5. Machine Languages
In machine languages, instructions are written as sequences of 1s and
0s, called bits, that a computer can understand directly. An instruction
in machine language generally tells the computer four things: (1)
where to find one or two numbers or simple pieces of data in the main
computer memory (Random Access Memory, or RAM), (2) a simple
operation to perform, such as adding the two numbers together, (3)
where in the main memory to put the result of this simple operation,
and (4) where to find the next instruction to perform. It is extremely
difficult to program directly in machine language because the
instructions are sequences of 1s and 0s..
6. High-level languages are relatively sophisticated sets of statements utilizing
words and syntax from human language. These programming languages allow
larger and more complicated programs to be developed faster. However, high-
level languages must be translated into machine language by another program
called a compiler before a computer can understand them. For this reason,
programs written in a high-level language may take longer to execute and use
up more memory than programs written in an assembly language.
Computer Hard Drive
A computer stores information on its
hard drive. The hard drive is a round
disk that the computer can write
data onto for storage and later use.
7. Computer programmers use assembly languages to make machine-language
programs easier to write. In an assembly language, each statement
corresponds roughly to one machine language instruction. An assembly
language statement is composed with the aid of easy to remember commands.
The command to add the contents of the storage register A to the contents of
storage register B might be written ADD B,A in a typical assembly language
statement. Assembly languages share certain features with machine
languages. For instance, it is possible to manipulate specific bits in both
assembly and machine languages.
9. BASIC Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instructions code - 1965
Very popular high-level programming language, frequently used by beginning programmers.
HTML Hypertext Markup Language - 1989
Designed for publishing hypertext on the Internet.
JAVA Sun Microsystems developers drank a lot of coffee when coding for this. - 1990
Originally developed for use in set-top boxes, transitioned to the World wide web
C++ Advanced version of C. Developed at ATT Bell Labs - 1985
C++ is used in numerous fields, such as accounting and finance systems, and computer-aided
design. Supports object-oriented programming.
FORTH Fourth-Generation language (4 GL) - 1970
Interpreted, structured language, easily extended. Provides high functionality in limited space.
LOGO Derived from Greek logos, meaning word - 1968
Programming language often used with children. Features a simple drawing environment and
several higher-level features from LISP. Primarily educational.
10. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), in computer science, type of
computer language that uses self-contained, modular instruction
sets for defining and manipulating aspects of a computer program.
These discrete, predefined instruction sets are called objects and
they may be used to define variables, data structures, and
procedures for executing data operations. In OOP, objects have
built-in rules for communicating with one another. By using objects
as stable, preexisting building blocks, programmers can pursue
their main objectives and specify tasks from the top down,
manipulating or combining objects to modify existing programs and
A supercomputer is a
powerful computer used
for very complicated tasks.
supercomputers can carry
out trillions of calculations
13. Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software. A
CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of
understanding. The CPU can understand only this language. All other programming
languages must be converted to machine code for them to be understood. Computer
programmers, however, prefer to use other computer languages that use words or
other commands because they are easier to use. These other languages are slower
because the language must be translated first so that the computer can understand
it. The translation can lead to code that may be less efficient to run than code
written directly in the machine’s language.
14. C++, in computer science, an object-oriented version of the C
programming language, developed by Barnes Stroustrup in the early
1980s at Bell Laboratories and adopted by a number of vendors,
including Apple Inc., Sun Microsystems, Borland International, and
Interpreted Language, in computer science, a language that is interpreted (translated
and executed statement by statement), as opposed to a compiled program, in which all
statements are translated prior to any execution. BASIC is well known for being an interpreted
language, although most current implementations allow (or require) the programmer to
compile the program as well. LISP and APL are also interpreted languages.
Java (computer), in computer science, object-oriented programming language
introduced in 1995 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. Java facilitates the distribution of both data and
small applications programs, called applets, over the Internet. Java applications do not interact
directly with a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) or operating system and are therefore
platform independent, meaning that they can run on any type of personal computer,
workstation, or mainframe computer.
15. Authoring Language, in computer science, a computer language or
application development system designed primarily for creating programs,
databases, and materials for computer-aided instruction (CAI). The best-known
example in the microcomputer world is PILOT, developed originally at the
University of California, San Francisco, which is a language used to create
Compiled Language, in computer science, a language that is
translated into machine code prior to any execution, as opposed to
an interpreted language, which is translated and executed
statement by statement.