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Reactive Programming with JavaScript

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"Reactive Programming with JavaScript" by Giorgio Natili
JavaScript is an asynchronous and almost single-thread language. Learning how to manage its asynchronous nature is perhaps the most important part of becoming an effective JavaScript programmer. Reactive programming tools in JavaScript provide a powerful way of “wrapping” the asynchronous callbacks into a more readable and maintainable code base. In this talk, I'll highlight the pros and cons of different reactive programming approaches and practices by demonstrating how to use Redux and Angular 2.x as the building blocks of a scalable architecture for your web app.

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Reactive Programming with JavaScript

  1. 1. Reactive Programming with JavaScript @giorgionatili
  2. 2. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea $ whoami • Lead Software Engineer (McGraw-Hill Education) • Community fellow since 2004 (Codeinvaders) • Open source fanatic • Founder of Mobile Tea
  3. 3. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Mobile Tea • A free community • A movement around the two continents • A place to have fun while learning
  4. 4. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Supporters http://careers.mheducation.com https://dev.twitter.com
  5. 5. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Agenda • An Overview of JavaScript past and future • Reactive Programming in a Nutshell • What is Functional Programming • Asynchronous JavaScript Applications • Redux, Angular 2 and Reactive Programming
  6. 6. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea JavaScript
  7. 7. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Why people hate it • Lack of code organization, spaghetti code everywhere and abuse of globals • Weird inheritance chain (aka prototype property) • Callbacks are not straight forward to digest • The mutability of the this keyword
  8. 8. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Why people love it • It has a rather low entry barrier; people can start coding and get results quickly • It’s full of (legacy) examples to start with • JavaScript is suited for the rest of us, continuously learning web hackers not having a PhD in CS
  9. 9. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea It’s your choice
  10. 10. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea JS, the New Assembly • Everybody loves it but nobody wants really write it • Some of the internals are hidden by popular frameworks (and people is happy about it) • Only recently syntax and features get a relevant improvement (ES2015)
  11. 11. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea JS, What’s Next
  12. 12. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Long Story Short • ECMAScript (ES) standardization started in 1996 • ES 3 was published in 1999 (the age of browsers war) • ES 5 was published in 2009 (adoption started late 2011) • ES6 was published in 2015 (early adoption) • ES Next https://babeljs.io/docs/plugins/
  13. 13. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea What’s Changing • The way of thinking in JavaScript (modules, scopes, arrow functions, classes, etc.) • The support for asynchronous programming (async and await, promises, yield, etc.) tasks • Math, Number, String, Array and object APIs re- evolution
  14. 14. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Array & Arrow Functions Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('*')) // Returns a real Array Array.of(1, 2, 3) // Similar to new Array(…), [0, 0, 0].fill(7, 1) // [0,7,7] [1, 2, 3].find(x => x == 3) // 3 [1, 2, 3].findIndex(x => x == 2) // 1
 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].copyWithin(3, 0) // [1, 2, 3, 1, 2] ["a", "b", "c"].entries() // iterator [0, "a"], [1,"b"], [2,"c"] ["a", "b", "c"].keys() // iterator 0, 1, 2 ["a", "b", "c"].values() // iterator "a", "b", "c"
  15. 15. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Classes & Inheritance // Pseudo-code of Array class Array { constructor(...args) { /* ... */ } static [Symbol.create]() { // Install special [[DefineOwnProperty]] // to magically update 'length' } } // User code of Array subclass class MyArray extends Array { constructor(...args) { super(...args); } }
  16. 16. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Proxy Objects var target = {}; var handler = { get: function (receiver, name) { return `Hello, ${name}!`; } }; var p = new Proxy(target, handler); p.world === 'Hello, world!'; custom behavior for fundamental operations
  17. 17. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Huge Impact • Many new features and emerging standards • Early browsers adoptions through transpilers (babeljs, traceur, etc.) • Frameworks are adopting it (e.g. Angular 2, EmberJS, ReactJS, etc.)
