Essay On Construction

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Essay on Construction
| CPCCBC4020A – Assessment – LA014506 | Build thermally efficient & sustainable structures| |
CONTENTS Page
Question 1 3–5
Question 2 5–7
Question 3 7
QUESTION 1
In Australia, research for the Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council
(ASBEC) suggests that the building sector is directly responsible for around 24% of the total energy use. At present this is split fairly evenly between
the residential and commercial building sectors. Reducing energy use...show more content...
This BASIX rating element is on a Pass/Fail basis and there are three methods currently applicable to get a pass result from thermal comfort section of
the tool. * Rapid method which only applies for single storey detached simple dwellings with typical construction elements. * DIY Method which is for
a single dwelling with little flexibility and introduces minimum insulation and window performance requirements to the BASIX certificate. *
Simulation Method which is a detailed and flexible thermal simulation applicable to single and multi unit developments and must be performed by an
ABSA Accredited Assessor.
BASIX energy
Like water score, BASIX energy score is also dependent on the location of the development as well as the building type. While every new dwelling
needs to meet the minimum energy efficiency requirements, more than 80% of all new developments must meet maximum energy targets specified in
the BASIX online tool in order to get a certificate.
Household use of solar photovoltaic (PV) panel systems has grown significantly in Australia this decade behind increased awareness of the risk of
dangerous climate change, the reduced cost of systems and a range of government incentives to encourage use of the technology. * Solar power
systems are now an affordable option for Australian households looking to reduce their power bills and generate their own clean
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Construction Project : A Complex Process Essay
Construction project is a complex process in majority of cases involving more than one party. Over the years it brought about the necessity to create a
contractual framework which would adequately meet all the requirements of the process itself and the parties in it in particular. After all, the concept
of a contract is a mutual agreement between the parties to fulfil certain promises. Therefore it is essential that all the privies to it should have equal
opportunities to perform their works as well as ensure that their interests are protected. Despite the fact that contract itself can be daunting, one of its
main purposes is to organise and simplify the whole process, so that all the parties can be co–ordinated in order to achieve the desirable result within
the shortest possible time with the minimised loses. The complexity of construction projects varies – so do the contracts. These differences triggered
into existence various types of contracts that would address the needs of this or that particular project. Some companies use standard industry accepted
forms of contract, others would modify them or even create their own bespoke contract form. The following are some of the common types of
construction project contracts used in the UK: JCT (The Joint Contracts Tribunal) NEC (The New Engineering Contract) ACA (The Association of
Consultant Architects) FIDIC (the International Federation of Consulting Engineers) All these types of contracts were developed by
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General Contractor Essay
In the Southwest Florida area, there is always a demand for new homes and structures. A General Contractor hires and organizes all necessary
workers for a construction job, they also provide the materials, permits, and inspection schedules for employees. To become a general contractor
you need at least a high school diploma and obtain your contractor's license from the county or state. There are registered or certified licenses,
registered meaning they can work at a local level and certified is able to work in state level (home advisor 1). Having the ability and assets to build
homes and smaller projects helps out the economy and opens a vast amount of jobs. General Contractors have a main office, but they work out in the
field at a...show more content...
Typically the materials that are unloaded are: Wood, Steel, and larger tools that cannot be brought from regular trucks. When building a home
General Contractors hires subcontractors to do specific tasks. One of the task would be to create a blueprint or form an estimate on the money and
materials needed to start a project. Building plans to meet the needs of clients, install structures and fixtures are done by carpenters.they also
measure, cut, and shape wood. Masonry takes thousands of concrete blocks, stacked for each home. Masons also use stone and bricks, repair
structures and walkways. Homeowners describe the way they want their home to be designed and it gets printed, usually those designs get altered
during the building process to correct flaws or requested changed from the owner. Construction sites also hire plumbers and electricians after the first
initially build stages are completed. They are licensed by the state and hired by companies. Plumbers create map layouts and blueprints for pipes,
drainage systems and fixtures (hiring monster 4). "Electrical technicians help create maintain and repair the electronic components and equipment used
in any device that uses electricity they sometimes with electrical engineers and work to keep job site machinery and specialty equipment running
correctly" (snagjob 5). General Contractors need all of these assets to perform tasks at a set pace. Contractors have a wide variety of
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Construction Of Construction And Construction
1. Finances:
Construction costs a huge amount of money that can integrate with the new facilities of a certain society. It costs millions when constructing a certain
facility because there is need for materials to generate or purchase raw items that are essential to promote construction activities. Thus, it will seek for
the promotion of services that can enhance the structural growth of a community. Construction is important because it can help to engage in the
activities that can be learned from the mechanics of building a certain community. One example is creating pavements that will allow vehicles to pass
through, from one place to another. It is a criterion that will allow operators to impressively apply their knowledge and expertise in order to build
certain construction issues, which could improve the health as well as the lifestyle of individuals, as well as businesses in the long run.
2. Materials:
In order to build a certain structure, construction materials will be needed to create a beautiful structure that will improve the nature and references of
a certain structure. In this position, the construction of a facility enables individuals to improve their welfare, as well as their position to promote the
advantage of accomplished structural developments that will ensure the structure becomes reliable. This includes cement, metal frames, glass, glass
fibers, metal sheets, sand, gravel, rocks, paint, nails, hammer, excavator, wood, plastic, metal tubes, wires,
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Building Construction Essay
In building construction and in fire prevention there are organizations that have created a useful system on how to determine what type of building falls
under which category. The ICC (International Code Council) and the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) create these building codes for the
safety of firefighters. The two most commonly known standards for building classifications are the NFPA 5000 and also the InternationalBuilding Code
(IBC). The two are very similar, however, they different on sub–categorizing. The International Building Code uses Roman numerals behind the type of
construction. In addition to subcategories with letters for each five classes and the amount of fire resistance provided for each building. NFPA...show
more content...
The interior walls are usually wooden boards with a lacquer finish or a gypsum board finish. Due the types of interior finishing, it can help a going or
started fire indoors spread within seconds. The lacquer finishing proposes an extreme fire hazard for both firefighters and the occupants.
