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Asbestos awareness 2011

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Understanding the dangers of asbestos and the current laws governing its removal from structures in California

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Asbestos awareness 2011

  1. 1. City of Los AngelesDepartment of Building and Safety Inspection Bureau Training and Emergency Management Division Presents ASBESTOS AWARENESS 2011
  2. 2. What is asbestos?Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral that takes the form ofhollow, microscopic fibers which are nearly indestructible. It can bedensely packed into a tough, flexible and very useful material,which has been used for hundreds of years as clothing, insulation,fireproofing and various other building materials. Asbestos mineral rock 3
  3. 3. There are three major types of asbestos used in buildingand industry: Chrysotile, or white asbestos - used as insulation,fireproofing and soundproofing. Amosite, or brown asbestos - used in high frictionapplications like brake shoes & clutches. Crocidolite, or blue asbestos - not as common as theother two, but the most toxic form. Used in filters for Kentcigarettes from 1952-1957, bourbon whiskey and the air forhospitals.About 95% of all asbestos used in the U.S. has beenchrysotile, the least toxic form of asbestos. 4
  4. 4. What are the origins of asbestos?Asbestos is formed by geological processes. In the raw, longfibers found in rock and is practically indestructible. The firstrecorded use of asbestos was about 2000 years ago in China forclothing and candle wicks. Large scale mining began about 1880and at the turn of the century, Mr. Johns and Mr. Mannsvilledeveloped asbestos gaskets that revolutionized the boiler industry.Asbestos has been banned in many countries throughout theworld, primarily chrysotile and crocilodite , however manycountries continue to utilize other forms of the product. 5
  5. 5. When is asbestos a potential health hazard?Asbestos that is “friable”; easily crumbled, pulverized or reducedto powder in your hand when dry. Friable asbestos has the potentialto release asbestos fibers that can become airborne, and potentiallycreate a health hazard.Asbestos that is bonded, coated, painted, covered or otherwiseprotected so that it doesn’t release airborne fibers does not present ahealth hazard. 6
  6. 6. What are some health effects that could result from exposureto airborne asbestos fibers? Asbestosis - a progressive, non-cancerous andirreversible scarring of the lungs that can produce shortness ofbreath. Typical latency period is over 20 years. Pleural disease - plaque deposits or a thickening of thethin tissue that separates the lungs from the other organs in thebody. Lung cancer - cancerous tumors that have a latencyperiod of 20 to 30 years, usually fatal. 7-15 years to showsymptoms, usually related to smoking. Mesothelioma - a cancer in the lining of the chestcavity or abdomen, very rare but always fatal, 25-40 years toshow symptoms, mainly asbestos workers. 7
  7. 7. Some health effects that could result from exposure toairborne asbestos fibers continued…The link between asbestos exposure and lung cancer wasconfirmed in 1955.It is important to note that most asbestos related diseaseshave occurred in workers who historically have had highexposures to asbestos. Workers that mined it, milled it,mixed it, applied it or manufactured it are at the highestrisk.Workers whose only exposure to asbestos was in changing autobrake shoes containing asbestos have shown no increasedincidence of any asbestos related disease. 8
  8. 8. Some health effects that could result from exposure toairborne asbestos fibers continued…Before asbestos was known to be a serious health hazard,exposure levels to airborne asbestos in these industries mayhave reach over 100 fibers/cc. This is 1000 times higher thanthe current Occupational Health and Safety Administration(OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 fibers/cc.zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzResearch has shown that smoking significantly increases therisk of lung cancer in individuals who are exposed to unsafelevels of asbestos. 5 times higher in asbestos workers thatsmoked than workers that did not, 100 times higher whencompared to non asbestos workers. 9
  9. 9. A 1950s medical journal rated Kent as one of the best cigarettes for removingharmful tar.The P. Lorillard Tobacco Company used crocidolite asbestos in the filters it usedon KENT cigarettes from 1952 until 1956. Hollingsworth & Vose Co. made theMictronite filters that Lorillard used in the cigarettes. Between 1952-1956Lorillard sold 13 billion Kent Micronite asbestos filtered cigarettes.The packages above represent a typical Kent cigarette with the micronite filterpackage. The filter media is made of crimped layers of paper, typical filter fibersand crocidolite fibers. 10
