5. Bharat Wagon is an engineering Industry
commanding very good reputation and having
decades of experience with two manufacturing
units in Mokama & Muzaffarpur in the state of
Bihar. Its both units have been accredited with ISO-
9001:2000 Quality management System Standards
for manufacturing of wagons. The product profile of
Bharat Wagons and the enriched experience reveal
the credibility of the company and the capability of
skilled personnel that have brought laurels to the
6. The wagons are catered to the Indian Railways and
Ministry of Defence. Some special purpose wagons
are also produced according to specific customer
requirements. The unit at Muzaffarpur is equipped
to produce both Broad gauge and Metre gauge
units. In addition to railway wagons the unit is
capable of producing all relevant wagon
components. BWEL diversified into turnkey project
in 1979 as part of its diversification strategy and a
separate Project Division was set up in 1995. This
division has successfully executed a number of
7. Raw materials in wagon manufacturing can be
broadly divided into two categories:
(a) DM components, being components, which
are inspected by the RDSO before they are supplied
to BWEL and
(b) Non-DM components, being low value
components, which are the procured locally and do
not require RDSO inspection.
8. • Common DM components include steel, coupler sets,
air brake equipment, air brake pipe, wheel sets, slack
adjuster, nylon bush, door check spring, bearing, twist
lock, draw gear (quick draw) and draw bar.
Principal raw materials are flat steel products, such
as steel plates. They normally source their entire
requirement from suppliers such as SAIL and TISCO.
They have an arrangement with komatsu Mining
Germany (Demag) for supply of components and
spares. They import components such as hydraulics
and gear boxes from komatsu Mining Germany,
Rexroth, Carraro and also several other reputed
companies in India and abroad.
9. • Bharat Wagon and Engineering Company Limited is divided into following
• (iv) Work Department – Work department is headed by Deputy Manager
(Works). The main function is to take care about wagon assembly, cutting
and welding, Press and smithy, machine shop, finishing and painting shop.
• (v) Planning and Civil Department – Deputy Manager (planning and
inspection) headed this department. The main function of the department
is to get the civil work done and capital budgets etc.
11. 1.Fabrication and assembling of railway goods.
2.Manufacturing of wagon components.
Fabrication of component of railway bridges/
12. The Function of the maintenance Dept. is as follow:
• Mechanical Maintenance of all machineries and
• Electrical maintenance of all machineries and
• Vehicle maintenance.
• Generator operations and maintenance.
• Erection and commissioning of equipments.
13. • Material Department of Bharat Wagon &
Engineering Company Limited, Muzaffarpur is very
important as it is primarily intended to assist in the
production, maintenance and other allied function
of all departments in respect of
• To make available balance flow of raw materials
components, equipments and other materials
necessary to meet operational requirements.
• To provide maintenance of materials, spare parts
and general stores as required.
14. • Open Type Freight Wagon (BOXN)
• Covered Type Freight Wagon (BCNA)
• Flat Type Freight Wagon (BRNA)
15. • BOXN – 8 Wheeler Broad Gauge Bogie Open Type
Wagons fitted with Cast Steel Casnub Bogies, High
Tensile Centre Buffer Couplers (NT) with single air
brake system, Tare Wt. 22.47 MT,
Pay Load – 58.81 MT and Gross Load – 81.28 MT.
• BRNA – 8 Wheeler Broad Gauge Flat Wagons with
fixed ends but fitted with single air brake, Casnub
bogies and HT CBC coupler
• BCNA – 8 Wheeler Broad Gauge Bogie covered
wagons fitted with cast Steel Casnub Bogie with Air
Brake and CNC(NT) couplers
17. • In this press and smithy shop there are seven open hearth
furnaces where coal burns on the bed. On these famous
various of parts are heated. The heated part is kept on the
anvil with the help of hammer the required shape is formed.
In this shop more than 50 components are manufactured :-
• Head Stock pressing
• Anchor plate pressing
• Anchor support pressing
• Foot Step
• Pull Road
• Head Stock
• Hand Wheel
• Bolster etc.
18. The press is metal forming machine tool
designed to shape of cut metal tool by
applying mechanical force or pressure. The
metal is formed the desired shape without
removal of clops. The presses are exclusively
intended for mass production work and they
present the fastest and most efficient way to
form a sheet metal in a finishing products.
19. As the name indicates this shop is mainly involved in
cutting the plates of different thickness in the desired
shape & size and in the profile cutting and welding them
In the welding section mainly bolster and cross bars are
21. • Shearing Machine :-On the shearing machine the to be cut
should be flat & the thickness should not be more than 8 min.
For cutting the flat plate is kept on the bed of the held of
crane. The machine consists of a cutting blade & no. of
pressing bolts press the plate and keep it rigidly fixed the
downward movement of the cutting plate.
