2. CONTENT -:
LOCATION OF A FISH FARM
2. SOIL TYPES
3. WATER SUPPLY
LAY OUT OF FISH FARM
POND MAINTENANCE AND IMPROVEMENT
c. INORGANIC FERTILIZERS
d. ORGANIC FERTILIZER
e. ARTIFICIAL FEEDING
f. FISHING OR HARVESTING
A fish culturist needs different types of ponds for
rearing various stages of fish ,and has to decide
on the layout of his farm and extent.
The design of fish farm and number and size of
the ponds depends on the species of the fish to
The primary consideration in constructing a fish
farm is the site which has to be selected on the
basis of soil , water and drainage .
4. CONSTRUCTION OF FISH FARM
LOCATION OF FISH FARM
LAYOUT OF FISH FARM
5. LOCATION OF A FISH FARM-:
Success of fish farming and economy of
the contraction would depend largely on
the selection of a suitable site for the farm.
The main consideration are-
II. Soil types
III. Water supply
6. 1- TOPOGRAPHY-:
Topography means the
surface feature of the area ,
and is important both from
the point of view of
construction and for future
Ideal topography of a fish
farm site is a gently sloping
terrain of a wide valley , or a
bowl shaped area with high
lands on three sides and a
narrow outlet on the fourth Selection of land
7. Such a place chosen desirable soil and suitable
Such an area can be easily converted into a large
pond by erecting an embankment for closing the
Dressing up the bottom of bring it to a uniform
depth and sealing the bottom to prevent leakage
may be necessary.
Construction plan should include provision for
handling flow of water and also for complete
8. SOIL TYPES-:
Soil must be impervious so as not allow
Good soil – clay loam soil contain –
Clay 30 -33%
•Rocky and sandy soil area avoid, ordinary
heavy and silty clay are suitable – store
water long period
•Porous soil –unsuitable form stocking pond
10. WATER SUPPLY-:
It dependable source of
water supply are-
I. Lake and reservoirs
Big tanks ,reservoir and
lakes are perhaps the
best sources of water.
11. LAYOUT OF THE FISH FARM-:
Before starting the construction , the layout plans
have to be drown for location ,deigns and the number
of various types of pond .
For subsistence fishing , only a small sized of 0.04
ha is enough ,but for commercial and experimental
farms,larger areas are needed for constructing
nursery, rearing , stocking and breeding ponds.
Various farm building such as laboratory , store
house , watchman’s residential quarters etc. are also
to be constructed.
12. 1-HATCHING PITS-
o small tanks ,usually of 2.5 m X 1.25m X 0.75m ,
for used fertilization eggs, located near riverine
o Continuous but slow flow water .
Different types hatchery are found in different
FIBER GLASS JAR HATCHERY
13. HAPA METHOD -:
a smaller mesh cloth tank
called hapa of 2 X 1 X 0.5 m of
cheap coarse cloth and
mosquito curtain cloth, is fixed
75000 fertilized eggs
containing in inner hapa ,
most of poor farmer used .
Hapa method in India
14. FIBER GLASS JAR HATCHERY-:
This hatchery is a specially
designed apperatus which
consist of several fiber
glass jar each of 6.35 liter
50000 fertilized eggs are
placed in each jar ,
continuous flow of water .
Eggs are hatched within 10 -
13 hours but hatchery is
almost 100% .
This method used mainly
some species like salmoids
15. CHINESE CIRCULAR HATCHERY-:
This hatchery has four part,
mainly commercial purpose
these hatchery is used .
In these hatchery 5 lakes eggs
1. OVER-HEAD STORAGE
TANK- measure 5.5 x 2.7
x2.2 m with the capacity of
about 30000 liters of water.
2. SPAWNING POND- 10x2.5 m
Length and deapth ,contain 2
lakes eggs . N.B.F.G.R. HATCHERY
16. INCUBATION POND-
Two concrete incubation ponds in each unit and
both of them are circular in shape
Each ponds has two chamber ; outer and inner
The latter chamber is 0. 75 meter , inner chamber
there are stop cocked exit pipe hole though which
excess water removed
This circular tanks 4 diameter, these tank connect to
breeding pond and hatchling receiving pond.
