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PresEd 19: Chapter 4 (Implementing Early Childhood Programs: Applying to Practices.)

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PresEd 19: Chapter 4 (Implementing Early Childhood Programs: Applying to Practices.)

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This shows information about the different programs that we can apply in teaching field. This includes the different features of each program: How they alike and differ to one another.

This shows information about the different programs that we can apply in teaching field. This includes the different features of each program: How they alike and differ to one another.


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PresEd 19: Chapter 4 (Implementing Early Childhood Programs: Applying to Practices.)

  1. 1. Good Day!
  2. 2. Implementing Early Childhood Programs: Applying theories to Practices.
  3. 3. Focus Questions 1.Why are models of early childhood education important? 2.Why are the basic features of early childhood education models, and how are they alike and different? 3.What decisions do you need to make to select a particular early childhood program as a basis for your practice? 4.How can you apply developmentally appropriate practice to your practice of early childhood education?
  4. 4. What Are Programs Of Early Childhood Education? When we talk about the program of the young children, we mean the philosophy that guides teaching and learning, the theories that underlie what is taught and how children learn, and the curricula that guide the activities and experiences provided for children.
  5. 5. The Growing Demand For Quality Early Childhood Programs As of spring 2001, 7,700 early childhood programs serving a half million children were accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). These programs are only a fraction of the total number of early childhood programs in the United States .
  6. 6. At this time, when the United States is once again discovering the importance of the early years, the public wants early childhood professionals to provide the following:  Programs that will help ensure children’s early school success and that they will help them succeed in school and life. The inclusion of early literacy and reading readiness activities and programs and curricula that will enable children to read on grade level in grades one, two, and three.  Programs that will help children develop the social and behavioural skills necessary to help them lead civilized and nonviolent lives.
  7. 7. Child Care Child Care is a comprehensive service to children and families that supplements the care and education children receive from their families. Child care is also educational. It provides for the children’s cognitive development and helps engage them in the process of learning that begins at birth. Quality child care does not ignore the educational needs of young children but incorporates learning activities as part of the curriculum.
  8. 8. Why is Child Care Popular? Child care is popular for a number of reasons: First, recent demographic changes have created a high demand for care outside the home. Second, child care is an important part of many politicians’ solutions to the nation’s economic and social problems.
  10. 10. Program Main Features Theoretical Basis High/Scop e o Plan-do-review teaching- learning cycle o Emergent curriculum- curriculum is not established in advance o Children help determine curriculum o Key experiences guide the curriculum in promoting children’s active learning  Piagetian  Constructivis t  Dewey
  11. 11. Program Main Features Theoretical Basis Reggio Emilia o Emergent Curriculum-curriculum is not established in advance o Curriculum based on children’s interest and experiences o Project oriented curriculum o Thousands Languages of Children-symbolic representation of work and learning o Active learning o Atelierista ( Teacher trained in the arts)  Piagetian  Constructivist  Vygotskian  Dewey
  12. 12. Program Main Features Theoretical Basis Head Start Child Care o Curriculum and program outcomes determined by performance standards o Broad spectrum of comprehensive services, including health, administrative support, and parent involvement o Parents play a key role in program operation o No national curriculum-curriculum developed at the local level o Comprehensive services o Program quality determined by each program o Each program has its own • Whole Child • Maturationi st • Interventio n approach to addressing child and societal problems • Whole child • Maturationi st
  13. 13. Program Main Features Theoretical Basis Montesso ri o Prepared Environment support, invites and enables learning o Children educate themselves self-directed learning o Sensory materials invite and promote learning o Set curriculum regarding what children should learn Montessorians try to stay as close as close to Montessori’s ideas as possible o Multi-age grouping o Students learn by manipulative materials and working with others • Respect for children • Educating the whole child • The absorbent mind
  14. 14. Types of Child Care Purpose and Action Family and relative care Family care/ Family Day care Intergeneration Care Children are cared for by grandparents, aunts, uncles, or other relatives. Child Care by family members provides child with the continuity and stability parents desire for their children. Child care is provided in a child’s own family, or in a family like setting. An individual caregiver provides care and education for a small group of children of his/her home. Intergenerational child care programs integrate children and the elderly into an early childhood and adult care facility. The programs bend the best of two worlds: children and the elderly both receive care and attention in a nurturing environment.
  15. 15. Types of Child Care Purpose and Action Center Child Care Employer- sponsored child care Center Child care is conducted in specially designed and constructed centers, churches, YMCAs, and other such facilities. The most rapidly growing segment of the workforce is married women with children under the age of one. To meet the needs of working parents, employers are providing affordable, accessible, and quality child care.