Post and Frame construction types of structures came to America from Europe. This type of construction was fitted together using a wooden frame
and timber. They connected at joints called mortise and tenon. To ensure that load transfer was properly distributed they used wooden pins to hold
the connected piece together called trunnels. Like log cabins, the interior wall finishing's we often made of wood. This poses a danger to firefighters
as well because it just adds more fuel to a structure fire. Balloon Frame construction derived from Post and Frame types of construction. The two types
of construction are very similar in many ways. The differences between the two are that Balloon Frames didn't require a skilled laborer to cut the
notches in the timber and studs. Instead, by using nails it would hold the frame together. The studs would be nailed on to horizontal board
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Construction Economics
1|P ag e
Introduction World Construction Industry is one of the biggest industries in the whole world. The contribution of this industry towards the global GDP
revolves around one–tenth of the total amount. World Construction Industry is also a potential employment generator and provides work to almost
seven percent of the total employed person in the whole world. The extent of this industry has become so vast that the energy, in the form of electricity
or fuel, consumed by it hovers around two–fifth of the total energy consumed all over the globe. The resources that are utilized in World Construction
Industry is also staggeringly high and itself consumes fifty percent of the total world resources. Macroeconomics Literature review...show more
content...
He finds that residential investment shocks are more important in the determination of GDP than non–residential investment shocks. These are the
summery of previous analyses of the relationship between the construction business and macroeconomic variables. Most of these studies have analyzed
the manner in which macroeconomic variables influence comprehensive indexes of the construction business, such as residential investment,
non–residential investment, and construction investment.
3|P ag e
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY Various writers and international bodies (Turin, 1973; World
Bank; 1984, Wells, 1986; Bon, 1992) have addressed the role of construction in economic growth and development. One of the main features drawn
from these works is the common assumption that directly relates the measures of the construction output with a country 's stage of economic
development. Furthermore, in this view, construction as a major component of a country 's capital formation plays a determinant role in the process of
economic growth Wibowo, Agung (2009) figured that the Output from the construction industry is a major and integral part of the national output,
accounting for a sizeable proportion in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of both developed and underdeveloped countries. He further stated that for
highly developed economies the value added of construction is in the range of 7% to 10%
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Essay On Construction Management
To incoming students in the construction management discipline., the three types of research that will be described in this paper are scholarly
journals, trade journals and popular magazines, these will also be accompanied with examples of a research topics. Students can use these researching
strategies for the following: essays, lab reports, reviews, and annotations. Knowledge of these resources will ensure success in the program.
Sustainability is becoming an ongoing trend in construction. This word in reference to construction means to be built sturdy while not depleting the
environment around it. According to Lafargeholcum Foundations [1], "Sustainability is one of the worlds most talked about but least understood
words, its meaning...show more content...
Managing and implementing sustainability requires the commitment of all stakeholders and new ways of working, thinking and learning. [4]" The
paper highlights the importance of a coordinated supply chain action in the construction sector and emphasizes the need for construction companies to
train and invest in resource– efficient building methods and practices. This will manage the balance between stability and change [4].
The second journal I selected is Open House International, this journal writes of subjects of architecture and housing and urban planning. The article
chosen from this journal is titled, Indicators of Sustainable Construction in Eco–Urban. Its main focus is introducing sustainable construction and
identifies important indictors of sustainability. This article Goes into detail about eco–cities, which are ones that utilize all the critical elements of the
environment and focuses on the efficient use of raw materials and power consumption during the life of a building [5]. Also goes into details how the
exploitation of resources is a big factor in sustainability. The second journal is similar to the first journal in the fact that they are both pro–sustainable
construction. Both papers go into detail about how implementing sustainable building would effect economic and environmental aspects of the process.
They both go into detail about how import it is to move towards sustainable construction.
Popular magazines
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Research Paper On Modern Construction Techniques
Abstract– We all know that there is drastic growth of modern trends, materials and technologies in the global Construction Industry market. Hence, it is
apprehended have a major effect on the path construction is executed in the future. Modern Techniques for building construction are around for greater
output and operation. The main aim of modern construction technique is boost construction productivity, efficiency, user satisfaction, environmental
performance, better quality, sustainable development and the predictability of delivery time of project. In this paper, research proposal that has arrived
from literature review on application of modern construction techniques for improvement of the productivity is, Conventional practices used for
construction is not sufficient and adequate or traditional techniques of construction need to upgrade according to global world trend.
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Construction Of The Construction Industry Essay
incorporated into the questionnaire. According to Gould and Joyce (2002) there are a number of risks which can be identified within the
construction industry itself and those risks are evident in every construction project regardless of the project size or its scope. Tummala et al.
(1999) has argued that oftentimes changes in design and scope in addition to time frames or schedules are considered the most common risks for
the construction sector based on the study conducted. As the construction project progresses there 's bound to be changes in scope or design which
are implemented causing the need for more resources, time and cost. Baker, et al. (1999) notes that if a project is completed ahead of its scheduled
time, it may be as troublesome as one scheduled late. Karim et al. (2015) has argued that extremely quick completion maybe a resultant of planning
which is insufficient or problems within the construction design which caused shortening of completion time. This may also lead to overall low
quality of the final construction product and there may be an increase in the overall cost of the project (Karim et al. 2015). Gould and Joyce (2002)
argues that setting a delay in a schedule garners a great cost that becomes the burden of both the contractors and the investors in differing ways. Zhang
and Xing (2010) urges that there is great importance in keeping balance between the concepts of time–cost–quality trade–off which manifested over the
past decade. This concept of
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Construction Project Management and Business Management
Over the past few years, the construction industry has been changing dramatically. One of the most important stages in the construction management
and business management is the planning phase. They share similar two main levels of planning which are the strategic and operational planning.
However, business management planning to decide in advance what should be done, and how to do it, when you do and you are done. On the other
hand, Construction management strategic planning is to deal with selection on a high level of overall objective of the project, including the scope,
procurement methods, schedules and financing options but the planning of operations, including the...show more content...
In addition, management according to Cole (2008) is achievement of the objectives through to the five basic administrative functions (planning,
organizing, staffing, directing and controlling).