  10. 10. Manufacturing cigarette filters using the dry process; this involved mixing the crocidoliteand other substances and depositing the mixture onto filter paper.There is an excellent eBay seller that when listed has some the best Kent micronite filterdisplays accompanied with a very detailed explanation behind the micronite filter and itscomposition. Also there have been many in-depth analysis of the Kent Cigarette one suchresearch document is titled Crocidolite Asbestos Fibers in Smoke from Original KentCigarettes, by William E. Longo, Mark W. Rigler and John Slade.Other Asbestos Uses With TobaccoA compound of tobacco and asbestos was mixed to make paper for cigarettes. The paperis cut up like cigarette paper, and a number of leaflets are put together in book form. Touse it you take a leaf and roll it up between your fingers, and it is ready for smoking. Asasbestos has neither taste nor smell it does not interfere with the flavor of tobacco, whilethe veil effects of smoking are obviated.For pipe tobacco the mixture was made up so that the asbestos is not observable in themixture. It was very cool to smoke and consumed the nicotine in the tobacco, while itburned right down to the bottom of the pipe. A pipe smoked with this tobacco-asbestoswas said to be always dry and left no filthy moisture in the stem.Robert H. Jones, Asbestos, Its Properties, Occurence, & Uses, London, 1890 11
  11. 11. Asbestos fiber showing cancer growth 12
  12. 12. Microscopic view of asbestos fibers 13
  13. 13. Dissected mesothelioma infected lungs 14
  14. 14. Some well known fatalities from asbestos• Paul Gleason, American actor, (The Breakfast Club, 1985) died in 2006 of mesothelioma. Most likely contracted asbestos from working with his father’s construction business when he was young. 15
  15. 15. Some well known fatalities from asbestos• Warren Zevon, American rock and roll musician and songwriter, died in 2003 of mesothelioma. 16
  16. 16. Some well known fatalities from asbestosz Actor Steve Mc Queen died of mesothelioma in 1980. He was a heavy smoker, wore asbestos suits when racing cars and rode motorcycles extensively in the desert, a region known for natural asbestos contamination. He blamed the exposure from his time in the U. S. Marines where he removed massive amounts of asbestos from the boiler systems abroad ships. 17
  17. 17. Where is asbestos found?Most buildings constructed prior to 1980contain some form of asbestos. Asbestos wasbanned from building materials in 1980,however its use was allowed until all stock wasused up. 18
  18. 18. Asbestos is often a component in thefollowing materials:• Fireproofing• Thermal Insulation• Boilers• Ventilation Systems• Ceiling Tiles• Dry Wall, Taping Compound and Plaster 19
  19. 19. Asbestos is often a component in thefollowing materials continued…• Texturized Paints• Roofing Shingles, Felt, Tar and Flashing• Decorative Building Materials• Sheathing on Electronics and Power Cables• Automotive and Elevator Brake Pads & Clutches• Transite Vents 20
  20. 20. Boilers wrapped in asbestos type of materialIt has been estimated that one out of every four boilers installed before 1970contains asbestos. Generally, if the boiler is coated with asbestos then so arethe boiler pipes. Usually the insulation on boilers is two to six inches thickand contains chicken wire or some other for structural support. 21
  21. 21. This picture also shows asbestos mud joints that aresignificantly damaged. This pipe is also insulated withasbestos air cell insulation. Most pipes wrapped inasbestos also have asbestos containing joints. 22
  22. 22. An instance where new fiberglass insulation was applied directly overexisting asbestos insulation. Caution is needed when working on anyunlabeled material, particularly in areas where we have both ACM(asbestos containing material) insulation side-by-side with newinsulation. If in doubt, assume the material is ACM. 23
  23. 23. Asbestos in good condition on heating pipes 24
  24. 24. Asbestos in poor condition on heating pipes 25
  25. 25. Incomplete or amateur removal. Fuzzy scraps of asbestos-suspectmaterial left on a rusty steel heating pipe in a basement indicatethat asbestos insulation was removed without cleaning and sealingthe surface of the pipe. 26
  26. 26. Here is a close-up of asbestos debris left on a heating pipe. The insulation was simply removed without cleaning. 27
  27. 27. Ducts that are sealed andwrapped in a paper likematerial.When contractors work on olderhomes with asbestos wrappedaround the duct, they can havethe ducts removed by a certifiedcompany, or wrap the asbestoscovered duct with insulation. Inhomes the ducts are usually inthe attic, and in some commer-cial jobs the ducts are on theroof. The gray corrugated, cardboard-like material pictured above is AirCell (or Air-O-Cell) asbestos insulation 28
  28. 28. Air-Cell Asbestos Insulation 29