  16. 16. Types of Child Care Purpose and Action Proprietary child care Child care for children with medical needs Some child care centers are being run by corporations, businesses, or individuals proprietors for the purpose of making a profit. Many of these programs emphasizes their educational component and appeal to middleclass families who can pay for the prosed services. Providing care for the nations children is big business. When children get sick, parents must find someone who will take care of them or they must stay home. More and more programs are providing care for children with medical needs, such as care when they have illnesses (Both contagious and noncontagious ), broken bones, and other health problems that keep them from attending other regular child care programs.
  17. 17. Types of Child Care Purpose and Action Before and after school care Some child care centers are being run by corporations, In many respects, public schools are logical places for before and after school care. They have the administrative organization, facilities, and staff to provide such care. Many Taxpayers and professionals believe that schools should not sit empty in the afternoons, evenings, holidays, and summers.
  18. 18. Program In Action RATIOS – Child adult ratios reflect our biological capabilities. ACTIVITIES – By providing an environment with a range of self-directed options, children are able to determine what skills they would like to develop and work on. SELF-CARE – The children are encouraged to ‘help themselves’ more and more as their skills develop. FOOD NUTRITION – An effort to ensure that the children are receiving the best nutrients and are safe.
  19. 19.  SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT – We feel that the one ‘’job’’ of children of their early years is to learn how to live in the world with others.  INCLUSIVITY – It include children who are having disabilities.  THE ENVIRONMENT – Built a ‘’school’’ using natural non toxic materials and recycled materials and an environmentally friendly designs.  FAIR COMPENSATION – (BFCC) is committed to paying a living wage to the employees.  RESOURCES – evolving and developing our program to improve the services as well as enhances the resources.
  20. 20. High quality early care and education have influences that last over a lifetime. Children who attend high- quality programs:  Had higher cognitive test scores than other children from toddler years to age twenty-one:  Had higher academic achievement in both reading and math from the primary grades through young adulthood.  Completed more years of education and were more likely to attend a four year college. The Effects of Care and Education on Children
  21. 21.  Had above average scores on schools readiness tests and are better able to express and understand language  Scored better in receptive language ability  Had better language skills than children in low quality child care  Scored better in math ability than children in low quality care.  Were better in math in all ages, from the preschool years through second grade.
  22. 22. A Constructivist Approach High/Scope Educational Approach is based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory. The curriculum is geared to the child’s current stage of development and promotes the constructive process of learning and broadens the child’s emerging intellectual and social skills.
  23. 23. Basic Principles and Goals of the High/Scope Approach The High/Scope program strive to: Develop in children a broad range of skills, including the problem solving, interpersonal, and communication skills that are essential for successful living in a rapidly changing society. The curriculum encourages student initiative by providing children with materials, equipment, and time to pursue activities they choose. At the same time, it provides teacher with a framework for guiding children’s independent activities toward sequence learning goals.
  24. 24. The Five Elements of the High/Scope Approach Active Learning – Teachers support children’s active learning These ingredients are incorporated into learning contexts: • Materials • Manipulations • Choice • Words • Support
  25. 25. The Five Elements of the High/Scope Approach Classroom Arrangement –The classroom organization of materials and equipment supports the daily routine. • 3 or more defined interest areas/centers • A range of interesting materials • Organized system for storage; labels
  26. 26. The Five Elements of the High/Scope Approach Daily Schedule – Considers developmental levels of children. • Plan-Do-Review is incorporated in the schedule • Inconsistent from day to day • Balanced teacher/child initiated activities • Children know about changes
  27. 27. The Five Elements of the High/Scope Approach Assessment – Teachers keep notes about significant behaviours that help that better understand a child’s way of thinking and learning. • Attributes of each child are observe and recorded • Anecdotal records (C.O.R) are part of the report card • Portfolios are used • Teachers evaluate and plan on a daily basis
  28. 28. The Five Elements of the High/Scope Approach Curriculum – High Scope Curriculum comes from two sources: Children’s interest and the key experience. • Teachers are aware of the content to be learned • Key experiences are used in math, language, the arts, social studies, P.E etc. • Time is spent each day focus using on content areas
  29. 29. A Daily Routine That Supports Active Learning  Planning Time – It gives children a structured, consistent chance to express their ideas to adults and to see themselves as individuals who can act on decisions.  Key Experiences – Teachers continually encourages and support children’s interest and involvement in activity.  Work Time – The part of the plan-do-review sequence is generally the longest time period in the daily routine.  Clean-up Time – Children return materials and equipment to their labeled places.  Recall Time – Final phase of the plan-do-review sequence.
  30. 30. The Montessori approach is attractive to parents and teachers for a number of reasons. 1. Montessori education has always been identified as a quality program for young children. 2. Parents who observe a good Montessori program like what they see: orderliness, independent children, self- directed learning, a calm environment, and children at the center of the learning process. 3. Some public schools include Montessori in their magnet programs, giving parents choices in the kind of program their children will have at their school.
  31. 31. Respect Children and their learning Make children the centre of learning Encourages children’s learning Observe children Prepare learning environments Introduce learning materials and demonstrates lessons Montessori Approach
  32. 32. The Montessori Method in Action 3 basic areas of child involvement 1.Practical Life 2.Sensory Materials 3.Academic Materials