Construction management and business management share similarity elements of planning such as, goals, policies, rules and procedures. Nevertheless,
they differ in the chart when the standard is the time. Planning for the construction management regard only to the period required to complete a
construction project. However, business management planning can be divided into long–term planning and short–term which aims to give a clear
picture of business for the future.
The stages of the construction project management differ from the stage of business management, in several respects. For example, construction
management first stage is the resolution; it is necessary to identify requirements relating to the project by the owner and choose a consult to help in
completing a preliminary assessment for the project and the feasibility, also the impact of its presence in the economic and social development areas.
However, planning is the first stage on
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Construction Industry Literature Review
LITERATURE REVIEW: Labours are the essential key factor in construction industries and numerous of construction projects have been failed
and unsuccessful due to shortage of skilled labours. Nowadays Australia's construction industries facing a serious threat that is shortage of skilled
workers which potentially have a very negative effect on construction industries plus can have long lasting bad effects on the country's
development in future. Based on reported studies, this literature review clearly states the overview of current state of knowledge about shortage of
skilled workers. Objective 1: Training of the workers of construction industry Training of the workers is mandatory either they are currently
working in the construction industry or they are new in this field because the construction industry is a dangerous field and the workers must do
work under mines or on the top of the buildings etc. in extreme conditions so not only the health and safety of the workers is important but the
other people safety is important too because they can injure due to the unawareness of the workers. and the training is a cause of shortage of skilled
workers. In 1983, Business Round Table produce a report on shortage of skilled workers and said that it is due to lack of contractor's interest in
training and the company owner's ignorance (Srour et al.2006). (Salleh et al. 2014) also said that training is one of other factors that became the cause
of shortage of skilled workers. (While
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Essay On Construction Industry
Now days the main building material used in the construction industry are concrete, steel and timber. From the point of view of ecological
sustainability, there are four important differences between these three materials: first, timber is the only material of the three that is renewable;
second, timber needs only a small amount of energy to be extracted and recycled compared to steel and concrete (but the implementation of its
potential is not as developed yet); third, timber does not produce waste by the end of its life since it can be reused many times in several products
before decomposing or being used as fuel and; and fourth, timber traps huge amounts of carbon from the atmosphere – a tree can contain a ton of CO2–
and the carbon...show more content...
But a dense city necessarily requires the construction of high–rise buildings, posing challenges to wood construction technologies, since wood has
traditionally been used in small buildings where the structural demands are lower. Also, the durability of wood due to moisture decay and fire has been
a problem for timber structures. Fortunately, new timber–based products are being developed which are structurally stronger and last for longer periods
of time without any moisture and fire complications. These new products allow us to build high–rise buildings, turning timber into a feasible and
convenient alternative to traditional high–rise building materials such as concrete and steel. Wood technology will undoubtedly keep developing along
this path, making it possible to build skyscrapers in the future. Even though material innovation and modern technologies have increased the durability
of timber significantly, there are still people who argue that steel and concrete are much more durable and, therefore more sustainable. However, the
difficulty of reusing these materials is an issue. Nowadays, cities are very dynamic and are constantly changing, and thus the average life span of a
building is not as long as it used to be in the past; today buildings die young. A study of residential buildings in the United Kingdom claims
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The Impact of Construction on the Environment
Introduction
The construction industry impacts on the environment in a number of ways, both directly and indirectly. The assignment will cover a number of issues
that are associated with the construction projects and will identify a number of environmental components that require protection. We will look at
problems on a national and international scale. Identifying the need for global co–operation in the protection of our planet. This is of utmost
importance to our survival and can only be achieved unilaterally.
1
Criticism aimed towards the construction industry.
The building industry was described by the Environmental Agency as the worst and most frequent source...show more content...
Oil Storage : Many companies are reluctant to spend money on bunded tankers.
But constant pressure from the environment Agency has made the construction companies think again about investing in pollution prevention
equipment, since the cost of spillage will far out way the cost of the equipment. The construction companies can now find themselves picking up the
tab for the Environmental Agency's investigation and also the clean up, this is even if no prosecution has been brought. In 1997 3,750 charges were
made across the board ranging from £9,000–00 to £24,951–00 . The total recovered from polluters was £1.14 million. (WWF–UK
research centre ).
For the coming year the Environmental Agency will target the construction industry because there has been a 15 percent increase in incidents. The idea
is to stop the pollution rather than clean it up afterwards. Prevention is better than the cure.
2
Environmental Effects of Construction
The construction industry has a considerable effect upon the environment, directly through deforestation, pollution and noise and indirectly through the
use of natural resources, many of these resources are non renewable. A building also has a lasting effect on the built environment.
Effects may include:
Emissions to the atmosphere
Discharge to water
Discharge of solid, liquid and other wastes
Use of land
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Construction Project Essay
Following on from the first point, construction projects can benefit greatly from new technology, which can be used to improve the efficiency of
almost every area of a project, from planning through to build and completion.
For example, emerging 3D BIM modelling can enhance project planning and materials acquisition. Building information modelling is a process for
'creating and managing project information' and allows those planning and running projects to see a 'digital description' of each aspect of the build
which can then be linked to key information such as specifications, site photos and scheduling times. This technology can benefit construction
professionals by helping...show more content...
Achieving greater efficiency in construction projects can provide the following benefits: Projects cost less to carry out
Projects are completed quicker
Projects will generate more profit
Projects will produce less waste
Contractors can afford to submit a more competitive bid
Company image and reputation is sustained Here are 4 initiatives companies can put in place in order to improve construction efficiency: Improve
planning and material management
Use new technologies to reduce inefficient construction practices
Listen to your experienced staff
Adjust client expectations Planning is everything – one of the biggest causes of delays in construction projects is a delay in material supply, or a lack
of staffing. It was important for our project to liaise and discuss with the project team and client, Material supply, staffing and sub–contractors. There
were elements of the project where we used our own direct employees and where specialized work was undertaken sub–contractors were used and
issued orders.
To state the obvious, a vital part of any construction project planning process is being able to successfully orchestrate the interfacing of people,
processes, information, materials, and equipment.
