2. The flag of China was officially adopted
on October 1, 1949.
The red of the Chinese flag symbolizes
the communist revolution, and it's also
the traditional color of the people.
The large gold star represents
The four smaller stars represent the social
classes of the people.
In addition, the five stars together reflect
the importance placed on the number five
in Chinese thought and history.
3. Chinese history is generally divided into dynasties or periods
during which particular family or group of people reigned.
Xia Dynasty (2100-1700 BCE)
Shang Dynasty (1700-1050)
Zhou Dynasty (1050-221) [inc. Warring States Period 475-
Qin Emperor and 3-year Dynasty (221-206)
Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE)
Six Dynasties Period (220-589)
Sui Dynasty (589-618)
Tang Dynasty (618-906)
Five Dynasties Period (907-60) [military rulers held power]
Song Dynasty (960-1279)
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
4. Chinese states were unified into a large empire with a
People’s Republic of China(1949-present)
Capital at Present: Beijing
Area: 9,600,000 sq. km
Population: 1.3 billion
Climate: Mainly continental monsoon climate
If the growth continues
at the rate of 7 percent
Christians could be
32.5 percent of the
Chinese population by
2040, and 66.7 percent
8. Starting around 4000 B.C. traditional Chinese painting has developed
continuously over a period of more than six thousand years. Its
growth has inevitably reflected the changes of time and social
conditions. In its early stage of development, Chinese painting was
closely related to the other crafts, from pottery to the decorations
used on the bronzes, carved jade and lacqerware.
Following the introduction of Buddhism to China from India during
the 1st century A.D. and the consequent carving of grottoes and
building of temples, the art of painting religious murals gradually
gained in prominence.
The range of subject matters dealt with in figure painting was
extended far beyond religious themes during the Song dynasty(960-
1127),. Paintings of historical character and stories of everyday life
became extremely popular. Techniques were also further refined.
9. Landscape painting had already established itself as an independent
form of expression by the 4th century. Then gradually developed into
the two separate styles of “blue-and-green landscapes” and “ink-
and-wash landscape”. The blue-and-green landscape used bright
blue, green and red pigments derived from minerals to create a richly
decorative style. The ink-and wash landscape relied on vivid
brushwork and varying degrees of intensity of ink to express the artist's
conception of nature, and his own emotions and individuality.
Flower-and-bird painting was separated from decorative art to form
an independent genre around the 9th century. A great many artists
painted in this genre during the Song dynasty and their subject matter
included a rich variety of flowers, fruits, insects and fish. Many of the
scholar painters working with ink and brush used a great economy of
line. They produced paintings of such things as plum blossoms,
orchids, bamboo, chrysanthemums, pines and cypresses, using their
subject matter to reflect their own ideals and character.
10. Chinese Brush
Though it seems like watercolor painting in the West, it has a finer
tip suitable for dealing with a wide range of subjects and for
producing the variations in line required by different styles. Since
the materials used for calligraphy and painting are essentially the
same, developments in calligraphic styles and techniques can also
be used in painting.
Brush Techniques and Strokes
The ancients used the expression yu pi yu mo(to have brush, to
have ink). These show the significance of the meaning for the two
terms pi(brush) and mo(ink).The brush techniques so much
emphasized in Chinese painting include not only line drawing but
also the stylized expressions of shade and texture (cunfa) and the
dotting methods(dianfa) used mainly to differentiate trees and
plants and also for simple embellishment. The brush strokes give
the painting rhythm and beauty and depict the subject's outward and
inner qualities. At the same time, they reveal the individuality and
style of the painter himself.
11. Type of Painting Brushes:
Hsieh chao pi: Crab claw brush, large and small sizes
Hua jan pi: Brush for painting flowers
Lan yu chu pi: Brush for painting orchids and bamboo
Brushes used for writing:
T’u hao pi: Rabbit's hair brush
Hu ying pi: Hunan sheep's hair brush
12. Chinese Ink
Ink has been used in calligraphy and painting for over two
thousand years. When the ink cake is ground on the painter's
stone slab with fresh water, ink of various consistencies can be
prepared depending on the amount of water used. Thick ink is
very deep and glossy when applied to paper or silk. Thin ink
appears lively and translucent. As a result, in ink-and-wash
paintings it is possible to use ink alone to create a rhythmic
balance between brightness and darkness, and density and
lightness, and to create an impression of the subject's texture,
weight and coloring
Paper and Silk
Chinese painting may be done either on Chinese paper or silk.