17. 4. HATCHLING RECEIVING POND:
The inside dimensions are 4 x 2.5 x 1.2 m. This is
located at a lower level than the incubation
pond, so as to drain out the water from it by
BREEDING POND INCUBATION POND
N. P HATCHLING POND RECEVING
19. POND ARE MAINLY TWO TYPES-
Pond made by man in large
scale fish production
Selected land ploughing the
and covered with the hep of
plaster, make boundary ,fill 5
inch soil and hydrilla plant.
Give the artificial feeding
Advantage - proper water
exchange , proper disease
Disadvantages- highly costly ,
fish feeding giving daily.
20. NATURAL POND / EARTHEN POND
Naturally made and man
Small pond planting near
the pond and make the
Natural feeding – algae ,
advantage – not more
costly ,easily make
Disadvantage- not easily
21. 2 - NURSERY POND-:
Measure – 15 x 15 x 1.5m and may be seasonal ,
so they are dry up during summer .
These are help in eradication of fish enemies and
3 - REARING POND -:
May be seasonal or perennial and are used for
rearing advanced fry for 2-3 months.
These ponds are made long and narrow , gently
sloping to facilitate netting and deep 1.5 m
Measure – 25 x 10 x 1.5 m
22. STOCKING POND -: THESE ARE LARGE
PERENNIAL TANKS , ABOUT 2M DEEP . THEY
ARE LONG 100 M OR MORE , FACILITATE
24. DIFFERENT PARTS OF GOOD POND-
The most important
feature is to have the
pond bottom slope
such that the pond can
If the pond site has
a natural slope, the
dyke or main wall
constructed at the
low level side.
25. DRAINAGE SYSTEM
It consists of the outlet system for letting water out of the pond
and the drainage ditches which carry the water away from the
26. IDEAL FISH FARM OF 5 ACRE LAND
TYPES OF POND NUMBER SIZE IN METERES OF
HATCHERY PITS 6 2.5 X 1.25 X 0.75
4 15 X 15 X 1.5 m
24 25 X 10 X 2 m
6 100 x 25 x 2 m
27. POND MAINTENANCE AND
The productivity of the pond depends upon its
soil base , and can be greatly enhanced by –
I. Controlling the vegetation
II. Cleaning the pond bottom
III. Liming and
All undesirable plants and weeds removed.
The pond should be emptied , dried and
cleaned at suitable intervals.
28. LIMING -:
We are mostly used quick lime ( Cao) , raised
the pH of the water and acts as an antiparasitic
It kill the bacteria and other fish parasite.
A dose of 100 – 200 kg/ ha is sufficient if liming
is done every year.
Control the fish gill rot disease , quick lime
generally spread on the pond bottom , 10- 15
days before stocking the fish .
Leave that pond at least 2 week.
The purpose of fertilization increase the
productivity by increasing the natural food
Inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer used in fish
pond are sodium nitrate , ammonium
sulphate , ammonium nitrate , ammonium
carbonate and urea etc.
Ammonium sulphate cause phytoplankton
blooms, and heavy growth of zooplankton.
30. INORGANIC FERTILIZERS-:
In inorganic fertilizer
contain suitability of N
and P content in soil.
Phosphate fertilizer is
used 25-30 kg / ha and
is very effective in
producing algal bloom.
These are also used
better growth of natural
food in fish pond.
31. ORGANIC FERTILIZER -:
The liquid manure from stables
is very beneficial and stimulates
the growth of zooplankton and
Liquid manure is release in
small quantity only the deeper
Fish guano , farm manure ( cow
and house dung) and sewage
also consist good manure.
green manure , soya bean meal ,
cotton seed meal , mustard oil
32. ARTIFICIAL FEEDING-:
Fish production can be
increase by artificial
feeding , fish should feed
cheap and simple.
Whole grain , flour , rice
bran , oil cake , and kitchen
waste are generally used
as fish food.
Method of giving food- the
food can be kept in basket
or spread on the water.
33. FISHING OR HARVESTING-:
This is done by draining the
pond or netting .
By draining , harvesting is
completed and predators can
be dried , cleaned , repaired ,
and soil enriched by
However , if the ponds are
constructed in a row , loss of
water can be avoided and
ponds are drained by turns.
34. References- :
1- ‘ AN INTRODUCTION OF FISHES’
( S.S KHANA )
2- ‘FISH AND FISHERIES’
( S. N YADAV)
3- FISH PONDS FOR THE FARM
( FRANK C. EDMISTER )
4- INTERNET .