3. Sources of Research Topics or Problems:
• Prevailing theories or philosophy
• Observations, intuitions or a combination of both
• Different subjects taken and from them identify a problem
that interests a student-researcher most
• Fields of interest or specialization or event from related
• Existing problems in the classroom/school/campus/university
which one may want to solve are good sources of research
4. Sources of Research Topics or Problems:
• Existing needs of the community or society
• Repetition or extension of investigations already conducted
or may be an offshoot of studies underway
• Related studies and literatures
• Advice of authorities or experts from funding agencies
• Offshoots of friendly conversations
• Incidental from interesting topics of professors during the
5. Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem:
• It should be something new or different from what has
already been written about.
• It must be original.
• It should be significant to the field of study or discipline.
• It must necessarily arouse intellectual curiosity.
• It should be of researcher’s interest and researcher must be
with the topic.
• It should be modest one for a beginner to be carried on
within a limited period of time.
6. Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem:
• It should be clear, not ambiguous.
• It should be specific, not general.
• It should consider the training and personal qualifications of
• It should consider the availability of data involved in the
study and the methods and techniques to be employed in
• It should consider the availability of effective instruments for
gathering the data and their treatment.
7. Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem:
• It should consider the financial capacity of the researcher to
support the project.
• It should consider the time factor involved in the
8. Basis for Selecting the Problem:
• Significant to chosen field/advancement
of science or specialization
• Pioneering or novel
• Arouse intellectual curiosity
• Relevance to degree
• Availability or manageability of data
• Availability of instruments
• Financial capacity
• Time factor involved in the
9. Guidelines in the Formulation of a
1.The title must contain the following elements:
a. The subject matter of research problem
b. The setting or locale of the study
c. The respondents or participants involved in the study
d. The time or period when the study was conducted
2. The title must be broad enough to include all aspects of the
study but should be brief and concise as possible.
10. Guidelines in the Formulation of a
3. The use of terms as “Analysis of”, “A Study of”, “An Investigation
of” and the like should be avoided.
4. If the title contains more than one line, it should be written in
5. When typed or encoded in the title page, all words in the title
should be in capital letters.
6. If possible, the title should not be longer than 15 substantive
7. Avoid a long, detailed title that gives too much information.
8. To shorten the title, delete the terms “assessment” or
“evaluation” if these are already emphasized in the text.
11. Characteristics of a Good Title:
• A title should give readers information about the contents of
the research and is preferable to one that is vague or
• Titles do not need to be stuffy or dull but they should
generally give readers some idea at the outset of what the
research paper will contain.
• Choose a title that is a phrase rather than a complete
• Select a straightforward title over other kinds.
12. Characteristics of a Good Title:
• Use no punctuation at the end of the title.
• Do not underline the title of research or enclose it in
quotation marks, instead, use a word processing program or
printer that permits italics. Use them in place of underlining.
• Higher Order Thinking Skills in Reading of Freshmen in
University of Northern Philippines, Academic Year 2015-
• Pinay Single Mom: Paghanga o Pagkutya? A Multi Case
Study on the Lives and Experiences of the Solo Parents in
• Abakada o Aba! Kita…: A Multi Case Study on Child Labor in
the Selected Towns of the Province of Laguna
• Magkapatid na Parang Aso’t Pusa: Magkasundo pa Kaya? A
Multi Case Study on Siblings with Rivalry in San Jose,
• Establishment of Jackfruit Tea Processing Plant in Barangay
Bantayan, Tabaco, Albay
• Level of Acceptability of Worksheets for Film-Clippings by
the Teachers of English in University of Antique, Academic
• Life’s Adjustment of Yolanda Victims in Tacloban City
• Awareness on Traffic Rules and Regulations of Tricycle
Operators and Drivers Association in Brgy. Culiat, Quezon
City, Calendar Year 2015
• Health Practices of Bachelor of Secondary Education Major
in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) at
University of Rizal System Pililla and Angono Academic Year
• Level of Acceptability of the Tracing Guide for Children with
Cerebral Palsy by the Special Education Teachers in the
Division of Pampanga, School Year 2015-2016
16. Background of the Study
• It includes information which would focus attention on the
importance and validity of the problem. It is the general
orientation to the problem area. A brief rationale to justify the
problem must be provided. This is the present state of knowledge
regarding the problem.