  29. 29.  Some large commercial systems have asbestos insulation wrapped around the HVAC piping.Here is an example of common asbestos thermal systeminsulation (TSI), similar in appearance to gray, wrapped paperor cardboard. 30
  30. 30. • 9” x 9” vinyl floor tiles 31
  31. 31. 9” x 9” vinyl floor tiles 32
  32. 32. Ceiling TilesThrough the years particulate’s from fireproofing,pipe insulation, etc. settle on top of ceiling tilesand, when disturbed, become airborne. 33
  33. 33. Vermiculite and Zonolite Insulation Products Vermiculite and Zonolite Insulation Products 34
  34. 34. Vermiculite and ZonoliteDepending on the mine fromwhich this mineral-basedinsulation was obtained, it maycontain asbestos fibers andcould present a hazard inbuildings, especially if disturbedduring renovations.These are U.S. EPA photos of thebagged product. We are notlikely to see these on a jobsite. 35
  35. 35. Transite Venting and Ductwork 36
  36. 36. Sonno-Duct Sonno-Duct 37
  37. 37. Asbestos Shingle Siding 38
  38. 38. ASBESTOS-FREE MATERIALS - Examples of materials thatdo not commonly contain asbestos but might bemistaken for asbestos-containing substances Cellulose building insulation 39
  39. 39. Mineral wool insulation, developed in the1850s and popular up to the 1950s, is amineral fiber that looks like chopped whitecottony material.Slag wool is a manmade vitreous fiber madeby spinning slag into insulating fibers.Mineral wool or "rock wool" is made fromnatural minerals such as basalt or diabase. Itwould not be expected to contain asbestosfibers. It is a good insulating material and hasa better "R" value and more sound-reductionability per inch than some fiberglass. 40
  40. 40. ASBESTOS-FREE MATERIALS - Examples of materials thatdo not commonly contain asbestos but might bemistaken for asbestos-containing substances Mineral Wool, Rock Wool, or Slag Wool building insulation does not contain asbestos 41
  41. 41. ASBESTOS-FREE MATERIALS - Examples of materials thatdo not commonly contain asbestos but might bemistaken for asbestos-containing substances Cotton insulating batts do not contain asbestos 42
  42. 42. City of Los Angeles Building Code 1966 EditionDIVISION 39 – STAGESSEC. 91.3904 – ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR STAGES ACCESSORY TOGROUP A OCCUPANCY ASSEMBLY ROOMS(d) Proscenium Curtain. 1. General. Every stage regulated by this Section shall beprovided with a flexible or a rigid proscenium curtain as set forth in this Subsection. 4. Flexible curtain. Proscenium openings less in area than 1,200 square feet maybe provided with a flexible curtain in lieu of the rigid curtain specified in the Subsection (a)of this Section Every flexible curtain shall be made of reinforced cloth weighing at least 2 3/4pounds per square yard and containing at least 85% asbestos. The reinforcement shall be ofcorrosion-resistant metal incorporated into the yarn before weaving. After fabrication, theasbestos cloth shall be filled with a metallic pigment in silicate of soda.*This requirement was eliminated by 1976. 43
  43. 43. 2011 City of Los Angeles Plumbing Code604.0 Materials604.1 Water distribution pipe, building supply water pipe and fittings shall beof brass, copper, cast iron, galvanized malleable iron, galvanized wroughtiron, galvanized steel, or other approved materials. Asbestos-cement, CPVC,PE, PVC, or PEX water pipe manufactured to recognized standards may beused for cold water distribution systems outside a building. CPVC, PEXwater pipe, tubing, and fittings, manufactured to recognized standards may beused for hot and cold water distribution systems within a building. Allmaterials used in the water supply system, except valves and similar devicesshall be of a like material, except where otherwise approved by theAdministrative Authority. 44
  44. 44. City of Los Angeles Building Code 2011 Edition SECTION 8116 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LIGHT-HOUSEKEEPING ROOMS8116.2.2 The cooking appliances used therein, if any, shall have no more than two burners.If electric appliances are used, they shall have been tested and approved by theUnderwriters Laboratories. If gas appliances are used, they shall have been tested andapproved by the American Gas Association.8116.2.3 The installation, maintenance or use of said cooking appliance shall not behazardous to life, health or property. 8116.2.4.2 The walls behind and adjacent to said cooking appliance shall be lined or back-flashed with noncombustible material equivalent to 1/4-inch asbestos mill board. The back-flashing shall extend from 12 inches below to 24 inches above the base of the appliance. There shall be clear and unobstructed space of 36 inches above the surface of the cooking appliance. 45
  45. 45. Can asbestos be identified visually?There is no way to visually identify asbestos.Many materials that contain asbestos lookjust the same as materials that dont. The onlyway to confirm that a material is asbestos is totake samples and analyze the material in alaboratory. 46
