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Ruf - Strength Training for Sprinters


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Ruf - Strength Training for Sprinters

  1. 1. In-Season Strength Training for Multi-Sport Sprinters<br />Chris Ruf<br />Baylor Athletic Performance<br /><br />
  2. 2. Multi-Sport/Multi-Lateral Training<br />Benefits<br />Develop wide range of motor abilities<br />Can still improve physically in multiple seasons<br />When athlete specializes at an appropriate age, will have a larger “tool box” to succeed at chosen sport<br />
  3. 3. General vs. Specific<br />Principle of Dynamic Correspondence<br />Verkoshansky & Siff<br />Sport Specificity<br />Must meet following criteria<br />Amplitude & direction of movement<br />Accentuated region of force production<br />Dynamics of the effort<br />Rate and time of maximum force production<br />Regime of muscular work<br />
  4. 4. General vs. Specific<br />Nearly all training for HS athletes is general<br />Exceptions<br />Sport practices<br />Competitions<br />HS athletes’ physical capabilities can be improved for a long period through general means<br />
  5. 5. General vs. Specific<br />Sprint training can have a high transfer to the sprinting needs of other sports<br />Majority of other sports require some elements of sprinting<br />Because of this, some elements of sprint training can be considered a “sport-specific” training means for other sports<br />Sprinting is also a powerful developer of general qualities<br />
  6. 6. Biomotor Abilities<br />Strength<br />Speed<br />Endurance<br />Flexibility<br />Coordination<br />Questions to ask: “How much?” and “What types?”<br />
  7. 7. Biomotor Abilities<br />These 5 abilities can be improved through sound sprint-based training<br />Speed, Endurance, Flexibility (to some degree) and Coordination improved directly<br />Flexibility required by some sports may not be trained to the necessary levels by sprint training alone<br />Strength will be improved indirectly<br />Chicken or the egg?<br />
  8. 8. Speed is Feared!<br />Speed is most feared ability in most team sports<br />How often is maximum speed reached in traditional team sport training and competition??<br />Conditioning vs. Speed Training<br />
  9. 9. Speed is Feared!<br />Sprinters train/compete at maximum speed on a frequent basis<br />Can be the single greatest benefit for team sport athletes<br />Any strength training performed must help support this ability<br />
  10. 10. Schedule<br />Evaluate meet schedule<br />Identify important meets<br />Deload weeks<br />Emphasis on explosive movements instead of strength<br />Coordinate goals of your strength program with sprinting goals for each part of the season<br />
  11. 11. Schedule<br />Weekly schedule<br />Most meets run on Fri/Sat<br />Many different combinations for lifting schedules<br />Depends on many factors<br />Time you have with athletes each day<br />Sprint program<br />Weight room set-up<br />Number of athletes<br />Etc.<br />
  12. 12. Schedule<br />High/Low Sequencing<br />Charlie Francis – Training For Speed<br />Beneficial to lift on your “hardest” days on the track<br />Keep 1 day in between lifts if possible<br />More time to recover, better sprint session on the following “hard” day<br />2 days of lifting/week can support needs<br />3 days/week can be utilized depending on programming and schedule<br />
  13. 13. Schedule<br />Preferable to lift following sprint training<br />Recovery between sessions<br />If not possible to lift following sprinting, 4+ hours prior to practice is the next best option<br />May have to alter programming<br />Do not want to compromise the quality of sprint training<br />
  14. 14. Needs Analysis<br />Have to consider needs of different sports<br />Keep in mind you are training to improve athleticism<br />Priority goes to the sprint program<br />After that, consider the next highest priority sport for the athlete<br />
  15. 15. Needs Analysis<br />Sprinting needs<br />Lower body strength & power<br />Elasticity/Reactivity<br />Eccentric hamstring strength<br />Ability to hold torso posture during all 3 phases<br />Flexibility to achieve optimal stride length<br />Upper body strength more important than most think, but don’t sacrifice other areas for it<br />
