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Writing and implementing HRM policies

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Writing, formulating, implementing and monitoring and evaluating Human Resources Management (HRM) policies - 7-step process

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Writing and implementing HRM policies

  1. 1. WRITING AND IMPLEMENTING HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (HRM) POLICIES CHARLES COTTER FOCUS ROOMS, SUNNINGHILL 21-22 SEPTEMBER 2015
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OVERVIEW – DAY 1 • www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter • Defining policy and related theoretical concepts • Understanding the different levels of policy • Understanding the nature, typology and characteristics of HRM policy development • HRM Policy as a managerial process:  Step 1: Agenda-setting/issue (problem) identification  Step 2: Policy analysis  Step 3: Policy instruments  Step 4: Stakeholder engagement, consultation and co-ordination
  3. 3. INTRODUCTORY LEARNING ACTIVITY • Individual activity: • Complete the following statement by inserting one word only. In order to be an efficient and effective HRM Policy writer, I need to/to be……………………………………………… • Jot this word down and find other learners who have written down the same word. • Write this word down on the flip-chart. • Each learner will have the opportunity to explain their choice of word.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • HR Managers need to regard policy formulation, development and implementation as embedded in the traditional management functions (P-O-L-C) • Effective policy management requires a diverse range of management skills (e.g. conceptual-thinking; problem-solving; people/interpersonal skills & technical skills) • Policy is part-and-parcel of any HR manager’s responsibility and requires a systematic, managed and coordinated approach. • In the modern business environment, all organizations can be regarded as an open system. • To understand the influence of all these levels on organizations, HR Managers need to apply a holistic management view.
  5. 5. DEFINING THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS • Policy • Types of policy Educational Public HRM • Functions of policy • Procedure
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF POLICY • A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome/s. • Policy can be defined as a purposive course of action based on societal values, followed in dealing with a matter/concern, and predicting the outcome that would result from the achievement of the purpose. • The term, policy, is not normally used to denote what is actually done - this is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol. • Policy can be considered as a "Statement of Intent" or a "Commitment". For that reason at least, HR managers can be held accountable for the "Policy“ • Policy differs from rules or law. Policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome. • The intended effects of a policy vary widely according to the organization and the context in which they are made.
  7. 7. FUNCTIONS OF POLICY • Communicate values and expectations for how things are done at your organization • Keep the organization in compliance with legislation and provide protection against employment claims • Document and implement best practices appropriate to the organization • Support consistent treatment of staff, fairness and transparency • Help management to make decisions that are consistent, uniform and predictable • Protect individuals and the organization from the pressures of expediency
  8. 8. PROCEDURE • A procedure tells members of the organization how to carry out or implement a policy. • Policy is the "what" and the procedure is the "how to". • Policies are written as statements or rules. • Procedures are written as instructions, in logical steps.
  9. 9. ILLUSTRATION: CASCADING OF POLICY AND PROCEDURAL LEVELS
  10. 10. CASCADING LEVELS OF POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Government levels - implemented through executive government structures • Strategic levels – policy which is directive in nature and which has its origin at national or strategic level. It provides practitioners with broad guidelines • Operational levels - stems from strategic policy and attempts to put broad policy directives into hands-on policy actions • HRM Policy levels
  11. 11. DEFINITION OF HRM POLICY • HRM policies are the formal rules and guidelines that businesses put in place to hire, train, assess and reward the members of their workforce. • These policies can serve to preempt many misunderstandings between employees and employers about their rights and obligations in the business place. • When issues concerning employee rights and company policies come before the courts, it is standard practice to assume that the company's human resource policies are a part of an employment contract between the employee and the company. • Without clearly written policies, the company is at a disadvantage.
