The appointment of the education commission of
1964- 1966 popularly known as ‘KOTHARI
COMMISION’ was a significant event in the history of
education in free India.
In 1964, Dr. D.S Kothari was requested to give advise
to the government on the action to be taken for the
development of education at all the levels and he
submitted a report in 1966.
Chairman : Dr D.S.Kothari, the then Chairman of
University Grants Commission.
The third commission in post-independent India.
Government Resolution setting up the Education
Commission on July 14, 1964.
began its task on October 2,1964 and submitted
its report to the Government on June 29,1966.
Report entitled- Education and National
17members in which 5 foreign experts from
countries such as USA, U.K, USSR, France and
1. It tried to cover every field and aspect of the
entire educational system.
2. Its firm belief that education is the most powerful
instrument of national development.
The opening sentence of the
commission, the destiny of India is being shaped in
her classrooms, denotes the value of education that
determine the level of prosperity, welfare and future
of the country.
5. AIMS OF EDUCATIONS
The commissions clearly specified the five important aims
of educations in India.
1. EDUCATION AND PRODUCTIVITY
Science education as an integral part of school
Work experience as an important aspect of general
Vocational education especially at the secondary
school stage to meet the needs of industry,
agriculture and commerce.
Improvement of scientific and technical education
and research at the university stage.
6. 2. SOCIALAND NATIONAL INTEGRATION
According to the commission common
school system, social service, NSS,NCC teaching
languages, Literatures, philosophy and history of
India would go a long way in promoting national
3. EDUCATION AND MODERNISATION
Another important aim of education is
modernization. Education should awaken
curiosity, Interests, Attitudes and sense of values
and skills in the pupils.
7. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRASY
India is the largest democracy in
the world. The success of democracy
depends upon the education of the masses.
5. SOCIALAND SPIRITUAL VALUES
Education system should emphasize
the development of fundamental, Social,
Moral and Spiritual values.
8. EDUCATIONAL STUCTURE
► General education should last for a period of 10 years.( 4
years lower primary, 3 years of higher primary and 3 years
of lower secondary education).
► Prior to general education, pre-primary education should
also be given.
► The theme of higher secondary education should be fixed
for 2 years.
► After degree course there should be a post graduate course
of three years. The graduate course should be extended
from two to three years.
► The number of instructional days in a year should be
increased to about 234(39weeks) for schools and 216 (36
weeks)for colleges and pre-primary schools.
► Holidays should be minimized. No need to close an
educational institution on a religious holiday.
9. STATUS OF TEACHERS
It is necessary to improve the economic, social and
professional status of the teachers.
The scale of pay of teachers of Government and non-
Government schools should be the same.
A State Board of Teachers’ Education should be
established in each state.
The period of training of teachers with secondary course
should be two years. The course of M.Ed. should be 1-1/2
The Teachers of the training colleges should have two
degrees namely, the Master’s Degree and Degree in
The students of the training institutions should be given
One language: Mother tongue or regional language.
Mathematics, Study of environment, Creative activities,
Work Experience, Health Education etc.
Two languages: Mother tongue or regional
language, Hindi or English. Mathematics, Science,
Social Studies, Art, Work Experience, Social Service,
Physical Education, Education in moral and spiritual
11. Lower Secondary-
Three languages: In non-Hindi speaking areas :Mother
tongue or regional language, Hindi in higher or lower standard, English
in higher or lower standard. In Hindi speaking areas: Mother tongue or
regional language, English or Hindi, One modern Indian language
Mathematics, Science, Art, Work Experience, Physical
Education, Education of moral and spiritual values, Civics, History,
Higher Secondary- Any two languages, which should include any
modern Indian language, any modern foreign language and any classical
Any three subjects to be selected from the following:
One additional language, History, Geography, Economics, Logic,
Psychology, Art, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Home Science,
Work Experience, Physical Education, Arts and Crafts, Education in
moral and spiritual values etc.
12. OTHER IMPORTANT RECOMMENDATIONS
The commission also stressed the importance
of science,education,vocational and technical
training ,agricultural research ,adult education,
The Kothari commission report was a masterly
piece of work on all aspects of Indian Education.
The commission presented a comprehensive
study of educational problems in the context of
the national needs and aspirations.
The commission made a realistic approach to
link education to the socio-economic , cultural
and spiritual aspects of Indian life.
The commission recommended reasonable and
respectable scales of pay to all categories of
teachers subject to periodical revision.
The position of heads of schools was left
undecided by the commission.
The commission committed a mistake in
placing Sanskrit on a par with Arabic.
The views of commission on medium of
instruction was not only conflicting but also