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Credit covid-19

  2. CONTENT • Introduction of Coronavirus • Vulnerable sections during COVID-19 • Spreading of disease • Symptoms • Immune System • Link between Nutrition and Immunity • Immune response to COVID-19 • Role of Nutrition during Pandemic • Immune Boosting Nutrients • Misinformation and Disinformation durig Covid-19 • Infodemic and Infodemic Monikers
  3. INTRODUCTION  Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).  Covid-19 is the name of the disease caused by virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).  In 2019, the CoV infection began in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Source: WHO(2020)
  4. STRUCTURE  Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA virus that cause disease.  Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae order Nidovirales.  They have characteristic club-shaped spikes that project from their surface.  Their size is highly variable and generally is an average diameter of 120 nm.  They are enclosed in an envelope embedded with a number of protein molecules.  The Lipid bilayer, Envelope, Membrane proteins, and Nucleocapsid protect the virus when it is outside the host cell.
  5. VULNERABLE SECTIONS DURING COVID 19  OLDER PEOPLES  People with chronic medical conditions such as- Diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, and immuno-compromised individuals, appear to be a greater risk of developing severe symptoms.  COVID-19 is projected to hit particularly hard the food, nutrition, and health security of vulnerable groups including young children, pregnant and lactating women social and health inequities. Source :WHO, FAO, 2020).
  6. How does the disease spread? Droplets from mouth or nose are releasing when a covid- 19 person coughs Droplets falls on Surface or Object. These droplets are too heavy to hang in the air. They quickly fall on floors or surfaces. Directly - when contaminated hands touch the mouth, nose, eyes Indirectly: when contaminated surfaces are touched.
  7. SYMPTOMS • Fever • Dry Cough • Shortness of breath • Chills • Muscle pains • Sore throat • Runny nose • Tiredness • Loss of taste and smell • Nausea or Vomiting • Loss of appetite Source: WHO(2020) Symptoms appear on average 5-6 days from when someone is infected with the virus however it can take up to 14 days also.
  8. IMMUNE SYSTEM  An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.  In order to function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents from bacteria and viruses to parasitic worms and distinguish them from the organisms own healthy tissue.  Immunity deals with the functioning of immune system and protects our body from harmful external influences.
  10. LINK BETWEEN NUTRITION AND IMMUNITY  Nutrition has an important role in supporting the immune system and maintaining proper immune function.  Diet has a profound effect on people’s immune system and disease susceptibility.  Adequate nutrition is required for all cells to function optimally.  An “activated” immune system further increases the demand for energy during periods of infection.
  11. • The immune system’s demands for nutrients can be met from exogenous sources i.e. diet, or if dietary sources are inadequate, from endogenous sources such as body stores. • Micronutrients and dietary components have very specific roles in the development and maintenance of an effective immune system throughout the life course or in reducing chronic inflammation. Source: Caroline (Aug, 2019)
  12. ROLE OF NUTRITION DURING PANDEMIC • Good nutrition is always important, but during this pandemic, it’s even more important because a well-balanced diet of nutritious foods helps support a strong immune system. • A proper diet can ensure that the body is in proper state to defeat the virus and preventing non-communicable diseases that are risk factors for higher COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. • Optimal nutrition and dietary nutrient intake impact the immune system through gene expression, cell activation, and signaling molecules modification. Aman and Masood (May,2020)
  13. IMMUNE RESPONSE EVENTS AND NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENTS Activation demand for energy yielding substrates Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids Metabolic machinery involved in energy generation and biosynthesis Many different vitamins and minerals Maturation, Differentiation and responsiveness of immune cells Vitamins A and D. Cellular proliferation, increasing the number of immune cells available Requires proteins and various micronutrients Induces production of lipid-derived mediators (prostaglandins and leukotrienes ) Requires fatty acids
  15.  VITAMIN-E: Function: Act as an Antioxidant and radical scavenger and helps in modulating the host immune responses in elderly. Sources: Sunflower oil, Safflower oil, Almonds, Pistachios, Wheat germ oil.  VITAMIN-D Function: Antimicrobial effect, reduces pro- inflammatory effects and Promotes healthy Gut Microbiota. Sources: Milk and its product, Sunlight exposure.  VITAMIN-B6 Function: Intestinal immune regulation, Cytotoxic activity, Reduces inflammation, Amino acid synthesis, Metabolism. Sources: Soyabean, Lentil, Moong dal, etc.
  16.  VITAMIN-B9 Function: Cytotoxic activity, Antibody production & Metabolism, Antibody response to Antigens. Sources: Liver, Green leafy vegetables, Broccli, Beet roots, etc.  VITAMIN-B12 Function: Gut Microbiota, Intestinal immune regulation. Sources: Fish, Meat, Poultry, Eggs, Milk and its products, Shellfish.  VITAMIN-C Function: Stimulates Antibody formation, Supports cellular functions. Sources: Citrus fruits(orange, lemon, mausmi), Raw mango, Amla, Green chilli, Capsicum.
  17.  VITAMIN-A Function: Protects by keeping skin and tissues in the mouth/stomach/intestines & respiratory system healthy. Source: Sweet potatoes, carrots, mango, papaya, egg.  OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS Function: Enhances the function of immune systems. Source: Fish (Tuna, Mackerel, Saloman), Other sea foods, Flax seeds, Walnut etc.  ZINC& SELENIUM Function: Helps to reduce Oxidative stress Altering Host Response to Viral infections. Source: Sea foods, meat, poultry, eggs, Pulses, Legumes
  18.  MAGNESIUM Function: Plays a role in Innate and Acquired Immunity by boosting Immunoglobulins. Source: Nuts, Whole grains, Sunflower seeds etc.  PROTEIN Function: Plays a role in the body’s healing and recovery. Sources: Egg& Poultry, Soy products, Beans & Pulses, meat, Fish & Sea foods.
