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Research methodology

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full introduction of Research methodology

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Research methodology

  2. 2. Research Methodology 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 2  Introductions:  Research methodology is a means of taking decision from the results  obtained from the collective, natural or social phenomena.  The primary goal of research methodology is to understand immediate, distant and past social problems in order to gain a better measure of control over them.
  3. 3. OR… 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 3  The term "research" refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions towards the conceded problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation
  4. 4. Con… 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 4  Research is composed of two words "re" and "search" which means to search again, or to search for new facts or to modify older ones in any branch of knowledge. The Webster's International Dictionary proposes a very inclusive definition of research as "a careful critical inquiry or  examination in seeking facts or principles diligent investigation in order ascertain something
  5. 5. Need for research 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 5  (1)gives us satisfaction of knowing unknown that a scientist is self-justifying goodness of scientific knowledge which may be small or big
  6. 6. 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 6  The research deals with the broad range of human behavior which affect by diverse influences like environmental, biological, Library and Information Science, psychology, etc.  As such, under these situations it is an arduous lack for scientist to innovate or discover a solution to the problem or complexity nature of human beings
  7. 7. 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 7 In simple word what is the significance  of research.  The answer to this question explains by itself that new scientific  knowledge is like a new born baby, which holds great potential of growth as  well as development like new born-child, research gives us pleasure.
  8. 8. components of a research 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 8  The six (6) components of a research report are as follows: An  abstract,  introduction,  methodology,  results,  discussion,  references.
  9. 9. 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 9  (1) Abstract:  he abstract is an overview of the research study and is typically two to four paragraphs in length.  Introduction:  The introduction provides the key question that the researcher is attempting to answer
  10. 10. 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 10  Methodology:  The methodology section of the research report is arguably the most important for two reasons.  (1)First it allows readers to evaluate the quality of the research and  (1) second, it provides the details by which another researcher may replicate and validate the findings.
  11. 11. 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 11  Results:  In longer research papers, the results section contains the data and perhaps a short introduction.
  12. 12. Discussion: 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 12  The discussion section is where the results of the study are interpreted and evaluated against the existing body or research literature. In addition, should there be any anomalies found in the results, this is where the authors will point them out. Lastly the discussion section will attempt to connect the results to the bigger picture and show how the results might be applied.
  13. 13. Reference: 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 13  This section provides a list of each author and paper cited in the research report. Any fact, idea, or direct quotation used in the report should be cited and referenced.
  14. 14. Ethics in Research: 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 14  Ethical standards also require that researchers not put participants in a situation where they might be at risk of harm as a result of their participation.  Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological. There are two standards that are applied in order to help protect the privacy of research participants.
  15. 15. Con… 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 15  Researchers, public and private research organizations, universities and funding organizations must observe and promote the principles of integrity in scientific and scholarly research. These principles include:  honesty in communication;  reliability in performing research;  objectivity;  impartiality and independence;  openness and accessibility;  duty of care;  fairness in providing references and giving credit; and  responsibility for the scientists and researchersof the future.
  16. 16. Legal aspects: 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 16  (1) Good scientific practice.  (2) Licences and terms and conditions regarding the use of material.  (3) Data protection  (4) Protection of confidential personal information  (e.g., names or personal identity numbers) will be protected, handled and/or deleted.
  17. 17. 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 17  (5) Access Control  During the research project research data should be kept safe and secure. Determine who has access to your data and what they are authorised to do with it. Providing unauthorised people with access to the data may be unlawful.
  18. 18. Objective of research 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 18  The main objectives of research are given below  (1) The main aim of research is to find out  the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet :  (2) Taste the difference between two variables.  (3) Find out certain conclusion  (4) Draw out an exact nature of individual group or situation.
  19. 19. 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 19  (5) To achieve new trends in the phenomenon.
  20. 20. Structure of research 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 20  Problem stated  Literature reviewed  Hypothesis formulated  Research Designed  Data collected  Data analysed  Findings reported
  21. 21. Purpose of Research: 8/15/2018M. AQIB JAVED 21  The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by prescience, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.  Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as 'Is global warming avoidable?'