RAISING NURSERY OF WARM SEASON
VEGETABLE CROPS UNDER PROTECTED
SUBMITTEDTO DR. MONISHA RAWAT
SUBMITTED BY –CHANDA KUMARI
REGISTRATION NO. -11919701
Advantages of protected structures
Types of protected structures
Difference between field grown seedlings and container grown
Components of protected structures
Packaging and transportation
"A vegetable nursery is a place or an establishment for raising
or handling of young vegetable seedlings until they are ready
for more permanent planting.“
Nursery is a place where seedlings, cuttings and grafts
are raised with care before transplanting.
Types of Nursery beds
i. Temporary nursery – This type of nursery is developed only to fulfill the
requirement of the season or a targeted project. The nurseries for production of
seedlings of transplanted vegetables and flower crops are of temporary
nature. Likewise temporary arrangement for growing forest seedlings for
planting in particular area can also be done in temporary nursery.
ii. Permanent nursery – This type of nursery is placed permanently so
as to produce plants continuously. These nurseries have all the permanent
features. The permanent nursery has permanent mother plants. The work
goes on continuously all the year round in this nursery.
According to position it may
of three types
i. Raised bed nursery: Beds are raised 10-
15 cm above the level of the ground. In
areas having high rainfall raised beds are
ii. Sunken bed nursery: Beds are prepared
10-15 cm below the level of the ground. In
dry and arid regions sunken beds are
iii. Flatbed nursery: The beds are at
ground level. It is usually followed to
conserve the soil moisture for long period.
Well-drained soil is required.
According to type of plants produced
nurseries are classified in to following types
i) Fruit plant Nurseries
iii) Flowers plants nurseries
iv) Forest nurseries
v) Miscellaneous nurseries
Protected structures are
those structures that allow
the process of growing
crops in a controlled
that the temperature,
humidity, light and such
other factors can be
regulated as per
requirement of the crop.
e.g greenhouse, polyhouse,
shade net house etc.
Advantages of protected
Enables Growing of crops and raising nursery
anywhere and anytime.
Provides Protection from adverse climatic
Improved survival rate and better yield.
Gives opportunity for Off-season nursery and
Ensures Production of disease free quality
Saves water through micro-irrigation system
Barren and uncultivable land may be brought
More profit due to continuous supply
throughout the year.
Ideal for growing genetically modified crops and
tissue culture raised plantlets.
Suitable for production of high value crops for
Less chemical residue for better protection
against insect-pests and pathogens.
Types of nursery
Difference betweenfieldgrown seedlings and container grown seedlings
S.No Traditional method Modern method
1. More seeds required for raising seedlings.
For example hybrids seeds 100g per acre
required for tomato.
Less seeds required for raising seedlings compared to
traditional method. For example hybrids seed 70g per
2. Disinfect the nursery area by solarization. Use clean trays.
3. Prepare seed beds about 3m X 1m in size
and 20 cm heights.
Use the correct cell size according to the crop. For
example, cucurbit crops require larger cell size than
other vegetable crops.
4. Prepare the nursery bed soil loose and
friable and sow seed in lines about 5 cm
apart and 1-2 cm deep. Adjust the planting
depth according to the seed size.
Prepare growing media: normally coco peat mixes
with bio-fertilizer were used. Sown one seed in each
cell at a depth of 0.5 to 1.0 cm.
5. Cover the nursery bed with paddy straw or
dry leaves for germination.
Cover the trays with black polyethylene sheet for
6. More loss of expensive seeds Less loss of expensive seeds.
Types of poly-house depending on cost
1.Low cost poly-house
2.Medium cost poly-
3.High cost poly-houses Low cost poly-house
Medium cost polyhouse
High cost poly-house
Components of greenhouse
Galvanized iron pipes
UV stabilized polyethylene, polyester or poly
vinyl film (100 & 200 micron thick)
Poly vinyl rigid panel, fiberglass-reinforced
plastic (88-90% light transmission), acrylic(8 and 16
mm thick) or polycarbonate rigid panel (4, 6, 8, 10
and 16 mm thick) - Single, double or triple layer
Agro-shade net (10 to 90% shading)
Glass (diffused, haze glass and rigid fiberglass)
Pre-painted G.I. sheet insulated with poly urethane foam
Common physical structures of protected
nurseries (Roy et al., 2015)
Mist propagation unit
Agro-shade net house
Polyhouse or polytunnel
Lath house (sun and wind protection)
Controlled environment greenhouse
Tissue culture laboratory
Nutriculture unit ( for hydroponics)
Things to consider before locating a
Location and accessibility of site
Availability and initial cost of land
Availability, cost and quality of water sources
Availability and cost of inputs
Land characteristics, topography and elevation
Availability and cost of skilled labor
Proximity to market and transportation facility
Temperature (min/max), wind pattern, slope and
Room for expansion
Modern facilities in a hi-tech nursery
a) Irrigation system.
c) Fertigation unit
d) CO2 generator
e) Heating unit
f) Cooling unit
g) Agro-chemical application unit
h) Photoperiodic lighting
i) Propagation and nursery tools
j) Propagation bench
k) Nursery trolley and conveyors
l) Plant container, root trainer and sowing tray or portray
o) Greenhouse & nursery management software:
Components and process involved in modern
nursery raising system
Light and seed pelleting
Choice of tray cell size (number
and volume) to grow seedlings
depends on several factors
plant growth rates
Seedlings grown in larger cells are
taller and have greater dry weight
than those grown in small cells
[Smith and Duval 1998].
