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  1. Accident prevention and road safety: The high way code BY Dr SA Balogun
  2. Introduction • Road traffic accident is unarguably one of the ‘titanic’ tragedies confronting man • The magnitude and trend worldwide is heartbreaking. • Unfortunately the rising tide of this global problem has continued to outstrip all efforts to curtail it. • Such major efforts in major parts of the world especially in developing Nations are either half hearted or half-baked.
  3. Introduction (cont) • Road safety at first seems relatively unimportant in the sixties in Nigeria and most developing countries when compared to hunger, educational, financial, and economic resource problems • In fact, public ignorance of the causes of road traffic accident was palpable, as people continually attributed cases of road carnage to either the will of God or evil spirit, while ignoring the scientific angle to the menace thus creating a high level of apathy among the people.
  4. Introduction (cont) • The RTA account for between 1-2% of GNP which is over $500 billon yearly • Analysis of causes of death in a number of countries throughout the developing countries has shown that deaths and fatalities from road traffic accident in Nigeria rank among the highest in the world and second behind those by hunger and gastroenteritis
  5. Introduction (cont) • BUT The above need not happen as many of the risks involved were entirely within human control. • It is possible to reduce the risk of death and injury if a systematic approach is promoted to understanding how people, vehicle and the environment interrelate • A broad approach was also required, encompassing such areas as emergency health services, education for prevention, legislation and law
  6. Techniques for accident prevention • DO NOT overtake on a bend. Do not overtake on the right except where the road-signs permit, or the vehicle in front of you clearly trafficate to the left. • DO NOT overtake at road junctions. DO NOT overtake on the brow of a hill, or close to the brow of a hill. • DO NOT overtake at T-junctions. DO NOT overtake in any way that endangers traffic on the road. • When in doubt, DO NOT overtake • NOTE: Nothing in the Highway Code compels you to overtake DANGEROUSLY. • A helpful driver waving you on, or a broken line of the road DOES NOT FORCE you to overtake when it is UNSAFE to do so. USE YOUR OWN EYES!
  7. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • DO NOT MAKE U-TURNS near the crest of a hill, on a sharp bend, in face of on-coming traffic or in front of traffic close behind you. • DO NOT MAKE U-TURNS where a road-sign forbids you to do so. • DO NOT MAKE U-TURNS in heavy traffic. DO NOT MAKE U-TURNS where doing so will constitute a danger to other road-users. • Look for a side road. Back into it, then await a safe moment to turn into the side way, facing the desired direction
  8. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • A HEAVY VEHICLES to take note: As soon as you begin to lose speed going uphill, pull over to the right as far as the road safely permits. • Traffic hold-ups which can be avoided are enemies of safety on the highway. Avoid selfish driving. • Do not wait to be arrested. PULL OVER TO YOUR EXTREME RIGHT when going UPHILL • Even where the road is flat, all SLOW VEHICLES must give way to allow faster vehicles to overtake.
  9. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) At the first available clear stretch, pull over to your right AS FAR AS THE ROAD ALLOWS, and proceed normally. It is COMPULSORY that you give way as soon as there is a build-up of FOUR vehicles behind you. Always glance in your driving mirror. Use your trafficator to signal your intentions. If you see an obstacle ahead while on the shoulder of the road, slow down to a COMPLETE STOP if there are still faster vehicles overtaking you. Do not pull back suddenly into the road. STOP COMPLETELY. Regain your lane only when all faster traffic have passed
  10. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • LONG or SLOW vehicles must NOT drive head to tail. except when overtaking, keep at least a distance of twice the length of your own vehicle between you and the vehicle in front. • Attempt to overtake only when it is ABSOLUTELY clear that the vehicle in front is travelling MUCH SLOWER than yours. • Wait for faster vehicles to overtake YOU before you yourself attempt to overtake
  11. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • Keep BOTH hands on the controls. Driving with one arm dangling out of the car window indicates that you are driving your vehicle without proper control, and will be promptly penalized. • Disengage your hand only to execute signals and return it promptly to the vehicle controls.
  12. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • The Highway Code indicates very clearly the correct signals for a driver intending to stop, turn right or left, or to go straight ahead. • The HAZARD lights are for use ONLY in times of unavoidable danger to other road-users, such as breakdowns leading to traffic obstruction, failure of brakes, loss of control, etc. • Hazard lights are a WARNING SIGN to other road- users. • They are not a substitute for correct signal, or careful and correct driving, and must NOT be treated as such. • Hazard lights are NOT for signaling that you wish to go straight ahead
  13. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • DO NOT switch off your ignition while driving in order to conserve fuel. • Free-wheeling reduces control over a vehicle and is EXTREMELY DANGEROUS. • DO NOT attempt to save fuel at the expense of human lives. • The severest penalty will be meted out to this irresponsible conduct
  14. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • COURTEOUS INTENT is not a substitute for safe and careful driving. • If you wish to grant another driver right of way when your lane has priority, first look in your mirror to ensure that it is safe to do so. • DO NOT BRAKE SUDDENLY • On the other hand, DO NOT FORCE YOUR WAY into an oncoming lane when your lane is obstructed. • STOP! Do not force your way into a major road if others do not give you right of way. WAIT!