  18. 18. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Now Everything is Possible
  19. 19. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Reactive Programming
  20. 20. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea In a Nutshell • Is a programming paradigm oriented around data flows • Variables and property values get updated at runtime and the system is notified about changes • Is similar to the well known observer pattern • Supports different programming paradigms like Imperative, Object Oriented and Functional
  21. 21. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Why It Matters • Enables developers creating data streams of anything, not just from click and hover events • Data streams emit events that can be handled asynchronously • Data streams are data structures and then can be filtered • Extends the asynchronous event engine of JavaScript to data flows
  22. 22. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Reactive Systems
  23. 23. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Reactive Systems • Responsive: the system responds in a timely manner to data stream changes • Elastic: the system stays responsive under varying workload • Message Driven: the system relies on asynchronous not blocking message-passing • Resilient: the system stays responsive in the face of failure (error handling)
  24. 24. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Functional Programming
  25. 25. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea FP definition relies on foreboding statements like “functions as first-class objects” and “eliminating side effects” Definition
  26. 26. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea • All of your functions must accept at least one argument • All of your functions must return data or another function • No loops! (What???) Getting Started
  27. 27. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea In Practice function totalForArray(currentTotal, arr) { currentTotal += arr[0]; // I am not using Array.shift on because // we're treating arrays as immutable. var remainingList = arr.slice(1); // This function calls itself with the remainder of the list, and the // current value of the currentTotal variable if(remainingList.length > 0) { return totalForArray(currentTotal, remainingList); } // Unless the list is empty, in which case we return // the currentTotal value else { return currentTotal; } }
  28. 28. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea • First Class Functions: functions treated as objects, can be passed as arguments and returned as values • Pure Functions: a function that doesn’t depend on and doesn’t modify the states of variables out of its scope • Immutable Variables: a variable that preserves its original value after a mutation Things I Like
  29. 29. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea First Class Functions function analyticsHandler(e) { ...//perform some analytics. } $('form').on('submit',analyticsHandler); You really used jQuery? Yes, I am sorry! :)
  30. 30. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Pure Functions var values = { a: 1 }; function impureFunction ( items ) { var b = 1; items.a = items.a * b + 2; return items.a; } var c = impureFunction( values ); // Now `values.a` is 3 function pureFunction ( a ) { var b = 1; a = a * b + 2; return a; } var d = pureFunction( values.a ); // Values.a is not modified
  31. 31. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Immutable Variables var arr = new ImmutableArray([1, 2, 3, 4]); var v2 = arr.push(5); arr.toArray(); // [1, 2, 3, 4] v2.toArray(); // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
  32. 32. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea • The data should be immutable (creating new data structures instead of modifying the ones that already exist) • The app and its components should be stateless (no memory of previous execution) App Perspective
  33. 33. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea It’s Not a Buzzword
  34. 34. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea • This book gives a lucid and thorough account of the concepts and techniques used in modern functional programming languages. Standard ML is used for notation, but the examples can be easily adapted to other functional languages. • Originally published: January 1, 1989 • Author: Chris Reade It’s a Science
  35. 35. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Functional Reactive Programming • Is a programming paradigm for reactive programming to which are applied the building blocks of functional programming (e.g. map, reduce, filter, merge, etc.) • It’s implemented in JavaScript by popular libraries such as bacon.js and RxJS (sounds familiar Java developers?)
  36. 36. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Bacon.js var up = $('#up').asEventStream('click'); var down = $('#down').asEventStream('click'); var counter = // map up to 1, down to -1 up.map(1).merge(down.map(-1)) // accumulate sum .scan(0, function(x,y) { return x + y }); // assign the observable value to jQuery property text counter.assign($('#counter'), 'text');
  37. 37. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Asynchronous
  38. 38. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea The Callback Hell var p_client = new Db('integration_tests_20', new Server("127.0.0.1", 27017, {}), {'pk':CustomPKFactory}); p_client.open(function(err, p_client) { p_client.dropDatabase(function(err, done) { p_client.createCollection('test_custom_key', function(err, collection) { collection.insert({'a':1}, function(err, docs) { collection.find({'_id':new ObjectID("aaaaaaaaaaaa")}, function(err, cursor) { cursor.toArray(function(err, items) { test.assertEquals(1, items.length); // Let's close the db p_client.close(); }); }); }); }); }); });
  39. 39. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea ES6 Promises var promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject) { // do a thing, possibly async, then… if (/* everything turned out fine */) { resolve("Stuff worked!"); } else { reject(Error("It broke")); } }); promise.then(function(result) { console.log(result); // "Stuff worked!" }, function(err) { console.log(err); // Error: "It broke" });
  40. 40. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Async and Await var request = require('request'); function getQuote() { var quote; return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) { request('http://ron-swanson-quotes.com/v2/quotes', function(error, response, body) { quote = body; resolve(quote); }); }); } async function main() { var quote = await getQuote(); console.log(quote); } main(); console.log('Ron once said,');
  41. 41. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Asynchronous (made cool!)
