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New product development and product life-cycle strategies

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New product development and product life-cycle strategies

Publicado en: Empresariales, Diseño
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New product development and product life-cycle strategies

  1. 1. New-Product Development and Product Life-Cycle Strategies
  2. 2. 2 Road Map: Previewing the Concepts  Explain how companies find and develop new-product ideas.  List and define the steps in the new-product development process.  Describe the stages of the product life cycle.  Describe how marketing strategies change during the product’s life cycle.
  3. 3. 3 New-Product Development Strategy • Strategies for Obtaining New-Product Ideas:  Acquisition of companies, patients, licenses  Original products, improvements, modifications
  4. 4. 4 New-Product Failures  Only 10% of new products still on the market and profitable after 3 years.  Failure rate for industrial products as high as 30%.  Why?  Overestimation of market size  Design problems  Incorrectly positioned, priced, or advertised  Pushed despite poor marketing research findings  Development costs  Competition
  5. 5. 5 Major Stages in New-Product Development • Idea generation • Idea screening • Concept development and testing • Marketing strategy development • Business analysis • Product development • Test marketing • Commercialization
  6. 6. 6 Idea Generation • Company employees • Customers • Competitors • Distributors • Suppliers
  7. 7. 7 Idea Screening  Process to spot good ideas and drop poor ones.  Develop system to estimate: market size, product price, development time and costs, manufacturing costs, and rate of return.  Evaluate these findings against set of company criteria for new products.
  8. 8. 8 Concept Development and Testing  Product Idea: idea for a possible product that the company can see itself offering.  Product Concept: detailed version of the idea stated in meaningful consumer terms.  Product Image: the way consumers perceive an actual or potential product.
  9. 9. 9 Marketing Strategy Development • Part One Describes:  The target market, planned product positions, sales, market share, and profit goals • Part Two Outlines the First Year’s:  Product’s planned price, distribution, and marketing budget • Part Three Describes Long-Run:  Sales and profit goals, marketing mix strategy
  10. 10. 10 Business Analysis  Involves a review of the sales, costs, and profit projections to assess fit with company objectives.  If yes, move to the product development phase.
  11. 11. 11 Product Development  Develop concept into physical product  Calls for large jump in investment  Prototypes are made  Prototype must have correct physical features and convey psychological characteristics
  12. 12. 12 Test Marketing  Product and program introduced in more realistic market setting.  Not needed for all products.  Can be expensive and time consuming, but better than making major marketing mistake.
  13. 13. 13 Commercialization  Must decide on timing (i.e., when to introduce the product).  Must decide on where to introduce the product (e.g., single location, state, region, nationally, internationally).  Must develop a market rollout plan.
  14. 14. 14 Organizing New-Product Development  Sequential Approach: each stage completed before moving to next phase of the project.  Simultaneous Approach: Cross- functional teams work through overlapping steps to save time and increase effectiveness.
  15. 15. 15 The Product Life Cycle • Product development • Introduction • Growth • Maturity • Decline
  16. 16. 16 Product Life Cycle Applications  Product class has the longest life cycle (e.g., gas-powered cars)  Product form tends to have the standard PLC shape (e.g., dial telephone)  Brand can change quickly because of changing competitive attacks and responses (e.g., Tide, Cheer)  Style is a basic and distinctive mode of expression (e.g., formal clothing, Danish modern furniture)  Fashion is a popular style in a given field (e.g., business casual)  Fad is a fashion that enters quickly, is adopted quickly, and declines fast (e.g., pet rocks)
  17. 17. 17 Practical Problems of PLC • Hard to identify which stage of the PLC the product is in. • Hard to pinpoint when the product moves to the next stage. • Hard to identify factors that affect product’s movement through stages. • Hard to forecast sales level, length of each stage, and shape of PLC. • Strategy is both a cause and result of the PLC.
  18. 18. 18 Introduction Stage of PLC • Sales: low • Costs: high cost per customer • Profits: negative • Marketing Objective: create product awareness and trial • Product: offer a basic product • Price: use cost-plus formula • Distribution: build selective distribution • Promotion: heavy to entice product trial
  19. 19. 19 Growth Stage of PLC • Sales: rapidly rising • Costs: average cost per customer • Profits: rising • Marketing Objective: maximize market share • Product: offer extension, service, warranty • Price: penetration strategy • Distribution: build intensive distribution • Promotion: reduce to take advantage of demand
  20. 20. 20 Maturity Stage of PLC • Sales: peak • Costs: low cost per customer • Profits: high • Marketing Objective: maximize profits while defending market share • Product: diversify brand and models • Price: match or best competitors • Distribution: build more intensive distribution • Promotion: Increase to encourage brand switching
  21. 21. 21 Maturity Stage of the PLC  Modifying the Market: Increase the consumption of the current product.  How?  Look for new users and market segments  Reposition the brand to appeal to larger or faster-growing segment  Look for ways to increase usage among present customers
  22. 22. 22 Maturity Stage of the PLC  Modifying the Product: Changing characteristics such as quality, features, or style to attract new users and to inspire more usage.  How?  Improve durability, reliability, speed, taste  Improve styling and attractiveness  Add new features  Expand usefulness, safety, convenience
  23. 23. 23 Maturity Stage of the PLC  Modifying the Marketing Mix: Improving sales by changing one or more marketing mix elements.  How?  Cut prices  Launch a better ad campaign  Move into larger market channels  Offer new or improved services to buyers
  24. 24. 24 Decline Stage of PLC • Sales: declining • Costs: low cost per customer • Profits: declining • Marketing Objective: reduce expenditures and milk the brand • Product: phase out weak items • Price: cut price • Distribution: selective--phase out unprofitable outlets • Promotion: reduce to minimal level
  25. 25. 25 Rest Stop: Reviewing the Concepts  Explain how companies find and develop new-product ideas.  List and define the steps in the new-product development process.  Describe the stages of the product life cycle.  Explain how marketing strategies change during the product’s life cycle

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