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AERC POLICY BRIEF
WORKSHOP
Research and Policy Processes
2015
TO INCREASE
UNDERSTANDING
of research to policy
processes, and the role of
Policy Briefs in this process
TO PRODUCE an out...
Day 1
• Research communications & policy process
• Understanding audiences
Day 2
• Crafting effective messages
• Policy br...
• See on the wiki
Housekeeping rules
“Success depends on knowing what works”
Bill Gates, (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ($33.5bn 2009)
“In development resear...
RESEARCH COMMUNICATION EXPLAINED
THE ONGOING MYSTERY OF GETTING RESEARCH INTO USE
THE LINEAR MODEL
Research report on
results of research
conducted
Summary research
report disseminated at
conferences
Rele...
Health
CSO
Local
government
Agriculture
CSO
Local
traditional
authorities
International
agricultural
NGO
National
think ta...
Monitoring and
Evaluation
Agenda
Setting Decision
Making
Policy
Implementation
Policy
Formulation
POLICY PROCESSES ARE...
...
Source: Cartright and Hardie;
‘Evidence-Based Policy: a
Guide to doing it better’, 2012
Political
Expediency
Effectiveness...
Known - simple
Cause and effect is known:
best practice guidance can
be issued.
Domain of yes / no
answers to questions
Do...
Discursive
changes
Procedural
changes
Content
changes
Attitudinal
changes
Behavioural
changes
1. Discursive changes: These...
MANAGING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
Systematic mapping of
the political context is
necessary to improve the
success of knowl...
HE ODI RAPID FRAMEWORK
ENCOURAGES structured questions about the
context, actors, prevailing narratives and extent
of evid...
PUTTING IT INTO PRACTICE
What researchers
need to know
What researchers
need to do
How to do it
Political Context
Evidence...
Practitioners
are aware of
findings from
research
Practitioners
accept the
research
findings
Practitioners
view the
resear...
“But this is the simplified version for the general public…”
START WITH WHAT YOUR AUDIENCE NEEDS TO
KNOW….NOT WHAT YOU WAN...
RECEPTION
• reception means that research has been received by an individual lands on the desk, but the findings might nev...
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Presentation at the AERC Policy Briefs workshop - Addis Ababa, December 2015

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Research and policy processes