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL HRM POLICIES • Those businesses that are able to administer their HR policies in an intelligent and consistent manner, benefits can accrue in several areas: Communication with employees, with managers and supervisors Time Savings Curbing litigation
  13. 13. SCOPE OF HRM POLICIES
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE HRM POLICIES • Authoritative • Enforceable • Flexible and adaptable • Feasible • Clear • Transparent
  15. 15. MAP OF HRM TERRITORY
  16. 16. KEY COMPONENTS OF HRM TERRITORY MAP • Policy influencers/determinants:  Stakeholder interests  Situational factors • HRM Policy choices • HRM Policy outcomes (4 C’s):  Competence  Commitment  Congruence  Cost effectiveness • Long-term consequences:  Individual well-being  Societal well-being  Organizational effectiveness
  17. 17. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 • Group Discussion: By referring to the distinctive characteristics of policy, as well as the Map of the HRM territory, how effective would you rate the current level of HRM policy management performance at Umalusi? Identify gaps and recommend improvement strategies. Provide feedback of a summary of group discussion
  18. 18. HRM POLICY TRIANGLE
  19. 19. HRM POLICY AS A MANAGERIAL PROCESS • Step 1: HRM Agenda-setting/issue (problem) identification • Step 2: HRM Policy analysis • Step 3: HRM Policy instruments • Step 4: Stakeholder engagement, consultation and co-ordination • Step 5: HRM Policy formulation, decision-making and policy drafting • Step 6: HRM Policy implementation • Step 7: HRM Policy monitoring and evaluation
  20. 20. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Group Discussion:  What HRM policy adjustments/amendments have taken place recently at Umalusi? What initiated this HRM policy change i.e. the reason and/or source?  What has been the impact at strategic, operational and functional levels within Umalusi?  From your management experience, outline/sketch the HRM policy development process at Umalusi. Would you regard these processes as efficient and effective i.e. do you as a HR manager foresee any procedural shortcomings – both during HRM policy development (drafting) and implementation stages?  Provide feedback of a summary of group discussion
  21. 21. STEP 1: HRM AGENDA-SETTING/ISSUE IDENTIFICATION • Identification and sensitization - process of identifying HRM policy issues/problems, which require attention and there is a need to place these issues on the HRM agenda for deliberation • Origin/source of the various organizational HRM policy- related issues: HRM Policy demands HRM Policy decisions HRM Policy statements Policy as an output Policy as an outcome Policy as a programme
  22. 22. HRM POLICY DEMANDS • HR Managers want to be sure that any policies they bring into the organization: Address a real need Are in line with what the company values and how work should be accomplished • HR Managers also need to ensure that line managers have the skills and resources to be able to implement and monitor the policy
  23. 23. STEP 2: HRM POLICY ANALYSIS • The importance and value of continual HRM policy analysis • The reasons for policy analysis • The necessity and benefits of HRM policy analysis • Role of the HRM policy analyst • Pre-requisites for HRM policy analysis • Steps in analyzing HRM policy
  24. 24. THE NECESSITY AND BENEFITS OF HRM POLICY ANALYSIS • HRM Policy analysis has the following advantages: • Policy analysis contributes towards the making of rational choices in policy • Policy analysis assists the stakeholders in policy to comprehend the importance of values, particular interests and business considerations in choosing a desired course of action • Policy analysis provides tangible facts • A good policy analysis compares not only objectives or resources, but also alternative programmes, it makes errors easy to identify by working with historical contexts and bears in mind that HR managers must implement policies and that employees are involved.
  25. 25. ROLES OF THE HRM POLICY ANALYST • The primary role of the HRM policy analyst is to analyze and evaluate the HRM policies. • It is the responsibility of the policy analyst to advise the HRM policy-maker on the best course of action to resolve HRM policy inadequacies. • The HRM policy analyst is performing both a policy analysis and a policy advocacy function. In doing so, the policy analyst will follow one of three courses of action or a combination thereof:  Objective technician (SCIENTIST)  Issue and Client's (ADVOCATE)  Viable, feasible and organizational-fit policy (POLITICIAN)
  26. 26. ROLES OF THE HRM POLICY ANALYST
  27. 27. 6-STEP PROCESS IN ANALYZING HRM POLICY • Step 1: Identify the underlying values and aspirations • Step 2: Understand the problem in its context • Step 3: Identify the alternative courses of actions • Step 4: Decide which dimensions of the problem are most important • Step 5: Predict the likely outcomes of different courses of action • Step 6: Measure the chosen courses of action against important values and aspirations
  28. 28. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Group Discussion: By referring to step 1 of the HRM policy development process, identify a current and/or imminent HRM-related issues and/or problems at Umalusi that requires HRM policy review of formulation. Prioritize these issues in order of their relative importance. By referring to step 2 of the HRM policy development process, conduct a thorough HRM policy analysis of the most pressing issue identified in the preceding step. Provide feedback of a summary of group discussion
  29. 29. STEP 3: HRM POLICY INSTRUMENTS • Policies find their way on to the agenda of HRM policy- makers by different routes – external and internal: Legislation and government policy and priorities Taxation (the budget) Persuasion (and public pressure) Inspection and HRM audits Minutes of HRM and operational meetings Legislative records Provision of services Newsletter, media briefings and community meetings Employee grievances (and complaints) HRM Analytics and other Business Intelligence
  30. 30. STEP 4: STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT, CONSULTATION AND CO-ORDINATION • HRM Policy-makers must ensure accountability, responsiveness and openness when consulting with stakeholders • Right to access to any information • Extensive consultation and co-ordination between the various stakeholders is paramount to the effective adoption, approval and implementation of policy within any organization • Workers' or employers' associations • Stakeholder Analysis and Prioritization
  31. 31. POWER-INTEREST MATRIX
  32. 32. LEARNING ACTIVITY 4 • Group Discussion: By referring to step 3 of the HRM policy development process, identify the most relevant policy instruments/sources for the identified HRM policy development issue. By referring to step 4 of the HRM policy development process, identify the most prominent internal and external stakeholders. As an Umalusi HR manager, describe how you will engage and what methods will be used to consult with these stakeholders.  Provide feedback of a summary of group discussion
  33. 33. PRESENTATION OVERVIEW – DAY 2 • HRM Policy as a managerial process: Step 5: Policy formulation, decision-making and policy drafting Step 6: Policy implementation Step 7: Policy monitoring and evaluation
  34. 34. STEP 5: HRM POLICY FORMULATION AND ADOPTION (DECISIONS AND POLICY DRAFTING) • It is a HRM policy-maker’s responsibility to formulate an appropriate response to the identified needs, desires and demands of the stakeholders. HR managers are tasked to formulate policy recommendations to the decision makers. • These factors that should be taken into consideration before adopting a policy, include inter alia:  Conditions of establishment  Political, financial, organizational, human, operational, legal and technical considerations • HRM policy recommendations are normally drafted by HR managers and then referred to higher management authority for deliberation, approval and adoption. • It is important to note that HR managers only make policy recommendations, but it remains the responsibility of the highest decision-making authority (executive powers) to approve or reject a particular HRM policy recommendation. • A HRM policy-maker or decision maker has to be sure of the ability of officials to actually execute a policy. Before adopting or approving a policy, a HRM policy- maker or decision maker has to be convinced of the administrative, operational and managerial capacity to implement the decision.