• The background includes:
1. Discussion of the problem in general and the specific situations as
observed and experienced by the researcher
2. Concepts and ideas related to the problem
3. Discussion of the existing or present conditions and what is aimed
to be in the future or the gap to be filled in by the researcher.
17. Statement of the Problem
• This is the basic difficulty, the issue, the area of concern, the
circumstances which exist, then, how they ought to be. The
researcher should give the background which led to this
circumstances that exist. Briefly describe the condition or a
situation that exists which is perceived as something less
than the ideal: or what it should be and how you see it to
• It has two main elements:
1. The objective
2. Research questions
18. Objective or Purpose of the Study
• It is the first part of the problem where the researcher
states the objective. This is a statement of a long term
objective expected to be achieved by the study. This is
derived by the identification and crystallization of the
research problem and as reflected in the title.
19. Research Questions or Investigative
• These are the specific questions which are to be answered in
the study. The answers to these should lead to the solution of
the research problem. Focus on a clear goal or objective.
State the precise goal. The problem should be limited enough
in making a definite conclusion possible.
1. The major statement or question may be followed by minor
statements or questions. The introductory statement must
be the purpose/aim or the objective of the study.
Example: Specifically, the study aims to determine the causes
of low performance of selected programs in the board
examinations. Further, it seeks to answer to answer to the
following sub problems 1, 2, 3 etc.
20. Research Questions or Investigative
2. If the goal is specifically to test a given hypothesis then state
so. In many cases, the objective will be a more general
statement than that of a hypothesis.
Example: The primary objective of this study is to test the
hypothesis that there is a relationship between workplace
condition and teaching performance of faculty members.
3. Investigative questions are the specific topical questions that
one must resolve to achieve research objective or test the
21. • This study attempted to evaluate the status and extent of
implementation of the Computer Education Program in the
Division of Rizal SY 2015-2016as perceived by teacher and
student respondents. Specifically this sought answers to the
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 Teacher respondents
1.1.2 field of specialization;
1.1.3 educational attainment;
1.1.4 length of service; and,
1.1.5 computer education seminar/training attended?
22. 1.2 Student Respondents
1.2.2 monthly family income;
1.2.3 parent’s educational background;
1.2.4 accessibility to computers; and,
1.2.5 performance in English and Mathematics?
2. What is the extent of the Computer Education Program implementation
as perceived by the teacher-respondents with respect to:
2.1 objectives and content of instruction;
2.2 teaching competencies;
2.3 learning competencies;
2.4 methods of teaching employed; and,
2.5 computer facilities?
23. 3. What is the extent of the Computer Education Program
implementation as perceived by the student- respondents
with respect to:
3.1 objectives and content of instruction;
3.2 teaching competencies; and,
3.3 learning competencies
24. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
• The scope describes the coverage of the study. It specifies
what is covered in terms of concept, number of subjects or
the population included in the study, as well as the timeline
when the study was conducted.
• Delimit by citing factors or variables that are not to be
included and the boundary in terms of time frame, number
of subjects, participants or respondents who are excluded.
Specify that which you will not deal within the study.
25. Parameters of the Research:
• What – the topic of investigation and the variables included
• Where – the venue or the setting of the research
• When - the time frame by which the study was conducted
• Why – the general objectives of the research
• Who – the subject of the study, the population and sampling
• How – the methodology of the research which may include
the research design, methodology and the research
The main purpose of the study is to provide information
regarding metro-sexuality and how being a metro sexual
affects the lifestyle of the student. The study considers the
student’s personal information such as their name (optional),
gender, age, and section.
The researchers limited the study to 80 male and female
secondary education student enrolled in the second semester of
school year 2015-2016 of Technological Institute of the
Philippines. Each of the respondents was given a questionnaire
to answer. The students selected came from four different
sections to prevent bias and get objective perceptions.
27. Significance of the Study
• The researcher defines who will benefit out of the findings of
the study. He describes how the problem will be solved and
specifically pinpoints who will benefit from such findings or
Tips in Writing the Significance of the Study:
1. Refer to the statement of the problem.
2. Write from generic to specific.
28. Do the following:
1. Think of three topics which you intend to
prepare as your research undertaking.
Take your time in choosing the topic. Take
note that the topic should be related to
your academic track/strand.
2. What are the 5 important things you had
in mind considering these three topics?
3. Formulate your research titles for the
three topics and present them to your
teacher. Have your teacher approve one