Planning is a crucial part of any construction project – in fact, most issues that arise, come as a direct result of poor or insufficient planning and project
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The Complexity in Construction Projects
Construction Projects are intrinsically complex in nature. It varies in different aspects such as size, nature, Contract Value etc. It involves different
parties including the Client, Designer, Engineer, and the Contractor, whose interests vary from each other. Under these complex circumstances, the
success of any project is dependent on the type of contract opted for the contract, along with several other factors such as the most appropriate design,
askillful execution team, a good working relationship and mutual trust between the stake holders of the project.
The PMBOK guide has classified Contracts into three broad types namely Fixed Price or Lump Sum Contracts, Unit Price or Time and Material
Contracts and Cost Reimbursable Contracts. The selection of the Contract type is largely dependent on the client's adaptability to risks.
Among the three types of contracts, Lump Sum Contracts carry the least amount of Risks for the Client. In this type of Contract, the contract value as
well as the start and completion dates is fixed before the contract is signed. The builder (Contractor) owns majority of the risks, and will be
responsible for completing the works and handing over the project to the owner, on time, fulfilling all stated requirements of the project. In most of the
Design–Bid–Build Projects, where the design is fully completed and the scope is clearly defined, Clients most commonly prefer Lump Sum Contracts.
Medium sized or Large Lump sum contracts will
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Construction Essay
When thinking about the big picture of a construction project and what all goes into the development of a construction project, the environment is a
big factor. There are many different regulating associations such as the USGB (United States Green Building Council), BMRA (Building Material
Reuse Association), AEES (The American Ecological Engineering Society), and many more that give and set good examples. Hong Kong has found a
way to measure construction waste and develop a way to reuse a prominent part of typical construction waste. The effects of the environment from
construction projects and the ways to reduce these effects.
In America, one of the most well–known green building or sustainable building is LEED (Leadership in Energy and...show more content...
Waste management and reduction is another suggested way, reducing the waste that is taken off the site that ends up in landfills. This includes
everything from start to finish, how much waste is leaving the site and where it is safely going to be disposed of. (Green)
An article out of the Journal of Construction Engineering says, "...estimated that around 33% of on–site waste is related to project design. Therefore,
reduction of waste should not be the sole responsibility of the construction company, as the client and designer can make environment friendly choices
in the program of demands and designs. Studies indicate that waste of materials is usually higher than normal figures assumed by construction
companies in their estimates" (Chinyio). The sustainability of materials used should be calculated in the design and not necessarily put on the general
contractors to figure out the most environmentally friendly construction materials. The same article conducted a study with construction waste and the
total construction material costs and "... the findings of this study show that waste is a major contributor to the cost of construction. The total cost of
waste is expected to be 30% of the cost of materials" (Chinyio). The design should take into consideration the amount of waste and try to reuse, reduce,
and recycle some of the material into the design. Life–cycle assessment is very important because in the construction industry the life expectancy and
maintenance play
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A Career in the Construction Industry
Today is the day you'll find out that I would want to pursue a career in construction in the soon to come future. After researching, I came to realize that
construction working could suit me job–wise in the future. No matter how risky being a construction worker may be, I know I could find closure
doing the job, just knowing the things I will break down will soon be built back up in a better condition for whoever may reside there.
To become a construction worker in the future, this website I found informed that I'd have to work full time and execute a lot of physically demanding
work, meaning I'll be working all from the morning to the whole entire day into the night and most likely be very physically tired.
It's not like you'll be stuck in a cubicle in the same office every day, because you won't. There is always a new work site to go to. The same website
also states the majority of construction workers learn their trade through short–term on–the–job training, and no specific education requirements for the
job are needed. The website also spared some things about license, and certifications stating that laborers who remove hazardous materials like
hazardous material, must have a federal hazardous material license required for all hazardous materials removal workers, depending on the work,
laborers might need to have specific certifications, and certifications can really help workers prove that they have knowledge to perform the more
complex tasks.
The website talked about
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Since ancient times all the way to the present day there have been monumental advances in construction technology and safety, from the techniques and
methods of construction to the equipment used in construction which wasn't revolutionized during the industrial revolution. The only constant
throughout all the aforementioned advancements is the use of scaffolding, from ancient times where sockets in the walls around the Paleolithic cave
paintings at Lascaux, the Berlin Foundry Cup depicts scaffolding in ancient Greece (early 5th century BC), the ancient Egyptians, Nubians and Chinese
are also recorded as having used scaffolding–like structures to build tall buildings. Early scaffolding was made of wood and secured with rope knots.
All the way to the present day where scaffolding has enclosed and has been used to repair the dome of the Capital of the United States of America or
even The Statue of Libetry, construction workers around the world are using temporary work platforms (scaffolds) to reach areas where work must be
done which by any other means would be otherwise unfeasible. Along with the advancements in construction technology and safety so has scaffolding
changed with the times, form the make–up of the materials used, to the requirements demanded of the builders in order for the scaffold to be deemed
safe for use. This paper will discuss: Different types of scaffolds that can be built and utilized for different tasks and the material they are made up of,
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Essay About Construction
One cold Saturday morning, I was waiting to get picked up by one of my bosses' employee's. As I waited in the grey fog, a white Ford pick–up truck
pulls up slowly beside me and a man named James greets me, then tells me to hop in the truck. We head over to the construction site and the drive was
about thirty–minutes long, we drove across the Inland Empire until we arrived at the site of Moreno Valley. There awaited a man named Salvador,
who surprisingly shared the same name as me! He is a licensed contractor, who's in charge of running his company called Chava's Plastering INC. as
well as supervising his construction team. In the yard, there were large metal strips laid on the dirty ground and I met the crew, such as the mixers and
...show more content...
I was curious and wanted to know more his occupation. He explained to me the pay for contractors are between ninety thousand and one hundred
and fifty thousand dollars depending on work experience and education. He also told me that many construction companies are hiring for young
workers to train for specific positions, but they must be at least eight or older. Furthermore, Salvador took me over to see the workers in action.
We walked outside into the heat and I saw men applying black paper with wiring all along the walls. Tim had to bring a massive mixer by us by
getting in his truck, driving down the dirt road to load the mixer. He then drove back to us, unloading the mixer getting and it in position so the
workers can do their job effectively. The workers grabbed bags of concrete and poured it in a mixer with water. He told me that many of the men
working here first started off with an internship to gain work experience. I was thinking of applying for a position for an internship so I can have a
career like Salvador. I then saw that there were two men on top of this platform wearing work boots, white long sleeve clothes and protective gear.
