2. Kothari Commission
• The Education Commission was appointed - 14 July 1964
• To advise the Government on the national pattern of education and on the
general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages
and in all aspects.
• The need for an educational policy which contains a built-in flexibility so
that it can adjust to changing circumstances.
• Considering the total resources of the nation over the next 20 years and
the proportion to be invested in education
3. Guiding Principles:
• Introduction of work-experience (which includes manual work,
production experience, etc.) and social service as integral parts of general
education at more or less all levels of education;
• Stress on moral education and inculcation of a sense of social
responsibility. Schools should recognize their responsibility in facilitating the
transition of youth from the world of school to the world of work and life;
• Vocationalization of secondary education;
• The strengthening of centres of advanced study and the setting up of a
small number of major universities which would aim to achieve the highest
4. • Special emphasis on the training and quality of teachers for schools;
• Education for agriculture and research in agriculture and allied sciences
should be given a high priority in the scheme of educational reconstruction.
• Energetic and imaginative steps are required to draw a reasonable
proportion of talent to go in for advanced study and research in the
• Development of quality or pace-setting institutions at all stages and in
5. The Commission set up twelve Task Forces on (1) School Education; (2)
Higher Education; (3) Technical Education; (4) Agricultural Education; (5)
Adult Education; (6) Science Education and Research; (7) Teacher Training
and Teacher Status; (8) Student Welfare; (9) New Techniques and Methods;
(10) Manpower; (11) Educational Administration; and (12) Educational
In addition, it set up seven Working Groups on (1) Women's Education; (2)
Education of Backward Classes; (3) School Buildings; (4) School-
Community Relations; (5) Statistics; (6) Pre-Primary Education; and (7)
6. The Report is divided into three parts.
The first part covers Chapters I-VI. It deals with general aspects of
educational reconstruction common to all stages and sectors of education.
These include reorientation of the educational system to national
objectives, structural reorganization, improvement of teachers, enrolment
policies and equalization of educational opportunity.
The second part covers Chapters VII-XVII. It deals with the different
stages and sectors of education.
Chapters VII-X deal with some aspects of school education such as
problems of expansion, curriculum, teaching methods, textbooks, guidance,
evaluation, administration and supervision.
7. Chapters XI-XIII deal with problems of higher education which include,
amongst others, the establishment of major universities, programmes of
qualitative improvement, enrolment and university governance.
Chapters XIV and XV deal respectively with education for agriculture and
technical and vocational education.
Chapter XVI discusses programmes of science education and research. Chapter
XVII deals with problems of adult education.
The third part deals with problems of implementation. It covers two chapters-
Chapter XVIII which deals with educational planning and administration and
Chapter XIX which deals with educational finance.
8. Programme of Action, 1992
• National Policy on education was adopted by the parliament in may ,
• Later a committee was set up under the chairmanship of Ramamurti in
1990 to review 1986 and make recommendations for its modification. His
committee submitted a report in 1990.
• At the request of the CABE, a committee was set up in July 1991 under
the chairmanship of Jhanardhana Reddy,CM of AP to consider modification
of NPE, made by Ramamurti committee.
• On the basis of the suggestions made by the Ramamurti committee and
CABE, the NPE was reviewed and the revised version was published in 1992,
is known as Programme of action.
The main aim of POA was to establish a national system of education implies that all
students irrespective of caste, creed, sex, and religion have access to education of a
Objectives of POA
• POA has taken a more comprehensive view of UEE
• A sustainable improvement in the quality education to enable all children to
achieve essential levels of learning
• Effort to be made to provide computer literacy in as many secondary level
institutions to make the students equipped with necessary computer skills.
• Higher education should provide to the people with an opportunity to reflect
on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues.
10. Recommendations of POA
• Quality in Education (Access, Retention, OB & MLL)
• Establishment of pacesetting schools like Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district
• Vocationalization of secondary education
• Synthesis of knowledge and inter-disciplinary research in higher education
• Starting more Open Universities in the States
• Strengthening of the All India Council of Technical Education
• Encouraging sports, physical education, Yoga and
• Adoption of an effective evaluation method.
11. UNESCO report (1999)
Education for the Twenty First Century
Learning the Treasure Within
• Education an indispensable asset in its attempt to attain the ideals of
peace, freedom and social justice
• Education has a fundamental role to play in personal and social
• Education as one of the principal means available to foster a deeper and
more harmonious form of human development and thereby to reduce poverty,
exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war
12. • While education is an ongoing process of improving knowledge and
skills, it is also – perhaps primarily – an exceptional means of bringing about
personal development and building relationships among individuals, groups and
• The mission of Education is to enable each of us, without exception, to
develop all our talents to the full and to realize our creative potential, including
responsibility for our own lives and achievement of our persona
• The impossible task of overcoming the obstacles presented by the
extraordinary diversity of situations in the world and trying to arrive at analyses
that are universally valid and conclusions acceptable to everyone
• The Commission did its best to project its thinking on to a future
dominated by globalization, to choose those questions that everyone is asking
and to lay down some guidelines that can be applied both within national
contexts and on a worldwide scale
13. Tensions to be overcome
• The tension between the global and the local
• The tension between the universal and the individual
• The tension between tradition and modernity
• The tension between long-term and short-term considerations
• The tension between, on the one hand, the need for competition, and on
the other, the concern for equality of opportunity
• The tension between the extraordinary expansion of knowledge and
human beings’ capacity to assimilate it
• The tension between the spiritual and the material
14. • Learning to Know
• Learning to do
• Learning to Be
• Learning to Live together
[Each individual to learn how to learn; Each individual
would be in turn both Teacher and Learner- Learning
Four Pillars of Education
15. NCF 2005
14 July 2004 Meeting- Lok Sabha decision to revise NCFSE 2000
In the light of the report Learning Without Burden, 1993
Implying Rabindranath Tagore’s Civilization and Progress ( ‘Creative
spirit’ and ‘generous joy’)
16. Guiding Principles
• Connecting knowledge to outside the school
• Ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods
• Enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks
• Making examinations more flexible and integrating them with
classroom life &
• Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within
the democratic polity of the country
• Three language formula
• Children’s Science Congress
• Four curricular areas: work; the arts & heritage, crafts; health & Physical
• Strengthening Panchayati Raj institutions
• Board Examination – Assess Reasoning and Creative abilities
• In the background of the NCF, 2005 and the principles laid down in the
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
• Necessitated an altered framework on Teacher Education which would be
consistent with the changed philosophy of school curriculum
recommended in the NCF, 2005
• Highlighted the focus, specific objectives, broad areas of study in terms of
theoretical and practical learnings, and curricular transaction and
assessment strategies for the various initial teacher education programmes.
