Regasification is a process of converting
liquefied natural gas(LNG) at 111K
temperature back to natural gas at
In order to deliver LNG to the customer,
LNG is vaporized through a regasification
Regasification is an important process in
LNG receiving terminal due to its
relatively high capital investment.
5. British chemist Michael Faraday was the first to experiment
with the liquefaction of natural gas. In 1873, German
engineer Carl von Linde built the first compression
1972-1978: The US joins the LNG market, introducing four
The plant owned by GNL Italia S.p.A. is located in the town of
Fezzano di Porto Venere (SP) and is the first structure which
can receive and regasify liquefied natural gas (GNL).
Petronet LNG Limited, has set up the country's first LNG
receiving and regasification terminal at Dahej, Gujarat on June
2009 and another terminal at Kochi, Kerala started its
operations in August 2013.
6. LNG fed in to regasification plant.
At the plant LNG pumped into storage tank.
When needed, LNG is pumped at high pressure
The vaporised gas is regulated for pressure and
enters the pipeline as natural gas.
Once regasified, the natural gas is delivered into
the distribution pipelines to the different uses or
power generation stations.
8. Open Rack Vaporizers (ORV)
Submerged Combustion Vaporizers (SCV)
Intermediate Fluid Vaporizers (IFV)
Ambient Air Vaporizers (AAV)
Open rack vaporizers (ORV) and submerged combustion
vaporizers (SCV) are the most common vaporization methods
in existing regasification terminals.
9. An Open Rack Vaporizer (ORV) is a heat exchanger that uses
seawater as the source of heat.
ORVs are well proven technology and have been widely used
in Japan, Korea and Europe LNG terminals.
The ORV has heat exchangers tubes that are arranged in
panels, connected through the LNG inlet and the regasified
product outlet piping manifolds and hung from a rack.
Adjacent heat exchanger tubes are fixed each other by spot
To prevent corrosion surface coatings are done.
Aquatic environment may affected as it reject cold water to
11. SCV has a structure in which an underwater burner,
burning fuel gas, generates heat to vaporize LNG.
LNG flows through a stainless tube coil that is
submerged in a water bath which is heated by direct
contact with hot flue gases from a submerged gas
The use of combustion gas a heat source allows the
vaporizer to be smaller than other types of vaporizers
of the same capacity.
Compared with ORV and IFV, SCV doesn’t require clean
or warm seawater nearby.Therfore it can be equipped in
high latitude or muddy sea regions for base load.
13. The IFV is a shell and tube heat exchanger with an
intermediate working fluid(propane, ammonia,
propylene, butane or glycol water solution) which
transfer heat between heat source (sea water) and
heat sink (LNG).
The general requirements of intermediate fluids are
high thermal conductivity, low viscosity, high specific
heat, low corrosion rate and environment
IFV has an evaporator part where IF gets vaporized by
sea water , and a condenser part where IF gets
condensed by rejecting heat to LNG.
The advantages of IFV compared to other LNG
vaporizers are low operating cost, low environmental
15. AAVs are finned tube heat exchangers in which LNG is
regasified by direct heat transfer between ambient air and
AAVs are long, single pass heat exchangers with the cold
fluid flowing inside vertical tubes and the warm fluid
(ambient air) flowing on outside.
The condensed moisture is deposited on the finned walls of
the vaporizer tube, may decrease heat transfer efficiency of
AAVs are potential for fog cloud to affect the human
18. 1.Dahej, Gujrat:-
Country’s first LNG receiving and
regasification terminal set up in June,
It has nominal capacity of 15 MMPTA,
17.5 MMTPA by 2018 end.
It uses IFV as vaporizer.
The terminal is meeting around 70% of
the total gas demand of the country.
South India's first LNG Receiving,
Regasification and re loading
terminal set up in August, 2013.
It has nominal capacity of 5 MMTPA.
It uses ORV as vaporizer.
19. 3.Other LNG terminals:-
Hazira Terminal, Shell Ltd, Gujarat , 3.6 MMTPA.
RGPPL LNG Terminal,Dabhol,Maharashtra, 5 MMTPA .
Mundra Terminal , GSPC LNG Ltd. 5 MMTPA.
Essar Group, won a contract to build the first LNG regasification
terminal in West Bengal state at an investment of 4.5 billion Indian
India is 4th largest LNG importer,
importing 37.5 MMTPA.
20. Natural gas (NG) is a natural resource that in recent
years has seen a large increase in demand globally.
While the share of oil in energy is forecast to
dramatically decrease by 2030, NG is predicted to
reach 25.9% of the world’s energy usage. LNG demand
may reach up to 500 MMPTA by 2030 .
However for regasification, it varies according to
location and meteorology.
In India demand for LNG is obstruct by Coal as it is
cheaper than NG and its availability. But emission of
carbon dioxide is double than NG.