13. Chinese Paper
The original paper(around 100 AD.)was made from many
different materials including pulp, old fishing nets and bark.
Modern paper is often machine made. It is classed in degrees of
weight and amount of size used. The paper is very absorbent
and the amount of size in it will dictate the quantity of ink used
for strokes on the paper. Different paper produce different
results; some are rough and absorb ink quickly like a sponge,
others have a smooth surface which resists ink. Chinese paper is
usually known as rice paper in English.
14. Chinese Silk
Before painting on silk, the silk should be treated with alum
and glue before use. This method makes silk less absorbent
than paper. Brushstroke is best shown on paper. Because of this
reason and the paper's variety of texture and finish, paper
quickly became favored by artists and calligraphers.
Fourth, there are the colors. There are differences in the use of
color between Chinese painting and modern western painting.
Chinese painting aim is not to express the various shades of
color of the subject in relation to a fixed source of light, but to
express the characteristics of the different subjects.
For example, the adding of traces of brown or green to rocks,
trees, leaves, grass and moss in a painting is used to reinforce
the feeling of a particular season or state of the weather.
“The most significant characteristic is the use of timber
framework. Paintings and carvings were added to the
architectural work to make it more beautiful and attractive”
26. Xia Dynasty
Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells
are thought to be ancestral to modern Chinese characters.
With few clear records matching the Shang oracle bones or
the Zhou bronze vessel writings, the Xia era remains poorly
understood and little is known about the architecture of Xia
According to mythology, the dynasty ended around 1600
BC as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao.
Zhou bronze vessel Shang oracle bones
27. Shang Dynasty
The first set comes from sources at Shangcheng. The
second set is at An-yang, in modern-day Henan. The
findings at An-yang include the earliest written record of
Chinese past so far discovered.
In the cities people lived in rectangular houses laid out in
rows, built of wood and rammed earth. In the center of the
city, there was a big palace or temple on a high earth
platform. One building at An-yang was a big hall with
pillars all the way around it.
28. There was a city wall of rammed earth around the Shang
capital at An-yang. These were built by piling up dirt and
pounding it until it was as hard as rock.
Other people at that time were building rammed earth altars,
in circular patterns like this one to worship Heaven, and
square ones to worship Earth.
In the summertime, people moved out of their dark sod
houses and lived instead in a tree-house built on a wooden
platform, with the roof made of poles and branches. Living
high up in the air kept them safe from animals and snakes.
Shang Dynasty city wall around
ZhengzhouShang Dynasty Altar
29. Zhou (Chou) Dynasty
There had been a lot of big palaces and shrines. These palaces
were built mainly of big wooden beams. They had rammed earth
walls, like the buildings of the Shang Dynasty. They had
courtyards. Archaeology tells us that some of these buildings had
clay roof tiles.
Rich people's houses already looked a lot the way rich people's
houses looked in later China, with walls around them and
courtyards and more private areas for the women in the back.
The Zhou emperors made laws about how fancy house could be.
Only the emperors were allowed to have artists carve their pillars
and paint them red. Only the very richest families could paint their
pillars black. People who were not so rich painted their pillars
30. TYPES OF ANCIENT CHINESE
Classification by structure
31. Chinese pavilions
Chinese Pavilions are covered structures without surrounding walls.
Types of Chinese Pavilion: Round, square, triangular
Used for military and governmental purposes
As a place for rest
As a roof to a stone tablet
Pavilions provided a place to sit and enjoy
the scenery, and they also became part of the
scenery itself, being attractive structures.
As an ancient architectural structure of Chinese,
the tai was a very much elevated terrace with a flat
top, generally built of earth and stone and surfaced
Functions of terraces :
As an observatory
As beacon towers along the Great Wall
In honor of the sincere friendship
33. Storeyed Pavilions
It is used in ancient times for the
storage of important articles and
A place where educated men used
to gather to write articles and
Used for enjoying the sights
Functions of storeyed pavilions :
Storeyed Pavilions were like simple
pavilions stacked on top of each
34. Imperial Palaces
Traditional Chinese Gardens
Altars and Temples
Tombs and Mausoleums
Classification by function
35. Imperial Palaces
Usually built on a grand scale, the
imperial palaces are closely related to
imperial sovereignty and were also
constructed for the entertainment of
Imperial palaces are where emperors
lived and administered their court
during their reign. They are the most
revered, luxurious and grandiose
architectural types from ancient
36. The ancient palaces were
strictly laid out on central
Yellow roof tiles were used.
