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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.
Thank you to the organizer for giving me the opportunity to present a global information…My name is N.R. and there is a mistake in the abstracts book since the co-authos mentioned here (knowledge sharing team) are all working for Bioversity International and we are based in MPL- FRANCE and not from Oxford or canada In 20 minutes, I will try to share with you how the development of a network can facilitate the exchange and conservation of genetic resources
There is a common denominator for all these challenges an this is the use of Genetic diversity As shown in several presentations it is not the ONLY solution but it contributes to make agricultural production systems more sustainable (Avoid monocropping). I will not detail this since it was already presented yesterday by Prof. R. Swennen several presentations about the second point
There is no secret: to use the diversity you first need to characterize it Not only for researchers but also the rural households dependent on the crop for their food and income It is thus our responsibility (of those working with GR) to make this knowledge accessible
But we need to act rapidly since we are losing genetic diversity. Several reports reveal that we are loosing genetic diversity. Here report from MarkkuHakkinen on endangered wild species in Borneo.
With the lost of genetic diversity we are loosing potential unique genes confering traits of interest. So it is a real dilemma: We need to increase productivity but at the same time maintain adequate diversity and assure sustainable production systems.
MusaNet: The Global Musa Genetic Resources Network Implementation of the conservation strategy, now more toward use. We often hear: “Collections are crowed of a lot of varieties but very few are in the market !”
The MusaConservation strategy was first developed in 2005-2006 and is mainly based on diversity. Was initiate with the suppport of the Global Crop Diversity Trust to implement the International Treaty for Food and Agriculture Primary center of diversity in south East Asia East Africa center of diversity for EAHB, West Africa center of diversity for plantains Almost no diversity in Latin America (few mutations as vegetatively propagated crop)
To respond urgently to the Musa challenges , we organized a consultation workshop, early March 2011 Where several banana experts (with different specialisation) from around the world were present We launched the Network MusaNet
The Goal of MusaNet is thus to work at the Global, regional and national level to:1/ conserve2/ Document 3/ The all gene pool4/ Use of genetic diversityBy breeders but also directly by farmers.
MusaNet is a network of experts in GR. We of course should consider all the curators around the world taking efforts in maintaining the diversity in ex situ collections (estimated to around 60 collections world wide) During the consultation workshop it came clear that there 4 areas of priority if we want to effective in using genetic diversity Characterization Evaluation Conservation Information
I will now give you some examples of some key actions to move forward In situ conservation is a key component But for distribution , we need to distribute world wide, the reason for the development of the International Transit Centre, In trust collection under the auspices of FAO, hosted by KULeuven in Belgium Reaching 1500 accessions but only 15% of wild types
Actions in conservation: To make it available, need to assure that they are virus free (virus indexing centres and virus therapy, University of Gembloux in Belgium)Facilitate access by distributing world wide invitro plantletsYesterday we had this very interesting presentation of Julian Smith from Fera about vegetatively propagated seed systems that needs to be wider implemented at the national levelfor safe movement of germplasm
Actions in Information: Needed to be more user friendly, not just for curators Use minimum sets of photos to recognize accessions can only be done through strong collaboration (win-win- win situation as mentioned by Piet van Asten)
Allow to compare plant material and its behaviour in different regions
But most importantly to increase use, are the stress descriptors ( pre-evaluation) We are thinking to implement again the IMTP (INIBAP was famous for) But we need to have interesting material for multilocation trials Good news, 2 weeks ago at the ProMusa symposium in Brazil, the breeding programme is ready to donate 16 improved plant material to ITC
We hope that each collections will be able to share information through the MGIS (22 collections contributing) hope to increase and meet 60 collections Nothing better then face to face communication Some of you in the room will recognize themselves
We have a created a web site mainly to share with the thematic groups and develop projects (Workspace in each TG) Working on the possibility to share information but also plant material. Possibility to order directly online on this web site.