Tomato, brinjal , capsicum, chilli ,
watermelon, broccoli, cauliflower ,
cabbage , onion and muskmelon
were reported to have earlier yields
and rapid growth when grown in
o Media is one of the important components
for modern nursery raising system. Successful
nursery production is largely dependent on the
chemical and physical properties of the
o A growing media must be sterile
o It should have cation exchange capacity (CEC).
o pH and nutrient buffering capacity.
1.) Soil System or Geoponics
2.)Soil less culture:
Media used are:
Cocopeat, perlite, vermiculite,
saw dust, rockwool,
peanut hulls, rice hulls or the mixtures.
3.) Hydroponics or water culture
Seed pelleting and priming
Many vegetable seeds that are sown for seedling are small or big
and irregular shaped. Most commercial seedlings producers use
drum vacuum seeders thus, these types of seeds should be
pelleted or coated. Pelleting builds up seed size and uniformity
by layering the seed with layers of clay type material and binder.
Seeds normally pelleted include tomato, brinjal, chilli, onion,
lettuce and celery. Seed coating is accomplished by applying wet
solutions containing a dye and many times fungicides or other
chemical treatments.The coating does not build up seed size, nor
does it change the shape of the seed.The coating makes the
seeds more flowable in the seeders. Species that are commonly
coated include cucumber, watermelon, squash and melon. Using
dyes in the coating or pelleting process allows the seeds to be
more visible at sowing .
“Seed priming is a controlled
hydration technique in which
seeds are soaked in water or low
osmotic potential solution to a
point where germination related
metabolic activities begin in the
seeds but radical emergence does
(Heydecker and Coolbear, 1977;
McDonald, 2000; Farooq et al.,
“Seed enhancements are the pre germination
treatments that improve the germination rate,
time and seedling growth required at the
time of sowing.”
The purpose of seed treatments is to
shorten the time between planting and
(Black and Peter, 2016)
Treat the seeds with
Trichoderma viride 4 g or
Pseudomonas fluorescens 10
g or Carbendazim 2 g per kg
of seeds 24 hours before
sowing. Just before sowing,
treat the seeds with
Azospirillum @ 40 g / 400 g
Sowing can be done either manually or
The transplant tray is the first area that
facilitates mechanization both in seedling
and potentially automatic field transplanting
. Essentially all seedling transplant
operations have mechanized the seeding
process. Trays are loaded in bulk onto a line
where they are filled with media, dibbled,
sown via a vacuum drum seeder, topped
with vermiculite, watered and then stacked
by hand. Operators have to inspect the line,
stack trays to fill, and stack the filled flats
as they come off the line. This process is
enhanced if the seeds are pelleted, round
and of reasonable size. More sophisticated
seedling operations use robots to load and
unload flats onto benches.
Fig. Prototype precision plug seeder
(source Gaikwaad and Sirohi 2018).
Warm temperature and uniform moisture are
important for successful seed germination.
Many seed germination chamber systems are
commercially available including custom built
Many growers use bottom heat or root zone
heating to provide warm, even temperature.
A weed mat (Black polyethylene) is placed on
the top of the bench to help spread the heat
with skirts on the side to help contain the heat.
Tomato seeds germinate are best at 210C.The
ideal root zone temperature is 26 to 290C
during the first four weeks of growth and 20 to
260C during the fifth and sixth weeks.
In brinjal seed germinate at 21 to 240C.
Chilli seed germinate at 28 to 320C .
Healthy nursery of potential crops for protected cultivation
Fibrous root growth
Seedlings can be irrigated
Above the plants (requires
boom and nozzle)
Sub irrigation via ebb and
flow(system requires concrete
floors and a recycling system
for the water Irrigation may be
applied using hose pipe,
watering cane, overhead
sprinklers, travelling boom
irrigator, misting or fogging
system, drip irrigation (surface
as well as sub-surface) etc.
