04. Project Management

Studying Computer Engineering
7 de Mar de 2018

Más contenido relacionado


04. Project Management

  1. 4. Project Management
  2. Project Life Cycles Man Hours Conceptualization Planning Execution Termination Fig: Project Life Cycle Stages
  3. Project Life Cycles • Conceptualization - the development of the initial goal and technical specifications • Planning – all detailed specifications, schedules, schematics, and plans are developed • Execution – the actual “work” of the project is performed • Termination – project is transferred to the customer, resources reassigned, project is closed out
  4. Project Life Cycle Fig: The project life cycle Fig: Time distribution of project effort Project life cycle provides the basic framework for managing the projects, regardless of the specific work involved
  5. Characteristics of Project Life Cycle • Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, peak as the work is carried out and drop rapidly as the project approaches closure • Stakeholders influences, risk and uncertainty are greatest at the start of the project and decreases gradually • Ability to influence the final characteristics of the project’s outcome, without significantly impacting cost, is highest at the start of the project and decreases as the project progresses towards completion
  6. Characteristics of Project Life Cycle Stakeholder influence, risk, and uncertainty Cost of changes High Low Project time Degree
  7. Characteristics of Project Life Cycle
  8. Product Vs Project Life Cycle • Product life cycle consists of generally sequential, non-overlapping product phases • Project life cycles occur in one or more phases of a product life cycle • Where the objective is service or result, there may be life cycle for service or result not product • Development of a new product could be a project on its own • An existing product might benefit from a project to add new functions or features, or a project might be created to develop a new model
  9. Product Vs Project Life Cycle • Many features of the product life cycle lend themselves to run as project, for example, – Performing a feasibility study – Conducting marketing research – Running an advertising campaign – Installing a product – Conducting a product trial in a test market etc Here, project life cycle would differ from the product life cycle
  10. Product Vs Project Life Cycle One product may have many projects associated with it A number of separate projects may be related to the development of new automobile. Each project may be distinct but still contributes to the key deliverable necessary to bring automobile to the market
  11. Project Phases • Project phases are divisions within a project where extra control is needed to effectively manage the completion of major deliverables • Project phases are used when the nature of the work to be performed is unique to a portion of the project, and are typically linked
  12. Project Phases • Project phases typically are completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. Different phases typically have a different duration or effort • The phase structure allows the project to be segmented into logical subsets for ease of management, planning, and control • The number of phases, the need for phases, and the degree of control applied depend on the size, complexity, and potential impact of the project
  13. Single Phased Project • One organization may treat a feasibility study as routine pre- project work, another may treat it as the first phase of a project, and a third may treat as a separate project • One project team may divide a project into two phases whereas another project team may choose to manage all the work as a single phase. Much depends on the nature of the specific project and the style of the project team or organization
  14. Phase to Phase Relationship • Sequential relationship: In a sequential relationship, a phase starts only when the previous phase is complete • Step by step nature of this approach reduces uncertainty
  15. Phase to Phase Relationship • Overlapping relationship: A phase starts prior to completion of the previous one • May require additional resources to allow work to be done in parallel, may increase risk, and can result in rework if a subsequent phase progresses before accurate information is available from the previous phase
  16. Project Life Cycles • Predictive life cycle: – Product and deliverables are defined at the beginning of the project – Changes to scope are carefully–and restrictively–managed • Iterative and incremental life cycle: – Project phases repeat one or more project activities, taking advantage of increased understanding of the product – Each phase (and each iteration within a phase) successively adds to the functionality of the product – Scope is usually well-defined early in the project life cycle, but can be changed with relatively low overhead • Adaptive life cycle [Agile]: – Product is developed over multiple phases, each with several iterations – Detailed scope is defined for each phase only as the phase begins
  17. IT Project Life Cycles • IT projects have two concurrent life cycles: – Project life cycle (PLC) includes all activities of project, including the System/Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) – PLC is directed toward achieving project requirements – SDLC is directed toward achieving product requirements • Both life cycle models are needed to manage an IT project – PLC alone will not adequately address system development concerns – SDLC alone will not adequately address business and product integration concerns – Effective integration of the two life cycle models is essential to improving the likelihood of project success • In effect, the PLC and the SDLC should be so closely blended that they need not be distinguished from each other
  18. Project & Product Life Cycles