He explained to me that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration requires all works to follow their safety polices, for example, to always
wear glasses and a helmet on site. The reason for that is to keep the workers safe, that's his
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Essay On Construction

  • 1. Essay on Construction | CPCCBC4020A – Assessment – LA014506 | Build thermally efficient & sustainable structures| | CONTENTS Page Question 1 3–5 Question 2 5–7 Question 3 7 QUESTION 1 In Australia, research for the Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council (ASBEC) suggests that the building sector is directly responsible for around 24% of the total energy use. At present this is split fairly evenly between the residential and commercial building sectors. Reducing energy use...show more content... This BASIX rating element is on a Pass/Fail basis and there are three methods currently applicable to get a pass result from thermal comfort section of the tool. * Rapid method which only applies for single storey detached simple dwellings with typical construction elements. * DIY Method which is for a single dwelling with little flexibility and introduces minimum insulation and window performance requirements to the BASIX certificate. * Simulation Method which is a detailed and flexible thermal simulation applicable to single and multi unit developments and must be performed by an ABSA Accredited Assessor. BASIX energy Like water score, BASIX energy score is also dependent on the location of the development as well as the building type. While every new dwelling needs to meet the minimum energy efficiency requirements, more than 80% of all new developments must meet maximum energy targets specified in the BASIX online tool in order to get a certificate. Household use of solar photovoltaic (PV) panel systems has grown significantly in Australia this decade behind increased awareness of the risk of
  • 2. dangerous climate change, the reduced cost of systems and a range of government incentives to encourage use of the technology. * Solar power systems are now an affordable option for Australian households looking to reduce their power bills and generate their own clean Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Construction Project : A Complex Process Essay Construction project is a complex process in majority of cases involving more than one party. Over the years it brought about the necessity to create a contractual framework which would adequately meet all the requirements of the process itself and the parties in it in particular. After all, the concept of a contract is a mutual agreement between the parties to fulfil certain promises. Therefore it is essential that all the privies to it should have equal opportunities to perform their works as well as ensure that their interests are protected. Despite the fact that contract itself can be daunting, one of its main purposes is to organise and simplify the whole process, so that all the parties can be co–ordinated in order to achieve the desirable result within the shortest possible time with the minimised loses. The complexity of construction projects varies – so do the contracts. These differences triggered into existence various types of contracts that would address the needs of this or that particular project. Some companies use standard industry accepted forms of contract, others would modify them or even create their own bespoke contract form. The following are some of the common types of construction project contracts used in the UK: JCT (The Joint Contracts Tribunal) NEC (The New Engineering Contract) ACA (The Association of Consultant Architects) FIDIC (the International Federation of Consulting Engineers) All these types of contracts were developed by Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. General Contractor Essay In the Southwest Florida area, there is always a demand for new homes and structures. A General Contractor hires and organizes all necessary workers for a construction job, they also provide the materials, permits, and inspection schedules for employees. To become a general contractor you need at least a high school diploma and obtain your contractor's license from the county or state. There are registered or certified licenses, registered meaning they can work at a local level and certified is able to work in state level (home advisor 1). Having the ability and assets to build homes and smaller projects helps out the economy and opens a vast amount of jobs. General Contractors have a main office, but they work out in the field at a...show more content... Typically the materials that are unloaded are: Wood, Steel, and larger tools that cannot be brought from regular trucks. When building a home General Contractors hires subcontractors to do specific tasks. One of the task would be to create a blueprint or form an estimate on the money and materials needed to start a project. Building plans to meet the needs of clients, install structures and fixtures are done by carpenters.they also measure, cut, and shape wood. Masonry takes thousands of concrete blocks, stacked for each home. Masons also use stone and bricks, repair structures and walkways. Homeowners describe the way they want their home to be designed and it gets printed, usually those designs get altered during the building process to correct flaws or requested changed from the owner. Construction sites also hire plumbers and electricians after the first initially build stages are completed. They are licensed by the state and hired by companies. Plumbers create map layouts and blueprints for pipes, drainage systems and fixtures (hiring monster 4). "Electrical technicians help create maintain and repair the electronic components and equipment used in any device that uses electricity they sometimes with electrical engineers and work to keep job site machinery and specialty equipment running correctly" (snagjob 5). General Contractors need all of these assets to perform tasks at a set pace. Contractors have a wide variety of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Construction Of Construction And Construction 1. Finances: Construction costs a huge amount of money that can integrate with the new facilities of a certain society. It costs millions when constructing a certain facility because there is need for materials to generate or purchase raw items that are essential to promote construction activities. Thus, it will seek for the promotion of services that can enhance the structural growth of a community. Construction is important because it can help to engage in the activities that can be learned from the mechanics of building a certain community. One example is creating pavements that will allow vehicles to pass through, from one place to another. It is a criterion that will allow operators to impressively apply their knowledge and expertise in order to build certain construction issues, which could improve the health as well as the lifestyle of individuals, as well as businesses in the long run. 2. Materials: In order to build a certain structure, construction materials will be needed to create a beautiful structure that will improve the nature and references of a certain structure. In this position, the construction of a facility enables individuals to improve their welfare, as well as their position to promote the advantage of accomplished structural developments that will ensure the structure becomes reliable. This includes cement, metal frames, glass, glass fibers, metal sheets, sand, gravel, rocks, paint, nails, hammer, excavator, wood, plastic, metal tubes, wires, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Building Construction Essay In building construction and in fire prevention there are organizations that have created a useful system on how to determine what type of building falls under which category. The ICC (International Code Council) and the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) create these building codes for the safety of firefighters. The two most commonly known standards for building classifications are the NFPA 5000 and also the InternationalBuilding Code (IBC). The two are very similar, however, they different on sub–categorizing. The International Building Code uses Roman numerals behind the type of construction. In addition to subcategories with letters for each five classes and the amount of fire resistance provided for each building. NFPA...show more content... The interior walls are usually wooden boards with a lacquer finish or a gypsum board finish. Due the types of interior finishing, it can help a going or started fire indoors spread within seconds. The lacquer finishing proposes an extreme fire hazard for both firefighters and the occupants. Post and Frame construction types of structures came to America from Europe. This type of construction was fitted together using a wooden frame and timber. They connected at joints called mortise and tenon. To ensure that