• Cropping Machine :-On the cropping machine number of
works are performed. This machine can cut the flat plate of
small sizes, angles, plates, square hollow rod & circular
hollow rod. Also this machine can be used as punching
• Chipping Machine :-This machine is use to produce an
inclined shaped at end of plate which is necessary in the end
to end welding. This machine has a gun through which high
pressure air comes. This machine holds a chisel. The high-
pressure air pushes the chisel. Which causes to cut the plate?
22. • Profile Cutting Machine :-This machine consists of a vertical column and
two horizontal arms. The one arm consists of the template and another
arm consists of the welding torch and the small driving motor. This
machine can cut the plate of thickness of 35 to 40 mm. Through the
welding torch acetylene and oxygen gas is supplied. This machine requires
extra amount of oxygen gas. So two oxygen pipes are connected to the
torch. To cut the plate in the desired shape. The same shape template is
fitted to the upper arm and the magnetic roller of the second i.e. lower
arm is toughed to the template. The driving motor drives the torch. The
torch moves through the profile of the template and plate cut in the
• Kangaroo Machine :-One another plate cutting machine in this shop is
Kangaroo Machine. This is the biggest cutting machine. This machine
consists of two welding torch. The torch can move in all the three
coordinate axis i.e. X,Y and Z axis. This is fully electronic controlled
machine. This machine consists of an electronic sensor and a horizontal
plate. The drawing of the required shape is kept on the horizontal plate
and the sensor moves through the black lines of the drawing this machine
can be moved manually. The amount of acetylene and oxygen gas can be
controlled with the knobs.
23. The drilling machine is one of the most
important machine tools in a workshop.
As regards its importance it is second
only to the lathe. Although it was
primarily designed to originate a hole, it
can perform a number of similar
operations. In drilling machines holes
may be drilled quickly and at a low cost.
The hole is generated by the rotating
edge of a cutting tool known as the drill
which exerts a large force on the work
clamped on the table. As the machine
tool exerts vertical pressure to originate
a hole it is loosely called a “drill press”.
24. • RADIAL DRILLIGN MACHINE :-The radial drilling machine is indented for
drilling medium to large and heavy work pieces. The machine consists of a
heavy, round, vertical coulomb mounted on a large base. The column
supports a radial arm which can be raised and lowered to accommodate
work piece of different bights. The arm may be swung around to any
position over the work bed. The drill head containing mechanism for
rotating and feeding the drill is mounted on a radial arm and can be
moved horizontally on the guide ways and clamped at any desired
position. These three movements in a radial drilling machine when
combined together permit the drill to be located at any desired point on
large work piece for drilling the hole. When several holes are drilled on a
drilled on provide guide ways on which the drill head may be made to
slide. The arm may be swage bound the column. In some machine this
movement is controlled by separates motor.
• Drill head :- The drill head mounted on the radial arm and drives the drill
spindle . It encloses an the mechanism for driving the drill at multiple
speeds and at different feed. At the mechanisms and control are may be
made to slide on the guide ways of the arm for adjusting the position of
drill spindle with respect to the work. After the spindle has been properly
adjusted in position the drill head is clamped on the radial arm.
25. • Universal Drilling Machine :- It is one of the important drilling machine. This
drilling machine can produce a hole any direction at any angle. The universal
drilling machine consists of a vertical i.e. horizontally, vertically and at any
inclination. The drilling can be done by automatic feed mechanism and by
• Semi Universal radial drilling machine :- It is same as universal radial drilling
machine except this drilling machine cannot produce a hole in inclined
direction. This machine consists of two electrical motors. One is used for the
operation of drilling and the another is used for the vertical movement of
horizontal arm is the feed. In these machine water is used as a coolant the
chip which comes out from the operation is continues chip.
• Sensitive drilling machine :- On the machine small sized hole is drilled usually
a drill of 5 mm and 6 mm is used for the machine has a very long bed and a
gang of three drilling machine. This machine is used to produce a hole in the
very long channel. For operation the channel is kept on the bed the jig is
fitted to the channel and with the help jig bush the hole is produced at
26. This is the biggest shop of this organization .
In this shop there are various type of machines. :-
Such as :-
27. • This is also very important shop of this plant. In this shop casting is done.
The various parts on the wagon are manufactured in this shop. This casting
is divided into three groups Low & Medium casting are again divided in to
sub group Green and dry and loam casting of sweep moulding. For
moulding clay is mixed with send to improve binding strength. Normally
Bentonite & cow dung improved the porous nature of sand. Normally 3%
clay is mixes with sand. For casting first mould is prepared with help of
28. • As per the requirement core is used in moulding .
For preparing core reinforcement is used which
supports. The pressure of the molten metal.