The wooden columns of the
buildings, as well as the
surface of the walls, tend to
be red in color.
The Chinese dragon was
heavily used on Imperial
37. Traditional Chinese Gardens
The most distinguishing feature of traditional Chinese
gardens is their natural mountain-and-water style. Chinese
garden architecture includes both grand imperial gardens
and delicate private ones.
38. Altars and Temples
Altars and temples built in
ancient China were meant for
practice of rites.
Imperial temples and altar for
worshiping of Heaven, the
earth, the sun, the moon and
the imperial ancestors.
Commemorative temples for
dead people of great virtue.
39. A Chinese Taoist temple is
the holy hall where Taoists
perform their religious
Buddhist Temple Constructions
Constructions in China
include Buddhist temples,
Buddhist halls and grottoes.
40. Tombs and Mausoleums
People of all social classes had their tombs carefully built.
Over the centuries, the craft of tomb construction gradually
merged with arts like painting, calligraphy and sculpture. It
eventually became its own art form.
41. Great Wall of China Summer Palace
44. Chinese Literature is one of the most
major literacy with an interrupted
history and more that 30,000 years,
dating back at least to the 14th
There are four Classes of Literature
1. Classical Literature
2. Modern Literature
3. Contemporary Literature
4. Present Age Literature
45. 1.The Chinese Classical Literature (1644-1911)
It refers to the earliest period and covers works from 3,000 yeas
ago to the late Qing dynasty and is virtually unbroken strands
enduring dynastic changes. Written in ancient form of language
that is very different from present day Chinese, it needs to be
carefully studied to be understand
46. 2. Chinese Modern Literature
It refers to the period from the
Opium War in 1840 to the may fourth
movement in 1919.
*Opium War- this is the war
between two wars in the mid 19th century
involving Anglo Chinese dispute over the
- people observed the impact of
Western thought as foreigners poured
China and established their colonies,
novels, poetry and other works begun to
appear with the theme o patriotism and
revelation of social literature.
47. 3. Contemporary Literature (1919-1949)
It took on a new vigor despite the fact that
Chinese was in the checkered and complicated
4. Present Age Literature (1949-present)
It evolved since the establishments of the
People’s Republic in 1949 during this time.
There was a Logjam as a consequence of the
cultural resolution that lasted for near 10 years that era
is now long past and we now have a favorable turn
events and a great number of responsible written
52. Traditional Musical Instruments
It is of four categories namely:
General Traits of Traditional Music
55. Chinese opera music
China is known for their traditional theater art form, it
combines music, vocal performance, pantomime, dance, and
acrobatics. It is meant for entertainment. There are now several
major types of Chinese opera, but the favorites are
probably Beijing opera and Sichuan opera.
In general, a small ensemble of about seven musicians play at
one end of the stage. Experienced musicians know the score so
well that they can perform from memory.
The instruments include the erhu and other stringed
instruments, wood clappers, gongs, cymbals, and wind
instruments. The main function of the string instruments is to
accompany the singing, but they are used to make special
effects sounds such as animal sounds too.
“Chinese dance, with its vivid whirling ribbons, elaborate
stylized movements, ethnically diverse costumes, and stories
of China's past and its peoples, offers a tantalising glimpse
into a complex and ancient culture”
61. There are two types of dance:
Court Dance: The arts flowered in the Tang dynasty, 618 - 906
CE, interweaving poetry, painting, sculpture, music and dance
into sophisticated amusements and cultural expressions for the
upper classes. Dancers learned martial arts, gymnastics and
expressive sculptural forms that were codes for classic stories
and emotions. Court dances were reserved for the palace of the
emperor and for ceremonies in Confucian temples and
eventually migrated to the highly stylized Peking Opera
62. Prince Qin's Cavalry
It is a massive, spectacular dance with military
maneuvers, battle formations and audience participation. It
filled the stage with 100 singers, 100 musicians and more
than 100 dancers who moved in a dozen variations of
martial maneuvers. The entire synchronized exercise was
a military-readiness performance to remind the peaceful
Tang dynasty that the threat of war required constant
It is also known as The Feather Dress Dance or The
Song of Enduring Sorrow is a delicate lament about an
emperor and his concubine, performed in feathered
costumes. Tang dynasty emperor Xuan Zong wrote and
choreographed this dance, which is still a popular tourist
must-see in China due to its ethereal setting, costumes and
63. The dancers act out the emperor's dream that
includes a journey to the moon where he is
entertained by a host of graceful performers. In the
dance, the emperor awakens and tells the dream to
his favorite concubine, who then dances it for him,
fluttering around the stage in feathers and silk that
enhance her refined court dance movements.