Basin/trench irrigation and
sub-surface drip irrigation are
used for maintaining the
Nutrition and soil health
S.No Function source
1. For supply of plant
Soil, vermicompost, concentrated organic
manures (blood meal, bone meal, fish meal,
soybean meal, cotton seed meal,
oil cakes etc.) and mineral amendments
sand, rock dust, rock phosphate, sulphate of
2. For moisture retention Compost, peat moss, coco peat, coir fibre,
3. For adequate drainage Coarse sand, perlite
4. For adequate aeration Coarse sand, perlite, vermiculite, leaf mold
5. For optimum pH Dolomite lime or Calcified sea weed (to adjust
Sulphur (to adjust down)
Disease and pest management
Indofil M-45 (2.5gm/kg
Alternaria leaf spot
Blitox (3 gm/lt)
Blossom end rot
Calcium chloride (5gm/lt)
White fly Acetamiprid
Common insect pest of nursery and their management
Common seed treatments in vegetable nursery
S.No Crop disease management
1. tomato, brinjal
Damping off Treat the seeds with Metalaxyl 35% SD +
Thiram 75% WP @ 2.5 g each/kg seeds.
2. beans Anthracnose &
Treat seed with Carbendazim 50 WP @
3. Pea Aschochyta blight &
Treat seed with Carbendazim 50 WP @
4. onion Purple blotch Treat the seeds with Captan orThiram @
3g/kg seeds before nursery sowing
5. onion Damping off Treat the seeds with Metalaxyl 35% SD +
Thiram 75% WP @ 2.5 g each/kg seeds.
6. Cole crops Black rot Soak seed in tap water for 30 minutes
followed by hot water dip at 520C for 30
minutes and finally by giving a same
duration dip in Streptocycline solution (1
10 L water).
Hardening includes any treatment that makes the tissue firm to perform better
during unfavorable environment like low temperature high temperature and hot
dry wind . Hardening is the physiological process of whereby plant
accumulates more carbohydrates reserve and produces an additional cuticle on
the leaves. In the process seedling are given some artificial shocks at least 7-10
days before uprooting and transplanting . Seedling are exposed to the full
sunlight , all the seedling needs , polythene sheets should be removed and
irrigation is stopped slowly and slowly.
Technique of Hardening
Hardening can be done by following ways.
By holding watering to the watering to the plant by 4-5 days before
Lowering the temperature also retards the growth aids to the hardening process.
By application of 4000 ppm Nacl with the irrigation water or by spraying of
2000 ppm of cycoel.
Effect of Hardening
Following effect must be observed by the hardening
Hardening improves the quality and modify the nature
of colloids ion the plant cell enabling them to resist the
loss of water.
Hardening improves the presence of dry matter and
regards in the plant but decrease the percentage of
feasible water and transpiration per unit area of leaf.
Decrease the rate of growth in the plant.
Harden plants withstand better against unfavorable
weather condition like hot day, wind and low
temperature. Hardening of plants increases the waxy
covering the leaves of cabbage.
The marketable stages of nursery plants of some important
S.No Crop Marketable stage
1. Brinjal 4-5 weeks old seedling, 12-15 cm in height, 6-8
2. Broccoli 4-6 weeks old seedling
3. Chilli/Capsicum 6-7 weeks old seedling, 15-20 cm in height
4. Lettuce 4-5 weeks old seedling
5. Onion 6-8 weeks old seedling, 20-25 cm in height
6. Tomato 3-4 weeks old seedling, 12-15 cm in height, 4-6
7. Cauliflower/Cabbage 3-5 weeks old seedling
Source : Handbook of Seed and Planting MaterialTesting Manual for Horticultural Crops,
Packaging and transportation
Thorat et al. (2011) defined packing as placing
the nursery plants or propagating materials
into a suitable container for maintaining
their viability and vitality during storage and
transport. Proper packaging
minimizes desiccation and protects the
planting material from hazards
caused during transport and prevents them
from microbial and insect
Paddy straw, sphagnum moss, dry grass, banana
leaves and newspaper etc. For wrapping the earthen
ball of the saplings
Bamboo-matted box/basket, Polythene lined bags,
Corrugated fiber box, Plastic crates, Hessian cloth,
Sacking cloth etc -For bulbs, tubers, rhizomes and
Cardboard box, plastic container, Cardboard -For
Moistened moss grass For wrapping up the delicate
planting material such as vegetable
Refrigerated container - For seed or vegetative
propagule of high value plants
Lack of specialised techniques in vegetable
Lack of sufficient money to construct the
Production cost of vegetable is higher.
Lack of skilled knowledge.
Higher seed cost.
Lack of market accessibility and cold storage
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Protected cultivation for food and nutritional security at
Ladakh. Defence Science Journal, 60(2), 219.
Wani, K. P., Singh, P. K., Amin, A., Mushtaq, F., & Dar, Z. A. (2011).
Protected cultivation of tomato, capsicum and cucumber under
Kashmir valley conditions. Asian Journal of Science and
Technology, 1(4), 056-061.
Bharathi PVL, Ravishankar M. 2018.Vegetable nursery and
tomato seedling management guide for south and central India.
WorldVeg Publication No. 18-829.WorldVegetable Center,
Taiwan. 30 p.
Sahu, B., Dalai, S., & Mallikarjunarao, K. Cultivation of Off-season
Vegetables under Protected Conditions.