  35. 35. HRM POLICY CONTENT • A purpose statement • An applicability & scope statement • Background • Definitions • An effective date • A responsibilities section
  36. 36. HRM POLICY CONTENT • Policy statements - indicating the specific regulations, requirements, or modifications to organizational behaviour that the policy is creating. The statement is the actual rule or standard the policy needs to communicate. • Questions • References • Approval
  37. 37. TIPS FOR DRAFTING THE HRM POLICY • Use straightforward clear language and avoid jargon and legal speak • Check that the content and wording is unbiased and encourages fair, consistent treatment. • Use terms consistently and define any special terms • Be sure that there is only one possible meaning to the standard or rule set by your policy • Consider a few “what if” scenarios and see if the policy still fits, keeping in mind that most policies will not, and should not, cover every possible circumstance • For most policies you will want to allow for exceptions to the rule. Use terms like “generally”, “usually”, and “typically” and avoid terms like “always” and “never” • Include a statement like “this is intended as a guide only” • There are a few situations where you want to be absolutely clear that the standard set by the policy will apply in all situations. • If using a sample policy or draft, tailor the policy for your specific workplace
  38. 38. LEARNING ACTIVITY 5 • Group Discussion: By referring to the content items of a HRM policy document and by following the guidelines, draft a policy for the identified HRM policy issue at Umalusi, discussed in the preceding learning activity. Provide feedback of a summary of group discussion
  39. 39. STEP 6: HRM POLICY IMPLEMENTATION • The implementation of the policy will have to be overseen and managed by HR management • Every functional field will employ appropriate technology for the implementation of such policy • Every official concerned with the making and the implementation of policy will always have to be on the look-out for techniques which could be used to improve the performance of the functions involved • It is necessary to mention that the institutions and functionaries concerned with the implementation of a policy should market their implementation plans, programmes/projects • The marketing activities should be approached as a continuous process and adapted to answer the questions asked about the implementation activities. • An effective information service should be available to the functionaries charged with the policy implementation. • After the executive authority has accepted a particular recommendation, the HRM policy has to be translated into action. A HRM policy-maker should never get involved in the physical execution of policies, because it is the responsibility of the line management/officials to implement these policies.
  40. 40. LEARNING ACTIVITY 6 • Group Discussion: Describe how the adopted HRM policy will be implemented at Umalusi. Focus on the methods that will be used. Also explain how HR and line management will ensure that the organization has the administrative, operational and managerial capacity for HRM policy implementation at Umalusi. Provide feedback of a summary of group discussion
  41. 41. STEP 7: HRM POLICY MONITORING AND EVALUATION (M&E) • Policy-makers should however, request periodical feedback as to monitor the implementation of its decision • It is important for HR managers to ensure that they receive regular and accurate feedback on the perceived success of organizational HRM policies from officials in this particular department. • HR Managers would be able to adhere to the accountability and transparency prerequisites required of all HRM governance action. • After physical implementation, it is important for a HR manager to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of a HRM policy. • In order to determine if a policy has any shortcomings or to determine if there is room for improvement, officials should be requested to submit quarterly reports on the performance aspects of all HRM policies, programmes and projects. • These reports will determine if corrective steps should be taken. If so, these will be channeled into the policy process and the process will repeat itself.
  42. 42. LEARNING ACTIVITY 7 • Group Discussion: Describe how the implemented HRM policy will be monitored and evaluated at Umalusi. Focus on the methods, systems and processes that will be used. Provide feedback of a summary of group discussion
  43. 43. CONCLUSION • SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS • LEARNING “TAKE-AWAYS" • QUESTIONS • TRAINING ADMINISTRATION • CERTIFICATION • THANK YOU!
  44. 44. CONTACT DETAILS • CHARLES COTTER • +27 84 562 9446 • charlescot@polka.co.za • LINKED IN • TWITTER: Charles_Cotter

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