19. CONCERNS OF TEACHER EDUCATION
• Education is not a mechanical activity of information transmission and
teachers are not information dispensers.
• Teachers need to be looked at as crucial mediating agents through
whom curriculum is transacted.
• Knowledge is essentially a human construct, a continuously evolving
process of reflective learning.
• Teacher education a lucrative business proposition- mushrooming of
substandard teacher education institutions
20. VISION OF TEACHER AND TEACHER
• Teacher education should be integrative and eclectic ; it should be open and flexible.
• Empower the teacher to relate himself/herself to the changing contexts
• Pedagogy should derive its inspiration more from sociological and anthropological
insights on education
• Diversity of learning spaces and curriculum sites (farm, workplace, home,
community, and media) apart from the classroom, also appreciate the diversity of
learning styles that children exhibit and learning contexts
21. National Knowledge Commission
• A compilation of various reports on Education – 2006- 2009
• The 21st Century -'Knowledge Century‘- competitive and globalised
• In the next few decades India will probably have the largest set of young
people in the world.
• In the words of our Prime Minister, to "leapfrog in the race for social and
economic development“ by establishing a knowledge-oriented paradigm of
• Established on 13th June 2005 and given a timeframe of three years from 2nd
October 2005 to 2nd October 2008 to achieve its objectives.
22. Terms of Reference(NKC)
• Build excellence in the educational system to meet the knowledge
challenges of the 21st century and increase India’s competitive advantage
in fields of knowledge
• Promote creation of knowledge in S&T laboratories
• Improve the management of institutions engaged in intellectual property
• Promote knowledge applications in agriculture and industry
• Promote the use of knowledge capabilities in making government an
effective, transparent and accountable service provider to the citizen and
promote widespread sharing of knowledge to maximize public benefit
• Creation of new knowledge principally depends on strengthening the
education system, promoting domestic research and innovation in laboratories
as well as at the grassroots level, and tapping foreign sources of knowledge
through more open trading regimes, foreign investment and technology
• Application of knowledge will primarily target the sectors of health,
agriculture, government and industry. This involves diverse priorities like
using traditional knowledge in agriculture, encouraging innovation in
industry and agriculture, and building a strong e-governance framework for
24. • Dissemination of knowledge focuses on ensuring universal elementary
education, especially for girls and other traditionally disadvantaged groups;
creating a culture of lifelong learning, especially for skilled workers; taking
steps to boost literacy levels; and using Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) to enhance standards in education and widely disseminate
easily accessible knowledge that is useful to the public.
25. Yashpal Committee Report
• The Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher
• The Government of India appointed a committee on 28 February 2008 to
review the role of statutory bodies in the context of changes in higher
professional and technical education in the country demands of a new
26. Terms of Reference of the Committee
1. To review the functioning of the UGC/AICTE and to critically assess the role
2. To review the provisions given in UGC Act 1956 and AICTE Act 1987
3. The role of UGC in coordinating, enforcing standards of higher
education /technical education.
4. Recommendations in regard to an effective and efficient mechanism for flow
of resources from the UGC to the universities for their timely utilization.
27. 5. The requirement of transparency and efficiency in the functioning of the
6. Role of UGC in declaration of institutions to be deemed universities.
7. Recommendations about the need of changing the eligibility
criteria for becoming eligible to receive grants under 12B.
28. Yashpal Committee Report on Teacher
With a view to have a fresh look on the problems of education, particularly with
regard to the problem of academic burden on students, the Ministry of Human
Resource Development, Government of India, set up a National Advisory
Committee in March 1992 with the following terms of reference :
• To advise on the ways and means to reduce the load on school students at all
levels particularly the young students, while improving quality of learning
including capability for life- long self-learning and skill formulation.
• The problem of Curriculum Load (Joyless Learning, Examination System,
Textbook as the 'Truth‘, Language Textbooks, Observation Discouraged,
Structure of Syllabus, Teaching Everything, Starting Early, Not Just an
Urban Problem )
• Roots of the Problem(Knowledge vs. Information, Isolation of Experts from
Classroom realities, Centralised Character, Convention of 'Teaching the Text‘,
Competition-based Social Ethos, Absence of Academic Ethos
30. New Problems, New Remedies
In place of ‘moral ethics’, ‘secular ethics’ something like
‘peaceful society’ or ‘social flourishing’ or ‘human
flourishing’ – something that does not have religious
connotation. May be included in social sciences- need
for medical and scientific research- how children should
be educated, not just to learn mathematics and so
forth but to be able to counteract destructive emotions
and cultivate wholesome and positive emotions.