Speed is the quickness of movement of a limb,
whether this is the legs of a runner or the arm
of the shot putter. Speed is an integral part of
every sport and can be expressed as any one
of, or combination of, the following: maximum
speed, elastic strength (power) and speed
It is also the ability to execute motor actions under
given conditions ,in minimum possible time.
4. Factors Determining Speed
Speed is influenced by the athlete's mobility,
special strength,strength endurance and technique.
1. Morphological Structure of Muscle Fibre
2. Regulating Procedure of Nervous System
3. Muscular Strength
5. Elasticity and Relaxing Capacity of the Muscles
6. Phosphogen Stores and Metabolic Process
5. Energy system for speed
Energy for absolute speed is supplied by
the anaerobic alactic pathway.
The anaerobic (without oxygen) alactic (without
lactate)energy system is best challenged as an
athlete approaches top speed between 30 and 60
metres while running at 95% to 100% of
maximum. This speed component of anaerobic
metabolism lasts for approximately eight seconds
and should be trained when no muscle fatigue is
present (usually after 24 to 36 hours of rest)
6. Forms of Speed
1. Reaction Speed : It is the ability to respond
to a given stimulus as quickly as possible.
The different forms of stimuli experienced in
sports are visual, optic and tactile .
7. Reaction Speed Drill
The athletes start in a variety of different positions –
lying face down,
lying on their backs,
in a push up or sit up position,
kneeling or seated.
The coach standing some 30 metres from the group then
gives a signal for everyone to jump up and run towards
him/her at slightly faster than race pace.
Repeat using various starting positions and with the coach
standing in different places so that the athletes have to
change directions quickly once they begin to run.
Speed reaction drills can also be conducted whilst
controlling an item (e.g. football, basketball, hockey ball)
with an implement (e.g. feet, hands, hockey stick).
8. 2. Speed of Movement
It can be defined as the maximum speed
of contraction of a muscle or a chain of
muscles in a single course of movement
e.g jumping,throwing ,kicking etc….It
depends to a great extent on explosive
strength and technique.
10. 3. Acceleration Speed
It is the ability to increase speed from jogging
to running and finally sprinting.
This form of speed, to a great extent,
depends upon explosive strength, frequency
of movement and technique.
11. Acceleration Training
Murray (2005) looked at weighted sledge training and
their effect on sprint acceleration and they concluded
that training with a weighted sledge will help improve the
athlete's acceleration phase. The session used in the
research was 4 x 20m and 4 x 50m maximal effort runs.
Lockie et al. (2003) investigated the effects of various
loadings and concluded that when using a sledge a light
weight of approx. 10-15% of body weight should be used
so that the dynamics of the acceleration technique are
not negatively effected.
Starts over 10-20 metres performed on a slight incline of
around five degrees have an important conditioning
effect on the calf, thigh and hip muscles (they have to
work harder because of the incline to produce
movement) that will improve sprint acceleration.
13. 4. Sprinting Speed
It can be defined as the ability to maintain
maximum speed of locomotion over as long
distance as possible for maximum possible
14. Sprinting Speed Training…….
Downhill sprinting is a method of developing
sprinting speed following the acceleration phase. A
hill with a maximum of a 15° decline is most
suitable. Use 40 metres to 60 metres to build up to
full speed and then maintain the speed for a further
30 metres. A session could comprise of 2 to 3 sets
of 3 to 6 repetitions.
The difficulty with this method is to find a suitable
hill with a safe surface.
Over speed work could be carried out when there
are prevailing strong winds - run with the wind
17. 5.Speed Endurance
It is defined as the ability to perform motor
movements as quickly as possible, under
conditions of fatigue. It is a combination of
speed and endurance abilities.
This ability depends upon anaerobic
capacity, psychic factors and level of skills
19. 6. Speed Barrier
In as much as speed training involves repeated
efforts of very high intensity ,after training for some
time a barrier sets in due to establishment of “neural
stereotype “ in the nervous system which controls
the spatial and temporal aspects of movement.
Because of high speed training the functioning of
neural centre's gets stabilized thus causing a
speed barrier leading to stagnation of
20. Speed Barrier can be
A. Delaying the Speed Barrier ;
By use of General training
Indirect Development of Speed by
enhancement of technique, explosive strength
, flexibility etc.
B. Tackling of Speed Barrier :
Doing Movements at speed higher than the
best : Hill Running, Lighter weights etc
Avoiding specific movements and using
indirect training means
22. Speed Principles
The general principles for improved speed are as
Choose a reasonable goal for your event, and
then work on running at velocities which are
actually faster than your goal over short work
Train at goal pace in order to enhance your
neuromuscular coordination, confidence and
stamina at your desired speed
At first, utilize long recoveries, but as you get
fitter and faster shorten the recovery periods
between work intervals to make your training
more specific and realistic to racing.
23. Speed Principles ………
Work on your aerobic capacity and lactate
threshold, conduct some easy pace runs to
burn calories and permit recovery from the
Work on your mobility to develop a range of
movement (range of motion at your hips will
effect speed) and assist in the prevention of
25. Speed Training Workouts
To train for speed, you need to spend time
actually running. Alternate short speed days
with long speed days, interspersed with
weight training. Here's an example of a
26. Day 1 - Weight Training
Deadlift - 4x6
Push Press - 4x6
Hang Clean - 4x4
Box Jumps (to highest box with good form) - 4x4
Pull-Ups - 4x6
Day 2 - Short Speed workout (drills described above, 3x20m sprints,
3x40m sprints, 3x60m sprints 3x80m sprints)
Day 3 - Weight Training
Inverted Row - 4xMax in 15 seconds*
Bench Press - 4x6*
Rear-Foot-Elevated Split Squat - 4x6 each leg**
Band Face Pull - 4x8**
Dumbbell Walking Lunge - 4x12***
Dumbbell Push-Up Rows - 4x6 each arm***
Perform single, double and triple asterisked exercises in superset
Day 4 - Long Speed workout
(drills described above, 1x250m sprints, 2x200m sprints and 3x150m