  19.  HYDRATION Function: Hydration helps to relieve congestion and flushing of toxins and maintain the mucous membrane of the nose and upper respiratory tract intact. Sources: Coconut water, Nimbu Pani, Green Tea, Soups, Milk, Buttermilk.
  20. PREBIOTIC- Special forms of Dietary Fibers that stimulates the growth of gut microflora. Source: Garlic, Onion, Banana, Barley, Oats, Wheat Bran. PROBIOTIC- Special strains of Live Bacteria found in foods. Sources: Yoghurt, Fermented milk, Fermented food product Bacteria: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacteria.
  21. GUT HEALTH THROUGH PROBIOTIC BACTERIA  They Promote human health by inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria .  Probiotics compete nutrients for growth and proliferation that would be utilized by pathogens.  It strengthen the intestinal barrier.  Bacteria such as Lactobacillus and L. plantarum can inhibit attachment of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (gram-ve) in the GI tract.
  22. HERBS, CONDIMENTS AND SPICES  Function: Immune Boosters From the Kitchen Possess Antiviral/ Antimicrobial activity which helps to fight infections.  Sources: Ginger, Tulsi, Lemon grass, Turmeric, Mint, Anise, Cumin seeds, Cinnamon, Black pepper, Ajwain, Cloves, Fenugreek seeds. Source- FSSAI, Eat Right during COVID-19
  23. FOODS TO AVOID/ MINIMIZE TO PREVENT LOW IMMUNITY ▪ Saturated fats ▪ Trans fats ▪ High salt ▪ High sugars ▪ Refined sugars ▪ Refined flours
  24. PREVENT OXIDATIVE STRESS THROUGH FOOD Oxidative stress is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body. Which leads to cell and tissue damage. These pro-oxidants need to be scavenged with the help of antioxidants.
  25. However, nutrition is an important element of care. Optimized nutrition care of the ICU COVID-19 patients maintains GI tract function, sustain immune defenses, and avoid severe loss of muscle mass and function. The nutritional assessment and the early nutritional care management of COVID-19 patients must be integrated into the overall therapeutic strategy.
  26. MULTI-LEVEL FRAMEWORK ACTION TO SUPPORT NUTRITION DURING THE PANDEMIC Individual • Try to eat well-balanced meals. • Selection of foods rich in macro and micro nutrients • Maintain a healthy lifestyle, regular sleep. • Avoid smoking, alcohol, and drugs • Refrain from spreading misinformation related to nutrition and dietary intake . Community • Spread awareness regarding hoarding and “panic-buy” • Identify and support populations at risk of malnutrition within the community, especially elderly and patients with chronic diseases. • Create a reliable support system to ensure availability, access, and affordability of essential food commodities to all members.
  27. National • Mobilize resources in order to finance food purchases and provisions . • Support agricultural and food production industries. • Closely monitor and inspect food prices and markets. • Build networks with the private sector, the international agencies, and local communities. • Maintain high levels of transparency, critical to build trust, support, and compliance. Global • Assure continuous flow of global trade, avoiding any trade restrictions would be beneficial to keep food and feed supplies. • Reduce import tariffs and other restrictions on food commodities. Farah and Rena (2020)
  29. INFODEMIC “A massive infodemic: an overabundance of information some accurate and some not that makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it.” (WHO, 2020)
  30. INFODEMIC MONIKERS The fake news, misleading, and misinformation circulating on the internet are referred to as “Infodemic monikers” Fake News - News consisting of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media or online social media Misinformation - Spreading false or inaccurate information (including false rumors, or insults and pranks Disinformation - False information which is intended to mislead, especially propaganda issued (government organization or the media) - malicious content such as hoaxes, spear phishing and computational propaganda Source: DR. Subbarao ICMR-NIN
  31. Many people believe false information about food safety risks posed by COVID-19 • 3,781 respondents. • Two-thirds were from the UK, U.S., India and Ireland. • The results highlight how dangerous the spreading of misinformation can be 43% of participants wrongly believe that it is safe to eat fruits and vegetables that have been washed with soap or diluted bleach. • 21% believed “drinking water flushes all COVID-19 viral particles into the oesophagus and then the stomach. • False information to likely to be believed Ruani and Reiss (2020)
  32. Coronavirus Goes Viral: Quantifying the COVID-19 Misinformation Epidemic on Twitter • Research Conducted on Twitter using 14 different trending hash tags and keywords related to the COVID-19 epidemic. • Study included 673 Tweets. • Most Tweets were posted by informal individuals/groups (66%). • 129(19.2%) belongs to verified Twitter accounts. • In total 153(24.8%) Tweets included misinformation and 107(17.4%) included unverifiable information regarding the COVID-19. • The rate of misinformation were higher among informal group accounts. Kouzy (2020)
  33. Source: WHO (2020)
  34. CONCLUSION  Good nutrition is key to build immunity, protect against illness and infection, and support recovery. Nutrition and immunity is not just for the present covid-19 crises .It is a life long requirement to protect from these kinds of diseases.  Healthy balanced diets are key for boosting immunity and preventing non- communicable diseases that are risk factors for higher COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.  Avoiding unsafe food such as from unknown source and improperly stored food and infected food.  The responsibility of individuals is to avoid the spread of misinformation related to nutrition and dietary intake, and the COVID-19.
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