  1. 1. AERC POLICY BRIEF WORKSHOP Research and Policy Processes 2015
  2. 2. TO INCREASE UNDERSTANDING of research to policy processes, and the role of Policy Briefs in this process TO PRODUCE an outline policy brief for each research project, to be finalised after the workshop TO BUILD CAPACITY AND SKILLS in communicating research to maximise uptake and impact
  3. 3. Day 1 • Research communications & policy process • Understanding audiences Day 2 • Crafting effective messages • Policy briefs structure and form Day 3 • Social media for research
  4. 4. • See on the wiki
  5. 5. Housekeeping rules
  6. 6. “Success depends on knowing what works” Bill Gates, (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ($33.5bn 2009) “In development research, to get a new discovery into policy and practice is just as important as the discovery itself.” Maureen O’Neil, President and CEO International Development Research Centre Donor countries spend over US$2bn annually on development research and are increasingly asking the question: “Is this value for money?” RAPID Programme, 2003 WHY COMMUNICATING RESEARCH MATTERS?
  7. 7. RESEARCH COMMUNICATION EXPLAINED
  8. 8. THE ONGOING MYSTERY OF GETTING RESEARCH INTO USE
  9. 9. THE LINEAR MODEL Research report on results of research conducted Summary research report disseminated at conferences Relevant policy changed to reflect research results Implementation/Practice changed
  10. 10. Health CSO Local government Agriculture CSO Local traditional authorities International agricultural NGO National think tank International think tank Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Health Ministry of Women’s Affairs Ministry of Environment and Water WHO National Agricultural Research System International health NGO Fig 3: a systems model of evidence and policy A SYSTEMS MODEL
  11. 11. Monitoring and Evaluation Agenda Setting Decision Making Policy Implementation Policy Formulation POLICY PROCESSES ARE... Civil Society Donors Cabinet Parliament Ministries Private Sector Source: ODI
  12. 12. Source: Cartright and Hardie; ‘Evidence-Based Policy: a Guide to doing it better’, 2012 Political Expediency Effectiveness Resources Values and Policy Context Choice of Goals Side effects Costs & Benefits EVIDENCE
  13. 13. Known - simple Cause and effect is known: best practice guidance can be issued. Domain of yes / no answers to questions Do you think the policy outcome is... ...doyouthinktheknowledgeis... contested established contestedestablished Issues are ‘knowable’ and can be researched: cause and effect can be established. Domain of expert knowledge, questions can be answered with the right information. Knowable - researchable Chaotic Issues are chaotic – new evidence causes confusion rather than clarifies. No cause and effect can be seen. Cause and effect can only be seen in retrospect and do not repeat. Nobody is ‘the expert’: we’re not even sure we have the right question, never mind the answer. Complex, emergent STRUCTURING POLICY ISSUES Multiple interpretations Adapted from the Cynefin knowledge management framework. See Shaxson, L (2009) Structuring policy problems for plastics, the environment and human health: reflections from the UK. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 364, 2141-2151. doi: 10.1098/rstb. 2008.0283
  14. 14. Discursive changes Procedural changes Content changes Attitudinal changes Behavioural changes 1. Discursive changes: These refer to changes in the labels or narratives of policy actors. They reflect a new or improved understanding of a subject -- even if it does not imply an effective change of policy or practice. 2. Procedural changes: changes in the way certain processes are undertaken e.g. the incorporation of consultations to closed processes, or small changes in the way that national policies are implemented in the field. 3. Content changes: changes in the content of policies including strategy papers, legislation and budgets. These are formal changes in the policy framework. 4. Attitudinal changes: changes in the way policy actors think about a given issue. This is important where key stakeholders have high influence but lack interest in a policy area or are not necessarily aligned with the policy objectives of the programme. 5. Behavioural changes: These refer to more durable changes in the way that policy actors behave (act or relate to others) as a consequence of formal and informal changes in discourse, process and content.
  15. 15. MANAGING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Systematic mapping of the political context is necessary to improve the success of knowledge- policy interactions. Understanding the role and behaviour of actors is important (i.e. interplay of actor interests, values and credibility and the power relations that underpin these.) Research needs to be complemented by other forms of knowledge, based on local conditions and practical experience. ‘Knowledge intermediary’s’ needs to think through a range of possible approaches to ensure their role is effective (i.e. theory of action)
  16. 16. HE ODI RAPID FRAMEWORK ENCOURAGES structured questions about the context, actors, prevailing narratives and extent of evidence use. EMPHASISES importance of ‘policy windows’ and building up influence within the policy process . HIGHLIGHTS all the other factors besides quality of research. Source: http://www.odi.org.uk/rapid/tools/Toolkits/Policy_Impact/Framework_qus.html
  17. 17. PUTTING IT INTO PRACTICE What researchers need to know What researchers need to do How to do it Political Context Evidence Links • Who are the policymakers? • Is there demand for ideas? • What is the policy process? • What is the current theory? • What are the narratives? • How divergent is it? • Who are the stakeholders? • What networks exist? • Who are the connectors, mavens and salesmen? • Get to know the policymakers. • Identify friends and foes. • Prepare for policy opportunities. • Look out for policy windows. • Work with them – seek commissions • Strategic opportunism – prepare for known events + resources for others • Establish credibility • Provide practical solutions • Establish legitimacy. • Present clear options • Use familiar narratives. • Build a reputation • Action-research • Pilot projects to generate legitimacy • Good communication • Get to know the others • Work through existing networks. • Build coalitions. • Build new policy networks. • Build partnerships. • Identify key networkers, mavens and salesmen. • Use informal contacts
  18. 18. Practitioners are aware of findings from research Practitioners accept the research findings Practitioners view the research findings as locally applicable Practitioners view the research findings as doable within the local context Practitioners act on the research findings Practitioners adopt the research findings Practitioners adhere to the research findings BE CLEAR ABOUT WHAT YOU’RE TRYING TO INFLENCE/INFORM
  19. 19. “But this is the simplified version for the general public…” START WITH WHAT YOUR AUDIENCE NEEDS TO KNOW….NOT WHAT YOU WANT TO TELL THEM… Source: IFPRI food policy guide 2005
  20. 20. RECEPTION • reception means that research has been received by an individual lands on the desk, but the findings might never be read. COGNITION • The next stage occurs when research is read and understood REFERENCE • When research changes way of thinking – provokes a shift in an individual’s“frame of reference”, for example in terms of defining key problems and priorities EFFORT • Research has shaped action: some effort has been made to get the findings adopted, even if this is ultimately unsuccessful. ADOPTION • Adoption means that research has had a direct influence on the actual policy IMPLEMENTA TION • While research may have been used to develop policy, at this stage it has also been translated into practice on the ground IMPACT • Utilisation of research when the implemented policy is successful in producing tangible benefits to the citizens. . . BE PRACTICAL ABOUT WHAT YOU CAN ACHIEVE.. Source: Adapted from Knott and Widavsky 1980 and Glasziou and Haynes 2005 adapted in Nutley, Walter and Davies 2007,

Presentation at the AERC Policy Briefs workshop - Addis Ababa, December 2015

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