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REDD+ MRV in Ethiopia

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Presentation by Manuel Boissière on April 5, 2019 at Workshop in Ethiopia ("Forests and climate change: research results and implications for REDD+ and forest governance in Ethiopia")

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REDD+ MRV in Ethiopia

  1. 1. REDD+ MRV in Ethiopia Review of the context, framework and progress Manuel Boissière, Solomon Zewdie, Melaku Bekele, Stibniati Atmadja Nexus Hotel, Addis Ababa, 5 April 2019
  2. 2. What is this presentation about? • REDD+ MRV context, framework and progresses until 2018 • Summarize results of Occasional Paper: brary/7153 • Based on interviews, literature review and a workshop 2/20
  3. 3. Outline • Context o History o Forest definition o Functions of MRV o Spatial data • Framework o Institutional arrangements o Social aspects • Progress: o Current implementation o Challenges and opportunities 3/20
  4. 4. CONTEXT 4/20
  5. 5. History (1) Pre-REDD+ (1970s – 2010) • High deforestation and land degradation • Reforestation and afforestation promoted • Farmers encouraged to plant trees • PFM to increase community engagement Post REDD+ (2010 – present) • GTP and CRGE • MEFCC established (became EFCCC in 2018) • Start of REDD+, including REDD+ MRV 5/20
  6. 6. History (2) • 2013 - 2018: REDD+ readiness with financial support from Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, Norway, UK • 2013: ToR for developing capacities for national MRV system • 2014: NFI launched • 2015: New forest definition • 2016: MRV unit established in the ministry • 2017: institutional framework is developed for REDD+ MRV implementation; Final FRL submission to UNFCCC MRV Milestones (2010 – present) 6/20
  7. 7. Forest definition Ethiopia’s FRL FAO’s Forest Resource Assessment Land spanning at least 0.5 ha, covered by trees (incl bamboo) attaining a height of at least 2m and a canopy cover of at least 20% or trees with the potential to reach these thresholds in situ in due course Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. 7/20
  8. 8. MRV Functions Monitoring • Impact of REDD+ policies and measures • The collection, storage, analysis and dissemination of data Measurement • forest area and forest change by satellite land monitoring system • changes in forest carbon stock per unit area by NFI • GHG inventory data. Reporting • Standardized, consistent national reporting Verification • Verify performance, reporting results, adjusting reports on REDD+ 8/20 Source: FDRE 2017
  9. 9. Spatial data and ground survey 5 interelated spatial datasets 1. LULC change map (2013) 2. Forest/non forest map o Forest: high forest, riverine forest, dense woodland, plantation, bamboo o Non-forest: agriculture, shrubland, grassland, builtup, bare land, water, no data 3. Forest area change (AD): average of annual forest loss and gain in hectares, 2000 and 2013 4. Carbon stock assessment (EFs) o 3 carbon pools: above, below ground and deadwood o 4 biomes: moist Afromontane forest, dry Afromontane forest, Combretum- Terminalia dry forest, Acacia-Commiphora dry forest 5. Forest Reference Level (2000-2013), based on 3 components: extent of forest area, AD, EF 9/20
  10. 10. FRAMEWORK 10/20
  11. 11. General framework • Decentralized management of REDD+ MRV • Defined roles and responsibilities at federal, regional and local levels • MRV unit’s responsibilities o produce, verify and disseminate forest statistics (AD, EF) o oversee overall REDD+ MRV activities • Permanent MRV entities at federal and regional levels • National REDD+ secretariat and regional counterparts are project-based 11/20
  12. 12. Institutional arrangement EFCCC (Commission) Forest sector Deputy Commissioner Environmental sector Deputy Commissioner Reference: MEFCC 2017 12/20
  13. 13. Participation of local communities (1) • Need to explore and test participatory monitoring approaches for MRV – highlighted in R-PP. • Necessary to sustain forest monitoring activities, reduce cost, and empower local communities • Still no engagement of local communities in REDD+ MRV; initiatives on forest monitoring in Participatory Forest Management (PFM). 13/20
  14. 14. Participation of local communities (2) 3 issues: • Social safeguards: SIS prepared but not yet implemented • Benefit sharing: different initiatives for Result Based Payments (OFLP, Bale Ecoregion) but need for a harmonised approach • Sustaining participation: need good motivation and incentive to participate 14/20
  15. 15. PROGRESS 15/20 Based on the discussions during the MRV workshop, October 6th, 2017, Addis Ababa
  16. 16. Current implementation • Crucial MRV deliverables: o LULC map o NFI completed o carbon stock data (EF) generated o national forest cover change (AD) analysed using Landsat imagery o national SIS being developed • National REDD+ MRV institutional arrangements have been established • Policies, guidelines for NFI and NFMS have been developed • Human capacity and MRV facilities are being built, in collaboration with FAO (in country MRV capacity building) and WGCF, through training 16/20
  17. 17. Challenges (1)Sectoral • Weak inter-sectoral coordination • Ministry (2013)  commission (2018) = possible implications on the coordination role of the commission for CRGE MRV activities Technical • Limited capacity for MRV of forest degradation • Limited incentives to maintain trained staff and avoid turnover • Insufficient in-country technical capacity to run the system Buy-in from local and national stakeholders • Little tangible action to enhance local people participation and to integrate participatory MRV into the national MRV system framework • Sustainable financing through direct national support is still needed to ensure national ownership 17/20
  18. 18. Challenges (2) Safeguards • Operationalizing SIS is still needed • Information sharing on SIS needs to be done at the local level for better engagement • Need better recognition of local communities’ rights on forests • Need to enforce implementation of environmental safeguards Benefit sharing • BSM activities still in a pilot stage, need to be developed at national level • Risk of raising expectations • Local people need to be better engaged in the BSM development 18/20
  19. 19. Opportunities • Government’s endorsement of an institutional framework for REDD+ MRV: important to ensure government’s ownership and sustainability of the MRV system • The recognition of the forestry sector’s vital role in the CRGE should allow a stronger political buy-in of Ethiopia’s REDD+ MRV • Ethiopia’s REDD+ MRV system development o Brings financial support to national capacity building on forest observation o Generates robust data about the sector o Helps modernize the forestry sector development and planning o Improves data transparency (MRV web portal) • National MRV capacity building (WGCF-NR) = opportunity to build local spatial data infrastructure and human capacity -> ensure sustainability 19/20