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Transistors ppt by behin

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Transistors ppt by behin

  1. 1. TRANSISTORS “The building blocks of electronics world”
  2. 2. This session will help you to understand the, 1.Evolution of transistor 2.Importance of transistor 3.Definition & transistor types 4.Transistor symbol & operation 5.Advantages of transistor 6.Latest in transistor technology
  3. 3. History of transistors In 1906, an American inventor and physicist, Lee De Forest, made the vacuum tube triode or audion as he called it.  Used in radios  Used in early computers
  4. 4. The first transistor In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain deviced - the first "point contact" transistor.
  5. 5. Moore’s Law It’s an observation made by Gordon E. Moore, in which he predicted that the number of transistors, inside an Integrated Circuit, could be doubled every 24 months. At the density that also minimized the cost of a transistor.
  6. 6. Transistor Definition  Transistor is an electronic device made of three layers of semiconductor material that can act as an insulator and a conductor.  The three layered transistor is also known as the bipolar junction transistor.
  7. 7. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT’s)  The term bipolar refers to the use of both holes and electrons as charge carriers in the transistor structure  There are two types of BJTs, the NPN and PNP
  8. 8. Basic construction
  9. 9. Regions of a transistor  A transistor has three regions namely,  Emitter- heavily doped  Base- lightly doped  Collector- moderately doped
  10. 10. Transistor symbols Transistor symbols
  11. 11. Transistor operation force – voltage/current water flow – current - amplification
  12. 12. Transistor biasing  The base-emitter (BE) junction is forward biased  The base-collector (BC) junction is reverse biased. IE=IB+IC
  13. 13. Operating regions of BJT Cut off region Linear region Saturation region
  14. 14. Types of transistor  BJT - Bipolar Junction Transistor  UJT- Unipolar Junction Transistor  FET - Field Effect Transistor  MOS - Metal Oxide Semiconductor
  15. 15. Transistor applications Transistor as a switch When used as an electronic switch, the transistor is normally operated alternately in cut-off and saturation regions.
  16. 16. Transistor as amplifier  Due to the small changes in base current the collector current will mimic the input with greater amplitude
  17. 17. Future of Transistors      Molecular electronics Carbon nanotube transistors Nano inspiration wire transistors Quantum computing CMOS devices will add functionality to CMOS nonvolatile memory, opto-electronics, sensing….  CMOS technology will address new markets macroelectronics, bio-medical devices, …  Biology may provide for new technologies bottom-up assembly, human intelligence
  18. 18. What’s new in transistor technology? 3D Transistor made using Tri-Gate transistors on its 22nm logic technology. Advantage of Tri-Gate Transistors ·More than 50% power reduction at constant performance. ·37% performance increase at low voltage ·Improved performance and efficiency.