Folk Dance: China has China has 56 distinct ethnic
minorities, and each has traditional dances that reflect and
express its culture. Miao, Dai, Mongolian and Tibetan
minorities perform some of the most well-known dances,
and each has traditional dances that reflect and express its
culture. Miao, Dai, Mongolian and Tibetan minorities
perform some of the most well-known dances
64. Fan Dance
Fans, used throughout Chinese history at every level of
society for thousands of years, are colorful and fluid stage
props, often stand-ins for blooming flowers, clouds, or lofty
sentiments. In the Fan Dance, the dancer's body follows the
lead of the fan, arcing and exploding into dynamic moves as
the fans float in the air or snap open and closed
It is emotive and expressive, with frequent leaps and
twirls aiding in the constant shapes and spirals formed by the
long silk ribbons. This dance emerged from ancient Han
dynasty heroic legends, but the "dancing" ribbons were so
mesmerizing that the choreography evolved to feature just
the breathtaking formations traced in the air.
65. The Lion Dance
It kicks off the Lunar New Year. It's a clownish,
exuberant romp down commercial streets lined with parade
goers and merchants.
The Dragon Dance
It is part of the Lantern Festival on the fifteenth night
of the two-week New Year's festivities. A brightly painted
tossing head and synchronized snaking line of dancers - the
dragon's body - chase away misfortune and evil spirits as
they bestow blessings on the crowd.
71. Regional Food Types
Northern China: Salty, simple,
less vegetables with wheat as the
staple food. Food using wheat as
its main ingredient, such as noodles
and dumplings is prevalent there.
Western China: Hearty halal
food with lamb the main meat
72. Eastern China: Sweet and light
Southern Minority: Sour and
many minorities eat chilies every
Central China: Spicy with a lot
75. Chinese New Year (1st - 15th of the first lunar month): Pasting
scrolls, the character 'Fu', and paper-cuts pictures, setting-off
firecrackers and fireworks, paying New Year visits, and eating
Lantern festival (15th day of the first lunar month): Watching
lanterns and fireworks, guessing lantern riddles, performing folk
dances, and eating yuanxiao.
Qingming Festival (Tomb Sweeping day) (April 4th or 5th of
the solar calendar): Tomb sweeping, spring outings, and flying
Dragon Boat Festival (5th day of the 5th lunar month): Dragon
boat racing, eating zongzi, wearing a perfume pouch and tying
five-colour silk thread, and hanging mugwort leaves and calamus.
76. Double Seventh Festival or Chinese Valentine’s day(7th
day of seventh lunar month): Praying for skillful hands,
appreciating the stars, and eating noodles, jiaozi, and wontons
Mid-autumn Festival (15th day of the 8th lunar month):
Appreciating and offering sacrifice to the moonlight and eating
Chongyang Festival (9th day of the 9th lunar month): Eating
Chongyang cake, drinking chrysanthemum wine, climbing
mountains and appreciating beautiful chrysanthemums.
Winter Solstice (Dec. 21st, 22nd or 23rd in solar calendar):
having dumplings in northern areas and having sticky puddings in
Laba Festival (8th day of the 12th lunar month): Eating laba rice
porridge and a variety of ingredients.
It is a form of
alternative medicine in which
thin needles are inserted into the
body. It is a key component of
traditional Chinese medicine
(TCM). TCM theory and practice
are not based upon scientific
knowledgeand acupuncture is a
pseudoscience.It is most often
used for pain relief and is
generally used only in
combination with other forms of
103. Kung fu
Chinese Kung Fu (Martial
Arts or as popularly
referred to as Gongfu or
Wushu) is a series of
fighting styles which has
developed over a long
historical period in China.
Styles including Shaolin,
Tai Chi and Qigong have
many followers worldwide.
Although being fighting
styles, Kung Fu advocates
virtue and peace, not
aggression or violence.