• Green casting is used for mass production. For dry
casting, the core and the prepared mould is
hearted from inside the coal oven to reduce the
moisture & to improve the strength & reduce the
29. • CUPOLA FURNACE :-This is very important type furnace. It
has the bottom bed & air chamber. During operation the
bottom bed is closed & the inclined sand bed is prepared on
the bottom bed. The air chamber which is connected with the
outlet of bower which supplies air to the coke is 12 to 36
inches above the air chambers. Improve the firing . The coke
is fired air blown. As the coke produce heat nearly equal to
22000 C the ferrous metal starts melting.
• After melting the metal flows downward and get stored on
the sand bed. Due to its high density the coke starts flowing.
As the slag starts flowing outside it is confirmed that the
metal is in the fully molten state condition the gate is opened
and the molten metal is allowed , to blow in the ladle. In this
system the hot air which tends to pass from top is recycled
and again supplied to the air chamber. This reduces the cost
30. Before describing the template is worth while to elaborate the word
“template”. This is a pattern or gauge a time in mass scale. This saves
a lot of time, as no marking is necessary when using template . Basically
templates are of two types :
– Marking Template
– Checking Template
• The main objective of this shop is making templates of all the
consigned wagon components where a certain profile cutting is
The manufacturing of template is done with the help of the design
and drawing provided by R.D.S.O. Lucknow . Also the allowances for
different tools are taken into consideration during marketing the
template. The varies machine to machine. The templates here are
usually made of mild steel . They are of small thickness. Working in
this shop needs greatest accuracy because shapes all the components
made with the help of template depends upon the template. Thus a
minor fault cans a great fault in the production.
31. • In this shop the various components which are
manufactured in the different shops are assembled
and the completed and then set to the finishing
shop. First of the assembly of wagon, the centre sill
is kept on the fixture.
• Centre Sill -This is manufactured in the sub
assembly shop. To manufacture two Z channels are
welder after welding the supporting plate is welded
to require position and then it is sent for marking .
After marking drilling is done by the air gun. Lastly
it is checked whether it is true size or not. If not the
length is reduced by gas cutting.
32. • The length of the centre sill should be 9784 mm and
width should 2960 mm. The centre sill is placed in
the fixture and cross bar bolster welder to it. After
welding these two seal are attached and is welded.
33. • Now this known “Under frame”, now riveting is done . The head stock
also welded to the centre still at the ends. The gusset plate and the
cross bottom plate is welded to bolster and cross bar respectively .
The stranger welded to the under frame through out the length. The
under frame is placed on the manipulator for welding at the bottom
side. Now the air brake cylinder and the pipe line is fitted and
clamped . The side body and end body is attached and riverted and
welded to the frame . This complete box is kept on the wheel .
34. After assembling the wagon is
sent to the finishing shop. In
this the wagon is brought to the
shot blaster chamber. In this
chamber small iron particle is
allowed to strike on the wagon
to remove the extra welding
deposit and the rust formed on
it. The high pressure air helps
the iron particle to come out
from the gun and to strike
rapidly. In this chamber the
working condition are very
hazardous. So the worker wears
oxygen mask before doing work
35. Components Suppliers
1. Wheel W.A.P. Banglore
2. Bogie BESCO Kolkata
3. High Tension Couler H.D.C. Kolkata
4. Air Brake Equipment 1. Escort Ltd. Faridabad
2. Stone India Ltd. Delhi
3. Bharat Brakes & Value Ltd. Kolkata
5. Steel 1. Bokaro Steel Plant
6. Bearing Jamshedpur
36. After this the wagon
is painted and the
written on the
wagon is painted
written on the
wagon and then
37. Broadly scrap is materials discarded from
manufacturing operations that may be suitable for
re processing. Scrap is a term used to describe the
recycling of metal. Old unwanted metal such as left
out iron sheets, building supplies, surplus
materials, useless equipment, safety appliances,
worn-out tools machine part etc.
38. Scrap from wagons shop :
• Left out metal sheets after cutting out of required
shapes of sheets used in production of LHB FIAT
• Sheet portions left out after cutting by laser cutting
• Iron pieces and bits that are of not suitable to be
welded with wagons frame.
• Metal fillings and residue left out during machining
of LHB wagons.
39. • Such a large quantity of scrap needs a proper way of
management and disposal. Otherwise it would
create wastage and environmental hazards.
• The proper utilization, processing, disposal and
other type of related maintenance of various types
of scraps is broadly termed as scrap management.
• Scrap management process differs from industry to
industry. Scrap from large and big industry usually
serves as raw materials for small scale industries
and factories .
40. SCRAP MANAGEMENT IN BWEL MUZAFFARPUR
• Scrap production in BWEL MUZAFFARPUR is one of
largest in the North India. Every year crores of scrap is
produced in various workshops of BWEL
MUZAFFARPUR, whose proper management and
disposal is very necessary. That’s why scrap
Management is very important aspect in proper
functioning of BWEL MUZAFFARPUR.
• Specially for this purpose there is a scrap depot in the
factory campus where all the scrap and waste material
is dumped and whole process of scrap management is
carried out from there.