  33. 33. PRACTICAL LIFE  Activities involved walking from place to place in an orderly manner, carrying objects, learning self-care skills, and doing other practical activities.  Practical life activities are taught through four (4) different types of exercises; • Care of the person • Care of the environment • Social relations • Analysis and control of movement
  34. 34. SENSORY MATERIALS  Materials that are designed to train and use the senses to support learning.  One purpose is to train children’s senses to focus on some obvious, particular quality.  It helps make children more aware of the capacity of their bodies.  It helps sharpen children’s powers of observation and visual discrimination.  It increase children’s ability to think, distinguish, classify and organize.
  35. 35. Materials for Writing and Reading Ten Geometric Forms and Colored Pencil Sandpaper letters
  36. 36. Movable Alphabet, with Individual Letters Command Cards
  37. 37. Materials for Mathematics Number Rods Sandpaper Numerals
  38. 38. Golden Beads
  39. 39. CHARACTERISTICS OF SENSORY MATERIALS  Control of Error  Isolation of single quality  Active Involvement  Attractiveness
  40. 40. ACADEMIC MATERIALS FOR READING, WRITING AND MATHEMATICS  Exercises using this materials are presented in a sequence that support writing as a basis for learning to read. ADDITIONAL FEATURES  Mixed-age grouping  Self-pacing
  41. 41. Integrated Curriculum Active Learning Montessori provides an integrated curriculum in which children are actively involve in manipulating concrete materials across the curriculum- writing reading, science, math, geography, and the arts. The Montessori curriculum is integrated by age and developmental level. In Montessori classroom, children’s are actively involved in their own learning. Manipulative materials provide for active and concrete MONTESSORI INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
  42. 42. Individual Instruction Independen ce Curriculum are activities should be individualize for children. Individualization occurs through children’s interactions with the materials as they proceed as their own rates of mastery. The Montessori environment emphasizes respect for children and promotes success, both of which encourage children to be MONTESSORI INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
  43. 43. Appropriate Assessment Developmentall y appropriate practices Observation is the primary means of assessing children’s progress, achievement, and behavior in Montessori classroom. Well trained Montessori teachers are skilled observers of children and adapt at translating their observation into appropriate ways for guiding, directing, facilitating, and channelling children’s learning. What is specified in developmentally appropriate practices is included in Montessori practice. It is more likely that quality Montessori practitioners understand, as Maria Montessori did, that children are much more capable than some MONTESSORI INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
  44. 44. REGGIO EMILIA A City in Northern Italy Loris Malaguzzi (1920-1994)
  45. 45. BELIEFS ABOUT CHILDREN AND HOW THEY LEARN • RELATIONSHIPS – Education focuses on each child and is conducted in relation with the family, other children, the teachers, the environment of the school, the community, and the wider society. • TIME – Reggio Emilia teachers believe that time is not set by a clock and that learning continuity should not be interrupted by the calendar
  46. 46. • ADULTS’ ROLES – Adults play a powerful role in children’s lives.  The Teacher – teachers observe and listen closely to children to know how to plan or proceed with their work.  The Atelierista – a teacher trained in the visual arts.  Parents – are an essential component of Reggio and they are included in the advisory committee that runs each school.
  47. 47. • THE ENVIRONMENT – the infant-toddler centers and school programs are the most visible aspect of the work done by teachers and parents in Reggio Emilia.  The Physical Space – the arrangement of structures, objects and activities encourages children’s choices, supports problem solving and promotes discoveries in the process of learning.  The Atelier – is a special workshop or studio, set aside and used by all the children and teachers in the school.
  48. 48. • PROGRAM PRACTICES – cooperation is the powerful mode of working that makes possible the achievement of the goals Reggio educators set for themselves.  Documentation – transcriptions of children’s remarks and discussions, photographs of the activity, and representations of their thinking and learning.  Curriculum and Practices – Reggio is a process approach, not a set curriculum to be implemented.
  49. 49. • CONSIDERATIONS 1. Its theoretical base rest within constructivism and shares ideas with those of Piaget, Vygotsky, Dewey, Gardner and Diamond and the concept or process of learning by doing. 2. There is no set curriculum. 3. Reggio Emilia approach is suited to a particular culture and society.
  50. 50. HEAD START BASIC PRINCIPLES AND GOALS The overall goal is to bring about a greater degree of social and academic competence. The philosophy is that children can benefit most from a comprehensive, interdisciplinary program that fosters children’s development.
  51. 51. Head Start goals provide for: • The improvement of children’s health and physical abilities • The encouragement of self-confidence, spontaneity, curiosity and self-discipline. • The enhancement of children’s mental processes and skills, with particular attention to conceptual and verbal skills.
  52. 52. • The establishment of patterns and expectations of success for children. • An increase in the ability of children in their families to relate to each other and to others in a loving and supporting manner. • The enhancement of the sense of dignity and self-worth within children and their families.
  53. 53. Head Start Services o Child Education and Development - Performance standards for education and development for all children o Services to children with disabilities - At least 10 percent of Head Start enrolment must consist of children with disabilities. o Parent Involvement/Family Partnership – Head Start has been dedicated to the philosophy that to improve children's lives, corresponding changes must be made in parents lives as well o Health Services – Head Start assumes an active role in children's health o Nutrition - Teach children how to care for their health.
  54. 54. Providing Head Start Services Head Start services are provided to children and families through a comprehensive child development program
  55. 55. Thank you!)