Any machine can be called as a machine tool if it
is capable of producing itself. Lathe machine is a
machine tool because it is utilized in production of
a lathe machine i.e. various components of lathe
Different type of machine tools are as follows :
(i) General purpose machine tools.
(ii) Production machine tools.
(iii) Special purpose machine tools.
(iv) Flexible manufacturing machine tools.
Machine tools are also called curter. This is the
instrument through which and with the help of
shear stress unnecessary material is removed
from the working block.
Qualified Tools :
2. These tools fit into a location on the machine. The
cutting edge of these tools is accurately
positioned with respect to a projected reference
point on the tool holder.
Cutting tool device fulfill the following conditions :
It is not necessary to measure the every tool
one by one.
There is need of any kind of presetting device.
Dimension of tool holder is constant & known.
Reduction in setup time,
Controlled dimensions of tool is less &
High control on process such as-Drill, Reamer.
High control on milling & treaming.
Arrangement of chips is in tools.
High Quality Design.
3. Semi Qualified tools :
The types of tools which are adjusted by using
adjustable buttons on the tools shank, such
rools are known as semiqualified tools.
The major drawback of thesc tools is that they
need regular calibration for aceurare
Systematic Diagram is as follows :
Advantages of using Inserts in Place of Solid
The time to regrind a tool is eliminated.
Less down time of machine.
High cutting (metal removal) rates.
The cost of grinding wheel is eliminated.
Throw away insert are cheaper than brazed-
Overall high production rates.
Automatic Tool Changer:
Design of CNC machine is done in such a manner
that number of operation is done in one setting of
tool. For machining of complex parts number of
tools required. Tool changer ht in CNC machine
work as tools required. Tool changer fit in CNC
machine work as instruction given. All the tools
are arranged in tool magazine or drum. When tool
5. changes required drum rotates on vacant space &
remove the old tools & fit the new as requíred.
This arrangement is known as automatic tool
Automatic tool changer is of twa types :
(i) Drum type Automatic tool changer.
(ii) Chain type Automatic tool changer.
CNC Machine Bed:
It is a hard structure which is fixed on floor.
Machine bed fixed on floor in whole length. For
this foundation is made on floor. There are 5
guide ways on CNC machine Bed which sustain
5 Guide ways are as follows :
3 Guideway is for movement of Turret
2 Guideway is for movement of Tailstock
The movement of these on guideway is withour
any Interlerence, For movement ofTurret Ball
6. Screw Joint is used. For saddle cross lead screw is
useu. Lead screw is operated by servormotor.
CNC Lubrication System:
For cooling & lubrication of CNC, cutting fluid is
During CNC machining operations continuous
heat produced. This heat from machining zone
must be removed. By the action tool on
7. workpiece, chip produced, heat is also produced
with chips with the help of coolant excess heat
from workpiece, tool, chips is removed. Coolant
must having capacity to remove the excess air at
In machining operation around 2/3 part heat is
generated by cutting force. Second main reason is
the movement of chips on workpiece. Citing nuid
naving property of high lubrication capacity.
Cutting fluid have the properly of reducing friction
between the sliding surface Cutting fluid is used
on workpiece continuously cutting nuna is used
where chips produced. In turning process cutting
fluid is used with the help of nozzle.
A PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) is
an industrial computer control system that
continuously monitors the state of input devices
and makes decisions based upon a custom
program to control the state of output devices.