  16. 16. Needs Analysis<br />Other sports’ needs largely depends on the sport<br />Many team sports share the same following needs with sprinting<br />Lower body strength & power production<br />Elasticity/Reactivity<br />Eccentric hamstring strength<br />
  17. 17. Needs Analysis<br />Some needs may not be met by sprint training alone<br />Many due to change of direction needs of team sports<br />Deceleration<br />Increased flexibility of lower body<br />Eccentric strength of lower body extensors<br />Ability to hold posture<br />Upper body strength and power<br />Shoulder stability<br />
  18. 18. Program Design<br />Technique first<br />Get the most out of the movements you are using<br />Basic movements with great technique will fix a lot of physical deficiencies<br />Don’t try to fit a round peg into a square hole<br />
  19. 19. Program Design<br />Slow Cook ‘Em<br />Plan and train with the end goals in mind<br />For a HS multi-sport sprinter, what is more important?<br />Setting an ugly 40# PR in the squat tomorrow?<br />Setting a PR in the 100M at the end of track season?<br />Developing someone into the best athlete they can be when they reach their senior year?<br />
  20. 20. Program Design<br />Great athletic benefit from sprint work<br />Want to accentuate this<br />Majority of lifting will be at submaximal intensities<br />Too many stressors will stagnate development and performance<br />Helps the lifting to support the sprint work rather than compete with it<br />Can still make great strength gains<br />Higher intensity work can be utilizedif organized wisely<br />
  21. 21. Program Design<br />Need for explosive work will depend on sprint program<br />If a high volume of accel. and max vel. is done, less explosive work may be needed<br />Speed-strength<br />Plyometrics, various jumps & bounds, med-ball throws<br />Strength-speed<br />Oly lifts, DE BB lifts<br />
  22. 22. Program Design<br />Lower Body Push<br />We primarily use back and front squat<br />3 keys – Hips Back, Chest Up, Knees Out<br />Will occasionally vary foot width and depth<br />With HS athletes, get them proficient at basic parallel FS & BS<br />If technique is poor, find another way to develop lower body strength while improving squat technique<br />
  23. 23. Program Design<br />Hamstring Development<br />HYDRATION, NUTRITION & REST!<br />Repeatedly sprinting in a dehydrated, malnourished, or fatigued state will result in hamstring strains<br />
  24. 24. Program Design<br />Hamstring Development<br />Proper firing patterns during squats & explosive movements<br />Sit back when squatting & to good depth<br />Athletes should finish with their hips through when squatting<br />Get full hip extension in explosive movements<br />
  25. 25. Program Design<br />Hamstring Development<br />RDL’s<br />Technique!!<br />Glute-Ham Raise<br />Glutes contracted, no hyperextension<br />Slow eccentric<br />Reverse Hypers<br />Single Leg Curls (physioball or machine)<br />Higher rep<br />Prefer physioball version due to glute involvement<br />
  26. 26. Program Design<br />Upper Body Push/Pull<br />One area to place more emphasis depending on the athlete’s other sport(s)<br />Also want to keep shoulder health in mind<br />Good posture<br />Has implications for the sprinter as well<br />Good balance of pressing to pulling<br />Good technique and full ROM in presses & pulls<br />Get good at push-ups and chin-ups<br />Shoulder stability exercises<br />
  27. 27. Program Design<br />Torso Training<br />Plank progression<br />Front plank (or push-up hold)<br />Front plank w/one limb in the air<br />Front plank w/opposite arm/leg in the air<br />Reverse Crunch<br />Strengthen external obliques, helps prevent excessive anterior pelvic tilt<br />General sit-up and crunch variations<br />
  28. 28. Program Design<br />Exercise Rotation<br />We will try to limit switching exercises during the season<br />Leads to soreness/stiffness<br />Changes in lower body exercises will be gradual and progressive in nature<br />Be aware of the effects<br />