load transfer was properly distributed they used wooden pins to hold the connected piece together called trunnels. Like log cabins, the interior wall finishing's we often made of wood. This poses a danger to firefighters as well because it just adds more fuel to a structure fire. Balloon Frame construction derived from Post and Frame types of construction. The two types of construction are very similar in many ways. The differences between the two are that Balloon Frames didn't require a skilled laborer to cut the notches in the timber and studs. Instead, by using nails it would hold the frame together. The studs would be nailed on to horizontal board Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Construction Economics 1|P ag e Introduction World Construction Industry is one of the biggest industries in the whole world. The contribution of this industry towards the global GDP revolves around one–tenth of the total amount. World Construction Industry is also a potential employment generator and provides work to almost seven percent of the total employed person in the whole world. The extent of this industry has become so vast that the energy, in the form of electricity or fuel, consumed by it hovers around two–fifth of the total energy consumed all over the globe. The resources that are utilized in World Construction Industry is also staggeringly high and itself consumes fifty percent of the total world resources. Macroeconomics Literature review...show more content... He finds that residential investment shocks are more important in the determination of GDP than non–residential investment shocks. These are the summery of previous analyses of the relationship between the construction business and macroeconomic variables. Most of these studies have analyzed the manner in which macroeconomic variables influence comprehensive indexes of the construction business, such as residential investment, non–residential investment, and construction investment. 3|P ag e THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY Various writers and international bodies (Turin, 1973; World Bank; 1984, Wells, 1986; Bon, 1992) have addressed the role of construction in economic growth and development. One of the main features drawn from these works is the common assumption that directly relates the measures of the construction output with a country 's stage of economic development. Furthermore, in this view, construction as a major component of a country 's capital formation plays a determinant role in the process of economic growth Wibowo, Agung (2009) figured that the Output from the construction industry is a major and integral part of the national output, accounting for a sizeable proportion in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of both developed and underdeveloped countries. He further stated that for highly developed economies the value added of construction is in the range of 7% to 10% Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Essay On Construction Management To incoming students in the construction management discipline., the three types of research that will be described in this paper are scholarly journals, trade journals and popular magazines, these will also be accompanied with examples of a research topics. Students can use these researching strategies for the following: essays, lab reports, reviews, and annotations. Knowledge of these resources will ensure success in the program. Sustainability is becoming an ongoing trend in construction. This word in reference to construction means to be built sturdy while not depleting the environment around it. According to Lafargeholcum Foundations [1], "Sustainability is one of the worlds most talked about but least understood words, its meaning...show more content... Managing and implementing sustainability requires the commitment of all stakeholders and new ways of working, thinking and learning. [4]" The paper highlights the importance of a coordinated supply chain action in the construction sector and emphasizes the need for construction companies to train and invest in resource– efficient building methods and practices. This will manage the balance between stability and change [4]. The second journal I selected is Open House International, this journal writes of subjects of architecture and housing and urban planning. The article chosen from this journal is titled, Indicators of Sustainable Construction in Eco–Urban. Its main focus is introducing sustainable construction and identifies important indictors of sustainability. This article Goes into detail about eco–cities, which are ones that utilize all the critical elements of the environment and focuses on the efficient use of raw materials and power consumption during the life of a building [5]. Also goes into details how the exploitation of resources is a big factor in sustainability. The second journal is similar to the first journal in the fact that they are both pro–sustainable construction. Both papers go into detail about how implementing sustainable building would effect economic and environmental aspects of the process. They both go into detail about how import it is to move towards sustainable construction. Popular magazines Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. Research Paper On Modern Construction Techniques Abstract– We all know that there is drastic growth of modern trends, materials and technologies in the global Construction Industry market. Hence, it is apprehended have a major effect on the path construction is executed in the future. Modern Techniques for building construction are around for greater output and operation. The main aim of modern construction technique is boost construction productivity, efficiency, user satisfaction, environmental performance, better quality, sustainable development and the predictability of delivery time of project. In this paper, research proposal that has arrived from literature review on application of modern construction techniques for improvement of the productivity is, Conventional practices used for construction is not sufficient and adequate or traditional techniques of construction need to upgrade according to global world trend. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Construction Of The Construction Industry Essay incorporated into the questionnaire. According to Gould and Joyce (2002) there are a number of risks which can be identified within the construction industry itself and those risks are evident in every construction project regardless of the project size or its scope. Tummala et al. (1999) has argued that oftentimes changes in design and scope in addition to time frames or schedules are considered the most common risks for the construction sector based on the study conducted. As the construction project progresses there 's bound to be changes in scope or design which are implemented causing the need for more resources, time and cost. Baker, et al. (1999) notes that if a project is completed ahead of its scheduled time, it may be as troublesome as one scheduled late. Karim et al. (2015) has argued that extremely quick completion maybe a resultant of planning which is insufficient or problems within the construction design which caused shortening of completion time. This may also lead to overall low quality of the final construction product and there may be an increase in the overall cost of the project (Karim et al. 2015). Gould and Joyce (2002) argues that setting a delay in a schedule garners a great cost that becomes the burden of both the contractors and the investors in differing ways. Zhang and Xing (2010) urges that there is great importance in keeping balance between the concepts of time–cost–quality trade–off which manifested over the past decade. This concept of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Construction Project Management and Business Management Over the past few years, the construction industry has been changing dramatically. One of the most important stages in the construction management and business management is the planning phase. They share similar two main levels of planning which are the strategic and operational planning. However, business management planning to decide in advance what should be done, and how to do it, when you do and you are done. On the other hand, Construction management strategic planning is to deal with selection on a high level of overall objective of the project, including the scope, procurement methods, schedules and financing options but the planning of operations, including the...show more content... In addition, management according to Cole (2008) is achievement of the objectives through to the five basic administrative functions (planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling). Construction management and business management share similarity elements of planning such as, goals, policies, rules and procedures. Nevertheless, they differ in the chart when the standard is the time. Planning for the construction