If more interest in general information, possibility to access to Musapedia open to a community (500 participants) Covering several issues as banana plant production systems and plant protections issues
To conclude, I hope that I was able to summarize the global framework on Genetic resources1/ DNA level I did not talked about but is important since this network has been working together since 10 years and the Musa genome sequence should be available in the coming months and this will boost research in Musa 2/ Collecting and characterization covered by TG 1 on diversity3/ Evaluation at green house and field level (Link to ProMusa, IMTP), TG24/ farmers’ participatory approach through link with banana regional networks5/ Thematic Group 3 allowing the communication/information to be reached world wide (MGIS, MusaPedia)6/ Conservation and increase use of genetic diversity maintained at ITC
Roux - A global information and knowledge sharing approach to facilitate the use of Musa genetic resources
A global information andknowledge sharing approach to facilitate the use of Musa genetic resources Roux, N., Van den Bergh, I., Ruas, M. and Vezina, A. Commodities for Livelihoods Programme, Bioversity InternationalParc Scientifique Agropolis II, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34397 France CIALCA Conference , Kigali Rwanda, 24-27 October 2011
Importance of Musa spp.Among the most important basic food crop for 400 Million people World dessert banana production Plantains (& other cooking bananas) 97 million tones production: 36 million tones 1. India 27 Mt 13% Export 1.Uganda 9,5 Mt 2. China 9 Cavendish2.Ghana 3,6 3. Philippines 9 Locally 3.Rwanda 3 4. Ecuador 7,6 consumed 87% 4. Nigeria 3 5. Brazil 6,8 5. Colombia 3(FAOStats 2009)
What are the challenges in banana ?Overcoming Pest, diseases Consumer breeding and other needs and constraints production nutrition problems
Use of genetic diversity• Crucial component of any strategy to make agricultural production systems more sustainable: – Safeguards the crop against pests and diseases• Makes it more resilient in adverse environmental conditions – Can bring different nutritional benefits to poor populations – Can offer a broader range of processing and marketing opportunities
Understanding of Musa diversityA comprehensive understanding of the existing Musa diversity, and its potential uses, is therefore crucial, not only to genebank curators, molecular biologists, breeders, phytopathologists, agronomists and other Musa researchers, but also to the rural households most dependent on the crop for their food and income
But we are losing genetic diversity• Assessment of 7 wild Musa species (IUCN listing):• 6 critically endangered (CR), 1 endangered (EN)
We are losing genesThese endangered wild species may carry genes thatconfer resistance to Foc TR4, make plants more droughttolerant or encode for higher vitamin A content.Dilemma….Productivity vs diversity
MusaNet The Global Musa Genetic Resources Network What is it about ?Providing a collaborative framework to support theimplementation of the Global Strategy for the Conservationand Use of Musa Genetic Resources
Consultation Workshop Montpellier, 28 Feb. to 3rd March 201147 Curators, pathologists, breeders, molecularbiologists, taxonomists, policy makers from 15 countriescovering the 5 continents, met in Montpellier to launchMusaNet.
Goal of MusaNetTo build upon existing strengthsin the global, regional andnational collections to optimizeeffort to conserve and documentthe Musa gene pool and promoteuse and safe distribution ofdiversity and related as thefoundation for further breedingor direct use by farmers.
Network of Musa GR expertsCharacterization Evaluation Conservation Information
Actions in diversity: Gap fillingDiversity Saveguard International Transit Centre (ITC), FAO in trust, hosted by KULeuven, managed by Bioversity International
Collecting missions in Africa• Collecting – in RDC – in Tanzania – in Kenya
Actions in Conservation:Safe movement of germplasm Available Access
Trans-regions collaboration toovercome the problem of BBTV- Partnership with producers to obtain virus-free plant material at low costs.- Organisation of producers and training with involvement of local agricultural schools- Some producers engaged in the nursery business
Actions in Information:User friendly MGIS Pisang kepok ITC0692 on MGIS online database
A global framework Study at Thematic group 3 genetic/genomic Thematic group 1 level Dissemination of germplasm Collecting and and information Characterization MusaNet Conservation Evaluation: and safe greenhouse Movement of /fieldITC Germplasm Thematic group 4 Farmers’ Thematic group 2 participatory evaluation Barnesa