According to American heart association an aneurysm occurs when part
of an artery wall weakness, allowing it to widen abnormally or balloon
An aneurysm is a localized sac or dilation formed at a weak point in the
wall of the aorta
Because of the high pressure in the arterial system, aneurysms can
enlarge, producing complications by compressing surrounding structures
Aneurysm is the second most frequent disease of the aorta after
CLASSIFICATION CAN BE
Secondary to atherosclerotic,
( SHAPE AND SIZE OF ANEURYSM)
They are spherical in shape and involve only a portion of the vessel
wall, they very in size and are often filled either partially or
fully by a thrombus.
A localized dilation of an artery in which the entire circumference
of the vessel is distended. The result is an elongated, tubular,
or spindle like swelling.
A berry aneurysm, which looks like a berry on a narrow stem, is
the most common type of brain aneurysm. They make up 90
percent of all brain aneurysms, according to Stanford Health
Care. Berry aneurysms tend to appear at the base of the brain
where the major blood vessels meet, also known as the Circle of
When a berry aneurysm ruptures, blood from the
artery moves into the brain causing subarachnoid haemorrhage.
The aneurysm ruptures it can lead to haemorrhage stroke.
A raptured aneurysm quickly become life threatening and requires prompt
According to the meta analysis done by Boogaarts ‘etal’ in the year 2015
they found that aneurysmal rupture prior to treatment is a major cause of
death and morbidity in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.
They also found that aneurysm size is an important risk factor for
Atherosclerotic Aneurysms are aneurysms caused by atherosclerosis and typically
occur in the abdominal aorta.
Inflammation associated with atherosclerosis leads to destruction, thinning and thus
weakening of vascular wall, specifically the tunica media, which leads to aneurysmal
dilation of the vessel.
Syphilitic Aneurysms arise during tertiary syphilis due to chronic inflammation in the
tunica adventitia of large elastic arteries, particularly the aorta. Ischemia of the tunica
media, combined with further syphilitic invasion into the tunica media itself, results
in medial destruction and weakening, ultimately causing dilation and aneurysm-
THORACIC AORTIC ANEURYSM
It is primarily in the thorax.
It is the ballooning of the upper aspect of aorta, above the diaphragm.
The principal causes of death due to thoracic aneurysmal disease are dissection
Once rupture occurs the mortality rate is 50 to 80%.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF TAA
Compression of Superior venacava may produce congestion of head,
neck and upper extremities.
Pulse and BP differences
Abnormal pulsation apparent on chest
Shortness of breath
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM
Vast majority of aneurysm are asymptomatic unless raptured. Rupture may
result in pain in the abdomen or back, low blood pressure and often result in
COMMON CAUSES FOR ANEURYSM
ETIOLOGY/ RISK FACTORS
Atherosclerosis may contribute to weakening of blood vessel
Infection which affect the arterial wall
Penetrating or blunt trauma
High blood pressure it may enlarge or weaken the blood vessel
Older age(greater than 60)
Family history of aneurysmal disease
ENDO VASCULAR GRAFT
It is an alternative to conventional surgical repair of AAA.
This techniques involves the placement of a suture less aortic graft into the
abdominal aorta inside the aneurysm via femoral artery cut down
After the graft is delivered to the predetermined point , the graft is pressed
or implanted against the vessel wall by balloon inflation
The blood then flows through the vascular graft, thus preventing the
expansion of the aneurysm due to pressure, and the aneurysmal wall begin
to shrink over time because the blood is now being diverted through the
OPEN SURGICAL REPAIR
– Longer Recovery Time
Longer Hospital Stay
– 90% Long Term Success
– Younger patients typically.
– Shorter length of stay
– Reduction in blood loss
– ICU utilization reduced
– Reduce morbidity/mortality rate
– Older patients typically
– Needs long-term follow-up
– May need secondary procedures
for end leaks.
COILING OF ANEURYSM
A catheter is introduced in to the femoral artery and threaded up to the
cerebral blood vessel
Platinum coils attached to a thin wire are inserted into the catheter and then
placed in the aneurysm until the aneurysm is filled with the coil.
So it packing prevents the blood from circulating through the aneurysm and
reduce the risk of rupture.
NURSING DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION
Monitor vital signs,
Obtain information regarding back or abdominal pain
Explain all procedures in simple words
Reduce unnecessary external stimuli
Instruct the patient not to lift any heavy objects(beyond 2.5 kg) for about 6 to 12 weeks after
. Teach the client about the importance of wound care.