  15. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • DL plates must be clearly displayed on all unregistered vehicles. • The number must be as clear as the normal registration plates. • Where the dealer, for security reasons, has retained the license of the driver, he must provide him with a signed document to the effect. • Such a document must bear the driver’s name, address, license number, date and place of issue, and PHOTOGRAPH. • Failure to comply with these requirements will result in the detention of the vehicle
  16. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • Speeding over the limits prescribed in built-up areas or through a road construction stretch will be rigorously punished. Where in doubt, slow down to a CRAWL
  17. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • Do not attempt to drive at night without functioning rear and front lights on both sides of the vehicles. • A one-eyed motor-car is a half-blind killer; at night it looks like a motor-cycle. • It is more comfortable to park your vehicle off the road and sleep inside it than to pass the night in Police/FRSC cell- Or on the operating table • Do not commence a journey unless your vehicle has been thoroughly checked- LIGHTS, BRAKE FLUID, WATER, BATTERY LEVEL,ENGLISH OIL, TYRE PRESSURE- and a functioning DIP SWITCH • Do unto others as you would have them do unto you-DIP YOUR LIGHTS!
  18. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • It is an offence to fail to surrender your driving license or vehicle papers ON DEMAND to a uniformed or Special Marshal. • You are advised to note that the Marshals regard prostration or kneeling as attempt to corrupt. • All that is required is that you carry out the Marshal’s instructions PROMPTLY • Beware of FAKE ‘MARSHALS’. • When In doubt ask for his ID card. • Attempted BRIBERY is an additional offence. DO NOT TRY IT!!!
  19. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • We all know the ROAD BULLY. Not only does he force his will on an oncoming vehicle that has priority, he announces his CRIMINAL INTENT by FLASHING his headlamps and blasting away with his horn. • Such conduct constitute a grave affront to law- abiding road users and will be heavily stamped upon.
  20. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • PATERNTS who permit their children to drive without a driving license are CRIMINAL SHOW- OFFS. They will be prosecuted together with their SPOILT BRATS. • These include STUDENTS on CAMPUSES
  21. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • At ACCIDENT SCENES (may they forever diminish): DO NOT OBSTRUCT at the scene of an ACCIDENT. • DO NOT SLOW DOWN in order to stare. An accident is NOT A SHOW. • If you wish to help, drive on PART where your vehicle will not be an ADDITIONAL HAZARD. • GO ABOUT YOUR BUSINESS unless you can contribute GENUINE ASSISTANCE. • On the other hand, DO NOT FORCE YOUR WAY THROUGH where an accident has held up traffic. • BE ORDERED AND TAKE YOUR TURN. • DO NOT CONTRIBUTE TO A DISASTER
  22. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • FAST CARS TO NOTE: when a vehicle has clearly begun to overtake another before you, DO NOT FLASH YOUR LIGHT OR BLAST YOUR HORN to show your impatience. • Wait for the car in front of you to complete overtaking and return into the slow lane. • IMPATIENCE can produce ANXIETY or even PANIC in others, which in turn leads to accidents. • Do not TERRORISE with FLASHING HEADLIAMPS.
  23. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • EXPRESSWAYS provide a minimum of two lanes facing in each direction. • Stay on the RIGHT LANE except when overtaking. That is the LAW. • Where the right lane is blocked by a vehicle breakdown or a bad road surface, you may turn into the FAST (i.e left) lane. • Return to the RIGHT LANE as soon as the obstacle has been passed • DO NOT HOG THE FAST LANE
  24. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • When driving, KEEP YOUR EYES on the road. AT ALL TIMES. • DO NOT turn your head to converse with passengers seated BESIDE or BEHIND you. • If you cannot converse without TURNING to look at other occupants of the vehicle, then BE A MERE LISTENER. • And even while listening, remember-E-EYES FRONT!!!
  25. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • POWERFUL MOTORCYCLES often prove DEATH MACHINES. • DO not SHOW OFF on a machine you cannot control. • MOTORCYCLE DRIVERS are bound by ALL TRAFFIC LAWS whether on the Public Highways or campuses of Higher Institutions. • Offending MINORS will have their vehicles CONFISTICATED indefinitely.
  26. Techniques for accident prevention(cont) • When you have to park on a HIGHWAY, look for a spot that will NOT ENDANGER other traffic. • The law compels you to carry WARNING TRIANGLES. Use them. • Pull over far to the right of the kerb of the road as far as possible. • DO NOT PARK on the BROW of a HILL or in a BLIND CORNER. • The moment you suspect a malfunction in your vehicle, start looking for a SAFE SPOT to stop. • DO NOT wait to be trapped in the DEAD CENTRE of your lane.
  27. Techniques for accident prevention(cont)
  28. • Drugs and Driving • Under laws that came into effect on December 1, 2004, Victoria Police have the power to conduct random roadside saliva testing to detect drivers travelling while affected by illicit drugs. • Drug driving is a major contributor to road fatalities in Victoria . In 2003, a total of 31 per cent of drivers killed in Victoria tested positive to drugs other than alcohol. Many drivers appear unaware of the effects that drugs can have on their alertness, vigilance and ability to react rapidly to unexpected events. Some drugs can also increase the impairing effects of alcohol and fatigue. • The random roadside saliva testing is aimed at making Victoria ’s roads safer for everyone by reducing the incidence of drug driving. • For further information about random roadside saliva testing for illicit drugs call 1300 369 819.