management regard only to the period required to complete a construction project. However, business management planning can be divided into long–term planning and short–term which aims to give a clear picture of business for the future. The stages of the construction project management differ from the stage of business management, in several respects. For example, construction management first stage is the resolution; it is necessary to identify requirements relating to the project by the owner and choose a consult to help in completing a preliminary assessment for the project and the feasibility, also the impact of its presence in the economic and social development areas. However, planning is the first stage on Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Construction Industry Literature Review LITERATURE REVIEW: Labours are the essential key factor in construction industries and numerous of construction projects have been failed and unsuccessful due to shortage of skilled labours. Nowadays Australia's construction industries facing a serious threat that is shortage of skilled workers which potentially have a very negative effect on construction industries plus can have long lasting bad effects on the country's development in future. Based on reported studies, this literature review clearly states the overview of current state of knowledge about shortage of skilled workers. Objective 1: Training of the workers of construction industry Training of the workers is mandatory either they are currently working in the construction industry or they are new in this field because the construction industry is a dangerous field and the workers must do work under mines or on the top of the buildings etc. in extreme conditions so not only the health and safety of the workers is important but the other people safety is important too because they can injure due to the unawareness of the workers. and the training is a cause of shortage of skilled workers. In 1983, Business Round Table produce a report on shortage of skilled workers and said that it is due to lack of contractor's interest in training and the company owner's ignorance (Srour et al.2006). (Salleh et al. 2014) also said that training is one of other factors that became the cause of shortage of skilled workers. (While Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Essay On Construction Industry Now days the main building material used in the construction industry are concrete, steel and timber. From the point of view of ecological sustainability, there are four important differences between these three materials: first, timber is the only material of the three that is renewable; second, timber needs only a small amount of energy to be extracted and recycled compared to steel and concrete (but the implementation of its potential is not as developed yet); third, timber does not produce waste by the end of its life since it can be reused many times in several products before decomposing or being used as fuel and; and fourth, timber traps huge amounts of carbon from the atmosphere – a tree can contain a ton of CO2– and the carbon...show more content... But a dense city necessarily requires the construction of high–rise buildings, posing challenges to wood construction technologies, since wood has traditionally been used in small buildings where the structural demands are lower. Also, the durability of wood due to moisture decay and fire has been a problem for timber structures. Fortunately, new timber–based products are being developed which are structurally stronger and last for longer periods of time without any moisture and fire complications. These new products allow us to build high–rise buildings, turning timber into a feasible and convenient alternative to traditional high–rise building materials such as concrete and steel. Wood technology will undoubtedly keep developing along this path, making it possible to build skyscrapers in the future. Even though material innovation and modern technologies have increased the durability of timber significantly, there are still people who argue that steel and concrete are much more durable and, therefore more sustainable. However, the difficulty of reusing these materials is an issue. Nowadays, cities are very dynamic and are constantly changing, and thus the average life span of a building is not as long as it used to be in the past; today buildings die young. A study of residential buildings in the United Kingdom claims Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. The Impact of Construction on the Environment Introduction The construction industry impacts on the environment in a number of ways, both directly and indirectly. The assignment will cover a number of issues that are associated with the construction projects and will identify a number of environmental components that require protection. We will look at problems on a national and international scale. Identifying the need for global co–operation in the protection of our planet. This is of utmost importance to our survival and can only be achieved unilaterally. 1 Criticism aimed towards the construction industry. The building industry was described by the Environmental Agency as the worst and most frequent source...show more content... Oil Storage : Many companies are reluctant to spend money on bunded tankers. But constant pressure from the environment Agency has made the construction companies think again about investing in pollution prevention equipment, since the cost of spillage will far out way the cost of the equipment. The construction companies can now find themselves picking up the tab for the Environmental Agency's investigation and also the clean up, this is even if no prosecution has been brought. In 1997 3,750 charges were made across the board ranging from £9,000–00 to £24,951–00 . The total recovered from polluters was £1.14 million. (WWF–UK research centre ). For the coming year the Environmental Agency will target the construction industry because there has been a 15 percent increase in incidents. The idea is to stop the pollution rather than clean it up afterwards. Prevention is better than the cure. 2
  • 15. Environmental Effects of Construction The construction industry has a considerable effect upon the environment, directly through deforestation, pollution and noise and indirectly through the use of natural resources, many of these resources are non renewable. A building also has a lasting effect on the built environment. Effects may include: Emissions to the atmosphere Discharge to water Discharge of solid, liquid and other wastes Use of land Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Construction Project Essay Following on from the first point, construction projects can benefit greatly from new technology, which can be used to improve the efficiency of almost every area of a project, from planning through to build and completion. For example, emerging 3D BIM modelling can enhance project planning and materials acquisition. Building information modelling is a process for 'creating and managing project information' and allows those planning and running projects to see a 'digital description' of each aspect of the build which can then be linked to key information such as specifications, site photos and scheduling times. This technology can benefit construction professionals by helping...show more content... Achieving greater efficiency in construction projects can provide the following benefits: Projects cost less to carry out Projects are completed quicker Projects will generate more profit Projects will produce less waste Contractors can afford to submit a more competitive bid Company image and reputation is sustained Here are 4 initiatives companies can put in place in order to improve construction efficiency: Improve planning and material management Use new technologies to reduce inefficient construction practices Listen to your experienced staff Adjust client expectations Planning is everything – one of the biggest causes of delays in construction projects is a delay in material supply, or a lack of staffing. It was important for our project to liaise and discuss with the project team and client, Material supply, staffing and sub–contractors. There were elements of the project where we used our own direct employees and where specialized work was undertaken sub–contractors were used and issued orders. To state the obvious, a vital part of any construction project planning process is being able to successfully orchestrate the interfacing of people, processes, information, materials, and equipment. Planning is a crucial part of any construction project – in fact, most issues that arise, come as a direct result of poor or insufficient planning and project Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. The Complexity in Construction Projects Construction Projects are intrinsically complex in nature. It varies in different aspects such as size, nature, Contract Value etc. It involves different parties