9. Free standing stone pillars is also an important feature of Ashoka`s architecture. The stone pillars designed by this great Emperor were generally monolithic columns and the greatest example of such pillars was in Sarnath. The Ashoka Pillar - It is one of many pillars inscribed by Emperor Ashoka between about 243 B.C. and 242 B.C. and placed all over his empire. On these pillars are edicts covering a wide range of topics including religion, law, religious tolerance and the protection of animals.
10. This is the famous original sandstone sculpted Lion Capital of Ashoka preserved at Sarnath Museum which was originally erected around 250 BCE atop an Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath. The angle from which this picture has been taken, minus the inverted bell-shaped lotus flower, has been adopted as the National Emblem of India showing the Horse on the left and the Bull on the right of the Ashoka Chakra in the circular base on which the four Indian lions are standing back to back. On the far side there is an Elephant and a Lion instead. The wheel "Ashoka Chakra" from its base has been placed onto the center of the National Flag of India.
11. A four "Indian lion” Lion Capital of Ashoka atop an intact Ashoka Pillar at Wat U Mong near Chiang Mai, Thailand showing another larger Dharma Chakra / Ashoka Chakra atop the four lions thought to be missing in the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath Museum which has been adopted as the National Emblem of India.
12. Silver punch-mark coins of the Mauryan empire bear Buddhist symbols such as the dharma wheel, the elephant (previous form of the Buddha), the tree under which enlightenment happened, and the burial mound where the Buddha died (third century B.C.E.)
13. Sanchi Stupa The Great Stupa is 120 feet across (36.6 meters) and, excluding the railing and umbrella, is 54 feet high (16.46 meters). The present stupa encases an earlier one of about half its present dimensions. The earlier one, built of large burnt bricks and mud, has been attributed to the Emperor Ashoka. The four gateways, or toranas , are the finest works of art at Sanchi and are among the finest examples of Buddhist art in India. The gateways were erected c. 35 BCE. The scenes carved into the pillars and their triple architraves are of episodes in the various lives of the Buddha.
15. Lomas Rishi Caves, Barabar Hills, 3 rd C. BC Lomas Rishi is impressive because its entrance is carved as a faithful imitation of a wooden building with a free standing barrel roof supported on posts and beams. Among its various wooden details are three smooth curved bands. The space beween the upper 2 bands is filled by aq lattice screen to admit light and air. The lower space has been magnificently carved with a procession of elephants.
32. Sarnath Buddha Standing Buddha Late 4 th – early 5 th C Red Stone 2.17 m Mood – calm and inner tranquility The sanghati clings so close to the body that it all but disapperas and is defined only by a series of string like folds.
Notas del editor
Edits - The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka , as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 269 BCE to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day India , Nepal and Pakistan and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism . The edicts describe in detail the first wide expansion of Buddhism through the sponsorship of one of the most powerful kings of Indian history. According to the edicts, the extent of Buddhist proselytism during this period reached as far as the Mediterranean , and many Buddhist monuments were created. These inscriptions proclaim Ashoka's beliefs in the Buddhist concept of dharma and his efforts to develop the dharma throughout his kingdom. Although Buddhism and the Buddha are mentioned, the edicts focus on social and moral precepts, rather than specific religious practices or the philosophical dimension of Buddhism.
It i based on hemispherical brick structure with a nucleus that is built over Relics of the Buddha, this great stupa is crowned by special Chatra it is a kind of parasol-like structure that indicates high rank to show honour and respect as well as shelter the relics.
Gandhar is the name of an ancient kingdom ( Mahajanapada ), located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan . Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar , the Potohar plateau (see Taxila ) and on the Kabul River . Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar ), literally meaning City of Man  and Takshashila (modern Taxila ).  The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from early 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Buddhist Kushan Kings
The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks , chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas , chlorite , talc , hornblende , graphite , and others
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
Farther east and south, contemporary Mathura, also under Kushan rule, created a wholly Indian sculptural art. Reddish limestone was the usual medium. More sensuous, heavier Buddhas whose limbs are created according to canonical instructions, smile directly at their worshipers. Reliefs of the yakshis carved against railing pillars are more frankly sensual and erotic than those at Sanchi. Buddhist iconography was developed in Gandhara. Mathura, however, preserved and developed Indian forms for three centuries. Read more: Indian art and architecture: Gandhara and Mathura — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0858792.html#ixzz14gKJXdGW