  29. 29. Program Design<br />Weekly Schedule<br />Monday <br />LB Speed-Strength movement superset w/LB Mobility<br />Squat Variation superset w/LB Mobility<br />Hip dominant hamstring superset w/UB Pull<br />Low intensity single leg knee dominant hamstring superset w/UB Press<br />
  30. 30. Program Design<br />Weekly Schedule<br />Wednesday <br />LB Strength-Speed movement superset w/LB Mobility<br />Squat Variation or Single Leg superset w/Shoulder Stability<br />UB Press superset w/Hypers or Reverse Hypers and UB Pull<br />
  31. 31. Program Design<br />Weekly Schedule<br />Friday of Non-Meet Weeks <br />Explosive MB Throw superset w/LB Mobility<br />Squat Variation or Single Leg superset w/Shoulder Stability<br />UB Press superset w/UB Pull<br />Bi’s/Tri’s<br />
  32. 32. Program Design<br />Training Blocks<br />We will construct our training into blocks<br />Each block characterized by it’s central training focus<br />Will still train other qualities<br />Each block should build on the qualities developed in the previous training block<br />
  33. 33. Program Design<br />In-Season Training Blocks<br />Work Capacity (Accumulation)<br />Focus is on use of volume to prep for future training<br />Low volume of strength and power development work<br />Work at 55-70% on core strength movements for 4-6 sets of 3-6 reps<br />Work at 65-75% on Olympic movements for 3-4 sets of 2-3 reps<br />Some work done on landing skills to prep for jump/plyo exercises<br />This block should only need to be performed once<br />
  34. 34. Program Design<br />In-Season Training Blocks<br />Strength<br />Focus is on developing maximal strength<br />Frequency of strength work can aid in this<br />Low volume of power development work<br />Work at 70-85% on core strength movements for 2-4 sets of 1-3 reps<br />Work at 70-80% on Olympic movements for 4-5 sets of 2-3 reps<br />Begin introducing some jump training<br />
  35. 35. Program Design<br />In-Season Training Blocks<br />Power<br />Focus is on power development<br />Low volume of strength development work<br />Work at 70-85% on core strength movements for 1-3 sets of 1-2 reps<br />Work at 75-90% on Olympic movements for 4-8 sets of 1-2 reps<br />Continue with jump training and can begin introducing some plyometric exercises (provided athletes are prepared for it)<br />
  36. 36. Program Design<br />Prilepin’s Chart<br />
  37. 37. Program Design<br />Prilepin’s Chart<br />In-Season we will rarely go above 80%<br />Olympic Lifts<br />Stay in the lower half of the ranges<br />Strength Lifts<br />55-75% - Stay in the very lowest end of the recommendations<br />75+% - Cut recommendations in half<br />Auxiliary lifts will generally be in the 6 to 15 rep range for multiple sets depending on needs<br />
  38. 38. Program Design<br />Deload<br />Will typically load for 2 or 3 weeks followed by a 1 week deload<br />Deload for important meets<br />10-20% deload of intensity and volume from peak week<br />
  39. 39. References/Recommended Readings<br />Francis, C. (1997) The Charlie Francis Training System. Faccioni Speed and Conditioning Consultant<br />Issurin, V. (2008) Block Periodization. Grand Rapids, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts.<br />Rippetoe, Mark & Kilgore, Lon. (2005) Starting Strength: A Simple and Practical Guide for Coaching Beginners. Wichita Falls, TX: The Aasgaard Company.<br />Siff, M. (2003) Supertraining (6th ed.). Denver: Mel C. Siff.<br />Smith, J. (2008) Accumulating, Concentrating, and Intensifying the Training Load Lecture DVD. Grand Rapids, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts<br />
  40. 40. Thank You!<br />Coaches in attendance - Continue to be great leaders<br />Baylor Athletic Performance Staff<br />Andrew Althoff & Tyson Brown – Assist w/T&F<br />Baylor Track & Field Program<br />Baylor Athletic Performance Clinic – Sat., June 5th<br />Chris Ruf<br />254-710-3395<br /><br /><br />

Notas del editor

  • Try to add Steve Nash video?
  • examples
  • What general qualities?
  • Put in pix of a couple diff sports