What is Digital Electronics ???
Integrated circuit, CMOS.
Digital Electronics Quick History
What is logic Gate ??
The Digital Revolution
Applications of digital electronic
Future Scopes & Possibilities Of Digital Electronics
Advantages , disadvantages of Digital Electronics
4. What is Digital Electronics ???
• Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that handle digital signals
(discrete bands of analog levels) rather than by continuous ranges as used in analog electronics.
• It is based upon the digital design methodologies and consists of digital circuits, IC’s and
5. Digital Electronics Quick History
Prior to digital technology, electronic transmission was limited to analog technology, which conveys data as
electronic signals of varying frequency or amplitude.
In the 1930's the prototypes of the computer were constructed from mechanical
switches ( vacuum tubes )
The next stage in the 1940's was the use of electronic
diodes, and while these were better but they were unreliable.
The next stage was the result of the development in 1947 of
the transistor which was much smaller, faster and cooler.
Simple transistors were replaced by integrated circuits (ICs)
and that got smaller and smaller and finally deposited on
silicon to be put into a "chip".
transistors IC(Chip )
6. What is logic Gate
• A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. At any
given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binary conditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage
7. Integrated circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC,
a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece
(or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
8. Name Signification Year Transistors number Logic gates number
SSI small-scale integration 1964 1 to 10 1 to 12
MSI medium-scale integration 1968 10 to 500 13 to 99
LSI large-scale integration 1971 500 to 20,000 100 to 9,999
VLSI very large-scale integration 1980 20,000 to 1,000,000 10,000 to 99,999
ULSI ultra-large-scale integration 1984 1,000,000 and more 100,000 and more
Classification of Integrated Circuits
9. CMOS – The basic building block of IC’s today!!!
• The C-MOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor) is the basic building block of IC’s today.
• These days, it is being used widely because it has the least power dissipation in all the components
available for fabrication today !
• It is a combination of a p-channel MOSFET and a n-channel MOSFET as described in the figure.
10. Advantages of ICs
Less volume and weight of the equipment
Reduction of power consumption
11. Analog Systems :
• Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable
signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.The term "analogue"
describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal.
The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".
12. Analog Digital
Analog = Continuous waves Digital = Discrete waves
It has usually larger circuits & occupies more area. It has smaller integrated circuits & occupies lesser area.
Analog measuring instruments are less accurate, chances of misreading are
Digital measuring instruments are more accurate, and there is no case of
The instruments are delicate and harms are more in case of drops and falls. The instruments are more strong, and there are lesser harms on drops and
AnalogVS Digital Systems :
13. • Analog computers only work with continuous numerical data in analog quantities
• Digital computers can process both non-numerical and numerical data
The TELEFUNKENRA 741 Analog Computer Digital computer
Analog VS Digital Systems :
14. Recently, many types of devices have been converted from analog to digital.
In all of these digital devices, info is processed, transmitted and received
as long strings of 1s and 0s.
The Digital Revolution
15. Applications of digital electronic
• The digital system send the data in the form of packets of digital codes, thus
we can encode and decode them in various formats and codes.
• Data encryption is also possible in the digital systems, hence the data
transmission is more secure, and can be manipulated in many formats !
• Digital systems are much advantageous in communications
DataTransmission using Digital Systems
16. Electronic digital safe is perfect for securely storing your jewellery, valuables and confidential
paper work. It features an easy to set electronic code with floor or wall mounting.There is also a
digital lock, incorrect password alarm and two back up keys.There is a cash box with tray to keep
your valuables and coins in and a carrying handle for your convenience.
Digital electronic safe box
17. A register is made out of multiple flip-flops connected to each other used to store multiple bits of
data. If we have ‘n’ flip-flops, we can store ‘n’ bits of data.
A shift register is a sequential circuit which stores the data and shifts it towards the output on
every clock cycle.
18. • A microprocessor, sometimes called a logic chip, is a computer processor on a
microchip.The microprocessor contains all, or most of, the central processing
unit (CPU) functions and is the "engine" that goes into motion when you turn
your computer on.
19. Why computer Engineers need to know about Digital Electronic
• Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science
required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic
engineering (or electrical engineering), software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only
software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software
aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollers, microprocessors, personal computers, and
supercomputers, to circuit design.
20. Future Scopes & Possibilities Of Digital Electronics :
• The digital electronics usesVLSI technology, which has considerably decreased the size
and area of the circuit boards, and has enhanced the accuracy and performance of the
• Moreover, digital systems have the advantage of data encryption for the communication
• The data transmission is safe and secure.
• All these factors clearly show that the digital
electronics stream has wide future scope in
the modern era !
21. Computer-controlled digital systems can be controlled by software, allowing new
functions to be added without changing hardware.
Information storage can be easier in digital systems than in analog ones.
The noise-immunity of digital systems permits data to be stored and retrieved without
In a digital system are easier to design and more precise representation of a signal can be
obtained by using more binary digits to represent it.
More digital circuitry can be fabricated on IC chips.
Error management method can be inserted into the signal path.To detect errors, and
then either correct the errors, or at least ask for a new copy of the data.
Advantages of Digital Electronics
22. Conversion to digital format and re-conversion to analog format is needed, which
always include the lost of information.
In some cases, digital circuits use more energy than analog circuits and produce
more heat and need heat sinks.
Digital circuits are sometimes more expensive,
especially in small quantities.
Disadvantages of Digital Electronics