including the Client, Designer, Engineer, and the Contractor, whose interests vary from each other. Under these complex circumstances, the success of any project is dependent on the type of contract opted for the contract, along with several other factors such as the most appropriate design, askillful execution team, a good working relationship and mutual trust between the stake holders of the project. The PMBOK guide has classified Contracts into three broad types namely Fixed Price or Lump Sum Contracts, Unit Price or Time and Material Contracts and Cost Reimbursable Contracts. The selection of the Contract type is largely dependent on the client's adaptability to risks. Among the three types of contracts, Lump Sum Contracts carry the least amount of Risks for the Client. In this type of Contract, the contract value as well as the start and completion dates is fixed before the contract is signed. The builder (Contractor) owns majority of the risks, and will be responsible for completing the works and handing over the project to the owner, on time, fulfilling all stated requirements of the project. In most of the Design–Bid–Build Projects, where the design is fully completed and the scope is clearly defined, Clients most commonly prefer Lump Sum Contracts. Medium sized or Large Lump sum contracts will Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Construction Essay When thinking about the big picture of a construction project and what all goes into the development of a construction project, the environment is a big factor. There are many different regulating associations such as the USGB (United States Green Building Council), BMRA (Building Material Reuse Association), AEES (The American Ecological Engineering Society), and many more that give and set good examples. Hong Kong has found a way to measure construction waste and develop a way to reuse a prominent part of typical construction waste. The effects of the environment from construction projects and the ways to reduce these effects. In America, one of the most well–known green building or sustainable building is LEED (Leadership in Energy and...show more content... Waste management and reduction is another suggested way, reducing the waste that is taken off the site that ends up in landfills. This includes everything from start to finish, how much waste is leaving the site and where it is safely going to be disposed of. (Green) An article out of the Journal of Construction Engineering says, "...estimated that around 33% of on–site waste is related to project design. Therefore, reduction of waste should not be the sole responsibility of the construction company, as the client and designer can make environment friendly choices in the program of demands and designs. Studies indicate that waste of materials is usually higher than normal figures assumed by construction companies in their estimates" (Chinyio). The sustainability of materials used should be calculated in the design and not necessarily put on the general contractors to figure out the most environmentally friendly construction materials. The same article conducted a study with construction waste and the total construction material costs and "... the findings of this study show that waste is a major contributor to the cost of construction. The total cost of waste is expected to be 30% of the cost of materials" (Chinyio). The design should take into consideration the amount of waste and try to reuse, reduce, and recycle some of the material into the design. Life–cycle assessment is very important because in the construction industry the life expectancy and maintenance play Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. A Career in the Construction Industry Today is the day you'll find out that I would want to pursue a career in construction in the soon to come future. After researching, I came to realize that construction working could suit me job–wise in the future. No matter how risky being a construction worker may be, I know I could find closure doing the job, just knowing the things I will break down will soon be built back up in a better condition for whoever may reside there. To become a construction worker in the future, this website I found informed that I'd have to work full time and execute a lot of physically demanding work, meaning I'll be working all from the morning to the whole entire day into the night and most likely be very physically tired. It's not like you'll be stuck in a cubicle in the same office every day, because you won't. There is always a new work site to go to. The same website also states the majority of construction workers learn their trade through short–term on–the–job training, and no specific education requirements for the job are needed. The website also spared some things about license, and certifications stating that laborers who remove hazardous materials like hazardous material, must have a federal hazardous material license required for all hazardous materials removal workers, depending on the work, laborers might need to have specific certifications, and certifications can really help workers prove that they have knowledge to perform the more complex tasks. The website talked about Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. Since ancient times all the way to the present day there have been monumental advances in construction technology and safety, from the techniques and methods of construction to the equipment used in construction which wasn't revolutionized during the industrial revolution. The only constant throughout all the aforementioned advancements is the use of scaffolding, from ancient times where sockets in the walls around the Paleolithic cave paintings at Lascaux, the Berlin Foundry Cup depicts scaffolding in ancient Greece (early 5th century BC), the ancient Egyptians, Nubians and Chinese are also recorded as having used scaffolding–like structures to build tall buildings. Early scaffolding was made of wood and secured with rope knots. All the way to the present day where scaffolding has enclosed and has been used to repair the dome of the Capital of the United States of America or even The Statue of Libetry, construction workers around the world are using temporary work platforms (scaffolds) to reach areas where work must be done which by any other means would be otherwise unfeasible. Along with the advancements in construction technology and safety so has scaffolding changed with the times, form the make–up of the materials used, to the requirements demanded of the builders in order for the scaffold to be deemed safe for use. This paper will discuss: Different types of scaffolds that can be built and utilized for different tasks and the material they are made up of, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 21. Essay About Construction One cold Saturday morning, I was waiting to get picked up by one of my bosses' employee's. As I waited in the grey fog, a white Ford pick–up truck pulls up slowly beside me and a man named James greets me, then tells me to hop in the truck. We head over to the construction site and the drive was about thirty–minutes long, we drove across the Inland Empire until we arrived at the site of Moreno Valley. There awaited a man named Salvador, who surprisingly shared the same name as me! He is a licensed contractor, who's in charge of running his company called Chava's Plastering INC. as well as supervising his construction team. In the yard, there were large metal strips laid on the dirty ground and I met the crew, such as the mixers and ...show more content... I was curious and wanted to know more his occupation. He explained to me the pay for contractors are between ninety thousand and one hundred and fifty thousand dollars depending on work experience and education. He also told me that many construction companies are hiring for young workers to train for specific positions, but they must be at least eight or older. Furthermore, Salvador took me over to see the workers in action. We walked outside into the heat and I saw men applying black paper with wiring all along the walls. Tim had to bring a massive mixer by us by getting in his truck, driving down the dirt road to load the mixer. He then drove back to us, unloading the mixer getting and it in position so the workers can do their job effectively. The workers grabbed bags of concrete and poured it in a mixer with water. He told me that many of the men working here first started off with an internship to gain work experience. I was thinking of applying for a position for an internship so I can have a career like Salvador. I then saw that there were two men on top of this platform wearing work boots, white long sleeve clothes and protective gear. He explained to me that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration requires all works to follow their safety polices, for example, to always wear glasses and a helmet on site. The reason for that is to keep the workers safe, that's his Get more content on HelpWriting.net