  19. The Systems Development Lifecycle • The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the process of understanding how an information system (IS) can support business needs by designing a system, building it, and delivering it to users • A methodology is a formalized approach to implementing the SDLC • What differentiates one methodology from another: – The specific activities that must be performed – When, how, and how often the activities are performed – Who performs the activities – The amount of emphasis placed on an activity at a specific point in time
  20. Waterfall SDLC • Each phase is marked by completion of Deliverables • The primary software project phases: – Requirements – Analysis – Design – Construction – Quality Assurance (or Testing) – Operation ( Use)
  21. Waterfall SDLC
  22. Waterfall System Development Model • The waterfall life cycle model has well-defined, linear stages of systems analysis, design, construction, testing, and support. • This life cycle model assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined. • The waterfall life cycle model is used when risk must be tightly controlled and when changes must be restricted after the requirements are defined.
  23. Waterfall System Development Model • A sequential SDLC is suitable for projects with: – Clear, unmistakable, and stable user requirements – Familiar, proven technology – Low complexity – Sufficient time – Stable schedule • A project meeting most of these criteria can use conventional project management practices, such a sincere planning and conventional risk assessment
  24. Evolutionary Methodologies • An evolutionary methodology follows an iterative and incremental approach that allows the start of development with incomplete, imperfect knowledge • An iterative and incremental process offers these advantages: – Logical progress toward evolving a strong architecture – Effective management of changing requirements – Effective means to address changes in planning – Ability to perform continuous integration – Early understanding of the system – Ongoing risk assessment • Evolutionary methodologies are incremental at both the macro (project- scale) and micro (working team) process levels
  25. Iterative System Development Model • Non-linear approach to system development • Incorporates top five principles of modern development processes: – Architecture first: Provides the central design element – Iterative life-cycle process: Provides the essential risk management element – Component-based development: Provides the technology element – Change- management environment: Provides the control element – Round-trip engineering: Provides the automation element
  26. View of Iterative SDLC • Iterative SD model defines four life-cycle phases: – Inception – Elaboration – Construction – Transition
  27. Inception Phase • Essential activities – Formulate product scope. Capture requirements and operational concept – Perform feasibility analysis. Determine whether the organization has the resources and technical capabilities to meet customer’s needs – Synthesize the system architecture. Evaluate essential system design constraints and compromise, as well as available solutions – Plan and prepare business case. Address risk management, staffing, iteration plans, cost, and infrastructure
  28. Elaboration Phase • Most critical phase of the four • Essential activities – Elaborate the vision. Detail elements of the vision that drive architectural or planning decisions – Elaborate the process and infrastructure. The construction process and environment are established here – Elaborate the architecture and select reusable (internal) components. Baseline the architecture as quickly as possible and demonstrate that the architecture will support the vision at reasonable cost in reasonable time
  29. Construction Phase • Essential activities – Perform resource management, control, and process optimization – Complete component development and test – Review product releases against acceptance criteria
  30. Transition Phase • Essential activities – Perform deployment ( use)-specific engineering tasks. Commercial packaging and production, sales kit development, field personnel training – Assess deployment baselines against complete vision and acceptance criteria. Examine and compare what is being delivered to what was predicted and described by acceptance criteria – Plan for next iteration
  31. Comparative Expenditure Profiles Waterfall Iterative Activity Cost Cost Activity Management 5% 10% Management Requirements 5% 10% Requirements Design 10% 15% Design Code & Unit Testing 30% 25% Implementation Integration & Test 40% 25% Assessment Deployment 5% 5% Deployment Environment 5% 10% Environment Total 100% 100% Total
  32. Agile Project Management –Is related to the rolling wave planning and scheduling project methodology. • Uses iterations (“time boxes”) to develop a workable product that satisfies the customer and other key stakeholders. • Stakeholders and customers review progress and re-evaluate priorities to ensure alignment with customer needs and company goals. • Adjustments are made and a different iterative cycle begins that includes the work of the previous iterations and adds new capabilities to the evolving product.
  33. Iterative, Incremental Product Development
  34. Agile Project Management • Advantages of Agile PM: – Useful in developing critical breakthrough technology or defining essential features – Continuous integration, verification, and validation of the evolving product. – Frequent demonstration of progress to increase the likelihood that the end product will satisfy customer needs. – Early detection of defects and problems.
  35. Lean Project Management • Lean is a management system that focuses on improving the overall quality of how an organization works. It takes into consideration every process in the organization and helps improve efficiency and effectiveness of each employee and each process. It helps reduce wastage of time and resources, while improving the quality of the product or service and giving better value for money to the end customer.