  42. 42. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Redux in a Nutshell • Redux is a predictable state container for JavaScript applications • Instead of mutating the state directly, you specify the mutations you want to happen with plain objects called actions • Then you write a special function called a reducer to decide how every action transforms the entire application’s state • You should always return the state of the app
  43. 43. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Redux Actions “Actions are payloads of information that send data from your application to your store” { type: 'ADD_TODO', text: 'Use Redux' } { type: 'REMOVE_TODO', id: 42 } { type: 'LOAD_ARTICLE', response: { ... } }
  44. 44. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Redux Reducers “Actions describe the fact that something happened, then a reducer handle the event and eventually update the app state”
  45. 45. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Redux Reducers import * as TodoActions from './todoActions'; const initialState = { todos: [], currentFilter: 'SHOW_ALL' } export function rootReducer(state = initialState, action){ switch (action.type) { case TodoActions.ADD_TODO: return { todos: state.todos.concat({ id: action.id, text: action.text, completed: action.completed }), currentFilter: state.currentFilter }; case TodoActions.TOGGLE_TODO: return {}; // Continue... } }
  46. 46. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Redux Stores “A Redux store is the object that brings together actions and reducers offering a centralized way to dispatch actions and access the app state” import { createStore } from 'redux' import todoApp from './reducers' import { addTodo} from './actions' let store = createStore(todoApp) // Log the initial state console.log(store.getState()) // Dispatch some actions store.dispatch(addTodo('Learn about actions'))
  47. 47. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Redux Data Flow • You call store.dispatch(action) • The store calls the reducer function you gave it • The root reducer may combine the output of multiple reducers into a single state tree • The store saves the complete state tree returned by the root reducer
  48. 48. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea How it Sounds?
  49. 49. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Angular 2
  50. 50. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Tech Stack • TypeScript • RxJS • JSPM or WebPack • Grunt (seriously?!?) or Gulp • Karma + Jasmine or (Mocha + Chai)
  51. 51. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea TypeScript • A super set of JavaScript developed by Microsoft • Implements classes, interfaces, inheritance, strict data typing, private properties and methods, etc. • Angular Team choice for the next version of Angular (Microsoft and Google are now buddies!)
  52. 52. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea RxJS • A reactive streams library that allows you to work with asynchronous data streams • Combines Observables and Operators so we can subscribe to streams and react to changes using composable operations
  53. 53. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea RxJS, hello world! $scope.counter = 0; rx.Observable .interval(1000) .take(3) .safeApply($scope, function(x) { $scope.counter = x; }) .subscribe(); // shows 0, 1, 2
  54. 54. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Integrating Redux $ npm install angular2-redux import {AppStore} from "angular2-redux"; import {bootstrap} from "angular2/platform/browser"; // create factory to be called once angular has been bootstrapped const appStoreFactory = () => { let reduxAppStore; // create redux store // ... return new AppStore(reduxStore); }; // bootstrap angular bootstrap(MyAppComponent,[provide(AppStore, { useFactory: 
 appStoreFactory })]);
  55. 55. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Demo https://plnkr.co/edit/3mhKoOOAKJp27E2FpIOq
  56. 56. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Wait a second…
  57. 57. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Reactive Programming, functional programming and OOP?
  58. 58. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea
  59. 59. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Using Functions Properly • Keep your functions pure • Use your functions as arguments • Write small reusable functions • Return functions if needed • Always return a value
  60. 60. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Taking Advantages from RxJS import {Http} from 'angular2/http'; import {Observable} from 'rxjs/Observable'; import {Observer} from 'rxjs/Observer'; import 'rxjs/add/operator/share'; import {Todo} from 'app/interfaces'; export class TodosService { todos$: Observable<Todo[]>; private _todosObserver: Observer<Todo[]>; private _dataStore: { todos: Todo[] }; constructor(private _http: Http) { // Create Observable Stream to output our data this.todos$ = new Observable(observer => this._todosObserver = observer).share(); this._dataStore = { todos: [] }; } }
  61. 61. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Embracing Redux Data Flows • Decouple your dependencies by implementing event driven architecture • Keep the app state predictable by returning a new state
  62. 62. @giorgionatili // #mobiletea Questions and Answers
  63. 63. –Giorgio Natili “Keep calm and rock ‘n roll the Codemotion!” Thanks!

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