passive process, the learners do not take part in the generation of conclusion or generalization. • Drill or exercises come after the explanation of the rule or principle.
5. 5. STEPS OF DEDUCTION APPROACH STEPS OF DEDUCTIVE APPROACH Understanding the Problem Collecting Information Reviewing the relevant principles or rules or laws or formulae etc. Applying Relevant rules to case in hand Drawing Inferences Verifying the rules by applying to new instances.
6. 6. EXAMPLES Deductive Reasoning • Proposed by Aristotle. • Uses general principle to construct specific results. • It begins with generalization. • Generally ,conclusions are drawn from 2 statements, First statement is general principle (major premise) Second statement is the minor premise . Third statement is the conclusion. • All planets revolve around the sun. • Earth is a planet. • Therefore it revolves around sun.
7. 7. • All living things are made up of cells (general principle) • Elephant is a living thing. (minor premise) • Therefore, Elephant is made up of cells(conclusion)
8. 8. ADVANTAGES OF DEDUCTIVE METHOD • Time saving. • Coverage of a wider scope of subject matter. • It helps learners' higher order thinking skill. • Allow more time for practice and application. • Lesson is straight to the point. • Many rules can be more explicitly and quickly explained. • It is adequate and advantageous method for the revision of topic.
9. 9. DISADVANTAGES • It is not a scientific method. • There is less involvement on the part of the learners thus the learning should not be a active process . • Lesson appears uninteresting. • Not suitable for development of thinking,reasoning and discovery. • Encourages the belief that learning a language is simply a case of knowing the rules. • Passive and boring lesson. • Teacher centered -( one way communication )
10. 10. THANK YOU