1. Barcode in Supply Chain ( WHW )
What ? How ? Why ?
TAV College / Canada / Montreal 2015
2. Mr. Woodland and Silver, who were teaching at Drexel University in Philadelphia, began the
work that led to the bar code after the head of a supermarket chain asked for help in
developing a better way to keep track of inventory. A former Boy Scout, Woodland wondered if
Morse Code could be used to track inventory, and began drawing lines of different thickness in
the sand during a visit to Miami in 1948. The code that eventually emerged is now known as
Universal Product Code (UPC) , and Woodland won the National Medal of Technology in 1992.
History of Barcodes
Joseph Norman Woodland
3. Why use barcodes?
• From 1960s, barcodes were used in industrial work environments.
Some of the early implementations of barcodes included the ability
identify transport and manufacture domains.
• From 1970s, common barcodes started appearing on grocery
shelves. To automate the process of identifying grocery items, UPC
barcodes were placed on products.
• From 2000s barcodes are just about
everywhere and are used for identification
in almost all types of business.
4. • When barcodes are used in the business process, procedures are
automated to increase productivity and reduce human error.
• Whenever there is a need to accurately identify or track something,
bar-coding should be used. For example, in a data entry work
environment, workers may be required to enter an enormous amount
of data into a customer database system.
• Instead of manually typing a customer identification number into a
database, if the information is contained in a barcode, a data entry
operator may scan it in. This would increase automation and reduce
Why use barcodes?
5. Advantages of Barcodes
Fast and Reliable Data Collection
Reduced Revenue Losses Resulting from Data Collection Errors
Improved Management and Better Decision Making
10,000 Times better Accuracy
Reduced Labor Costs
Necessary Inventory Levels
Faster Access to Information
Point of Sale
Better Decision Making
Time and Attendance
Packaging / Labeling
6. Drawbacks of Barcode
Damaged Labels / Scratched or crumpled barcodes may cause
High Price Equipment Requirements (Printer, Reader, etc.)
System Failure may cost more delays
Training ( Software usage )
7. What is a 1D or 2D barcode?
A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of
data, which shows data about the object to which it
1D Barcode (UPC)
2D Barcode (QR)
8. Types of Barcode
1D - Numeric-only barcode (Linear Barcode):
EAN-13 , EAN-8 , UPC-A, UPC-E , Code 11 ,PostNet
A barcode that encodes data only in one dimension.
Data is encoded in the widths of the bars and spaces and
no data is encoded in the lengths of the bars.
This barcode found on many retail products is a common
linear barcode that you may be familiar with.
9. Types of Barcode
2D - Dimensional Barcode
The need for ever increasing amounts of information in
smaller spaces has lead to more compact and higher data
density symbologies found in two-dimensional or stacked
Each type allows more information to be stored in a smaller
amount of space.
2D- Alphanumeric barcodes: Code 39 ,Code 93 (Canada
Post),Code 128, LOGMARS
2D - Dimensional barcodes: PDF417 , DataMatrix,
Maxicode, QR Code
10. Types of Barcode
Industry Standards for Barcodes and Labels:
Bookland EAN encodes ISBN numbers, ISSN and the
SISAC Barcode, OPC Optical Industry Association barcode ,
11. EAN Barcode
European Article Numbering (EAN)
international retail product code
EAN-13 or EAN-8 are two different versions of EAN bar codes, which can encode 13 and
8 digit numbers.
The EAN-8 code was introduced for use on small packages where an EAN-13 barcode
would be too large.
All other countries aside from the United States utilize the EAN bar code for
identification on retail goods.
USA use the UPC code for the same purposes, but this is only 12 digits long.
23. GS1 (Global Standard ) Organization
GS1 is a neutral, not-for-profit, international organization that develops and
maintains standards for supply and demand chains across multiple sectors.
With local Member Organizations in over 110 countries, GS1 works with
communities of trading partners, industry organizations, governments and
technology providers and responds to their business needs through the
adoption and implementation of global standards.
GS1 has over a million member companies across the world, executing more
than five billion transactions daily using GS1 standards.
24. GS1 (Global Standard ) Organization
Most companies initially come to GS1 to get a bar code number for their
products. However, GS1 standards provide a much wider framework for
supply chain visibility. The current architecture of GS1 standards is as follows:
Identify: Standards for the identification of items, locations, shipments,
assets, etc.. and associated data
Capture: Standards for encoding and capturing data in physical data carriers
such as barcodes and RFID tags
Share: Standards for sharing data between parties
GS1 identification standards do not provide identification of country of origin
for a given product. Member companies may manufacture products anywhere
in the world.
25. Barcodes – What is GS1-128 ?
GS1-128 symbology is used to encode trade item data for
logistics units such as cartons, cases, and pallets that are
not intended to pass through retail point-of-sale (POS). The
use of this symbology supports fast and accurate tracking
of inventory and other specific data in the supply chain. •
GS1-128 symbology is used to uniquely identify trade
items, logistics units, and returnable assets in the supply
chain. The symbology not only encodes trade item data, but
provides a method for encoding and sharing a large variety
of different specific data types defined by the GS1 System,
such as the Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC),
Best Before Date, Batch / Lot Number, and Serial
26. Barcodes – What is GS1-128 ?
GTIN Prefix GTIN
(17) Expiry Expiry 01/01/2010
(10) Batch Prefix Batch Number
(21) Serial No Serial Number
32. No battery in tag; all power comes from reader Carrier RF Wave •
Possible to build a battery into the tag •
Increased complexity, size and cost • Improved performance (range) & functionality
Robust, reasonable operating distance
No line of sight; automated reads
× Not as cheap as some alternatives
× Some problematic items
THE FUTURE OF BARCODE TECHNOLOGY – RFiD