  46. 46. What can you do to limit your exposure toasbestos?Most buildings, especially older ones, containsome amount of asbestos. But remember,asbestos is only a potential hazard if it isdamaged and friable, releasing fibers intothe air we breathe. 47
  47. 47. I have heard about other products that contain asbestos likecompounds such as insulation and talc. What are the facts?Talc a mineral, not a fiber, is manufactured from the samemines and areas as asbestos. Any asbestos found in talc will bevery low in volume and is considered natural contamination.PEL’s are below allowed levels.Fiberglass is made from silicon, a derivative of granite.Asbestos are considered silicates. Asbestos fibers areconsidered microscopic, fiberglass are not. Formaldehyde isused to glue the fiberglass together, however it’s formalstructure deteriorates within a few years. High quantities ofFormaldehyde are also found in particle board. 48
  48. 48. What laws regulate asbestos?Federal Occupational Safety and HealthStandard 1910 ( and CaliforniaOccupational Safety and Health Regulation,Title 8, Chapter 4, Construction Safety Orders,Article 4, Section 1529 ( TheState regulations are basically the same as theFederal Standard, A.Q.M.D. Rule 1403. G 49
  49. 49. Who is responsible to let others know if abuilding contains asbestos?California State Title 8 tells us that“Building and/or facility owners shallnotify the following persons of thepresence, location and quantity of ACMor PACM, at the work sites in theirbuildings and facilities. 50
  50. 50. Some Title 8 DefinitionsACM-Asbestos Containing Material means anymaterial containing more than one percent asbestos.Building/Facility Owner is the legal entity,including lessee, which exercises control overmanagement and record keeping functions relating toa building and/or facility in which activities coveredby this standard take place.PACM-Presumed Asbestos Containing Materials. 51
  51. 51. Responsibility to let others know if a buildingcontains asbestos continued…Notification either shall be in writing, orshall consist of a personal communicationbetween the owner and the person towhom notification must be given or theirauthorized representatives: 52
  52. 52. Who is responsible to let others know if abuilding contains asbestos continued…• Prospective employers applying or bidding for work whose employees reasonably can be expected to work in or adjacent to areas containing such material;• Employees of the owner who will work in or adjacent to areas containing such material; 53
  53. 53. Who is responsible to let others know if abuilding contains asbestos continued…• On multi-employer worksites, all employers of employees who will be performing work within or adjacent to areas containing such material;• Tenants who will occupy areas containing such material.”• Per California State Title 8, Chapter 4, Sub-Chapter 4, Article 4, Section 1529 54
  54. 54. What is AQMD Rule 1403?AQMD Rule 1403, “Asbestos Emissions FromDemolition/Renovation Activities”, is designed tolimit asbestos emissions from building demolition andrenovation activities. AQMD must be notified 14 daysprior to any demolition or removal of more than 100square feet of asbestos, unless the applicant declaresthat notification is not applicable to the scheduleddemolition permit. Per Information Bulletin P-B/C 2011-067 55
  55. 55. How do we know if it is safe to enter into an area that issuspected of or known to have disturbed asbestos?Department policy requires that a “Bulk/Air Sampling andClearance for Buildings where Asbestos has BeenDisturbed” letter be submitted to the department upon finalinspection approval.¹¹Department Policy and Procedures, Inspection of Sites ContainingDisturbed Asbestos, January 28, 1992, Policy Order No. 70. 56
  56. 56. How we know if it is safe to enter into an area that issuspected of or known to have disturbed asbestoscontinued…At the completion of asbestos fireproofing, removal andreplacement, air testing shall be conducted by an independenttesting laboratory upon request by the Department of Buildingand Safety. The laboratory shall successfully participate in theNational Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)Proficient Analytical Testing Program(PAT). The results of theair testing shall be signed by a Certified Industrial Hygienist.A copy of this report shall be submitted to the inspector andmaintained in the file.¹¹Information Bulletin P/BC 2011-66 57
  57. 57. Who can I call about asbestos removal ordemolition questions?AQMD Asbestos Hot Line at 909-396-2336 Tuesday -Friday, 7:00 am - 5:00 pm.For after hours emergencies call 1-800-CUT-SMOG.Leave a message stating the reason for the emergencyand if you want a supervisor to respond to your call.Online: 58
  58. 58. Question: You walk into a jobsite and see this. What do you do? 59
  59. 59. Thank You for Joining us forAsbestos Awareness 2011 60