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El enfoque de trabajo en red de los actores locales para el desarrollo de los destinos de ecoturismo

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Ponencia a cargo de D. Max A.E. Rossberg sobre "El enfoque de trabajo en red de los actores locales para el desarrollo de los destinos de ecoturismo" en el 5.º Congreso Internacional de Turismo Rural de Navarra ::

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El enfoque de trabajo en red de los actores locales para el desarrollo de los destinos de ecoturismo

  1. 1. Multi-Stakeholder Approaches to Developing Ecotourism Destinations El enfoque de trabajo en red de los actores locales para el desarrollo de los destinos de ecoturismo Ideas + Oportunidades + Soluciones Max A.E. Rossberg, Deputy Chairman
  2. 2. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives What is the European Wilderness Society? The community based European Wilderness Society identifies, designates, manages, promotes and lobbies to protect Europe’s wilderness, the continent’s most undisturbed areas of nature. The leading wilderness protection organisation in Europe.
  3. 3. Who is Max A. E. Rossberg
  4. 4. • Educated in Germany and Canada • General Manager for Logitech, IBM others in Canada, Ireland, Scandinavia Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Spain • Went to school with Thomas Mapother (1974) in Ottawa, CDN • Senior Partner Protected Area Consulting Tourism Strategies • Deputy Chairman of the European Wilderness Society • Happily married for 30 years with my wife Anni and 4 kids • Based in a UNESCO biosphere reserve in the Austrian Alps • UNWTO Focal Point, CIPRA, IUCN, AMA, IAPA, etc. Motto since High School: Walk the Talk!
  5. 5. The Tourism industry
  6. 6. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Defining Tourism “Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors” (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2006: 5). As a result, one can see that tourism involves numerous stakeholders that are all involved in the delivery of tourism-related services.
  7. 7. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Mass Tourism industry facts 1) One billion arrivals 2012 2) 1,8 billion expected by 2030 3) Tourism generates more revenue than most industries 4) Tourism is based on trends and innovation 5) Tourism is controlled by selected few (Oligopolies) 6) Tourism is capital intensive and privately controlled
  8. 8. Mass Tourism Travel habits 1) Length of stay worldwide dropped to 10.4 days 2) Length of stay in Austria down to 3,8 days 3) Germans in Spain spent €95 per day/€1.284 4) Ecotourism is a small and fragmented market 5) Customer Milieus are becoming more diverse 6) LOHAS are still marginal
  9. 9. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Mass Tourism Boosterism • • • Tourism seen as inherently good and should be developed Cultural and natural resources should be exploited Boosterism is practised by two groups of people: • Politicians who philosophically and pragmatically believe that economic growth is always to be promoted and • by others who will gain financially by tourism.
  10. 10. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Mass Tourism Boosterism • Tourism Boosterism continues until there are: • no more resources to exploit that • the real or opportunity costs are too high, or that • political opposition to growth can no longer be countered.
  11. 11. Mass Tourism principles • Tourism is an extraction business oriented industry • It is not sustainable • It is often the only source of a regions incoming capital besides government subsidies • It is based on growth • It is cost sensitive and profit oriented • It typically is its own reason for demise
  12. 12. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Mass Tourism Lifecycle Destination areas carry with them the seeds of their own destruction as they become more commercialised and lose the qualities which originally attracted tourists •Exploration •Involvement •Development •Consolidation •Stagnation •Decline or Rejuvenation
  13. 13. Is Ecotourism the alternative?
  14. 14. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Why responsible tourism at all The concept of a more responsible tourism emerged as a reaction to the negative impacts of mass tourism as well as a more holistic approach to the general sustainability discourse to achieve environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development. Tourist areas are jumping on the bandwagon due to lack of alternatives, consultants, government pressure and public hype.
  15. 15. Ecotourism or Sustainable Tourism Ecotourism is a subform of sustainable tourism, used to describe zero impact travel to relatively undisturbed natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people. Source: The International Ecotourism Society.
  16. 16. Is there an Ecotourism market? • • • • • How many travelled by car, plane or train to this congress? How many did a Co2 offset? Who based his vacation decision on Ecotourism aspects? Meeting customer expectations is almost impossible Ecotourism is currently more a marketing hype than a real product
  17. 17. Is Sustainable Tourism achievable? Tourism will never be completely sustainable, but it can work towards becoming more sustainable. The need for sustainable/responsible planning and management is imperative for the tourism industry to survive as a whole. It offers broader opportunities for rural areas than Ecotourism.
  18. 18. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Sustainable Tourism Model Murphy & Price in Theobald 2005, p. .175
  19. 19. Tourism: The saviour?
  20. 20. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Why is tourism so interesting • • • • • Often the only potential direct source of income Local unemployment could be reduced Public support for rural areas could be increased Investment in infrastructure could be financed Training of local management could be improved
  21. 21. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Tourism challenges of rural areas • • • • Rural areas are often in less developed regions Multitude of local interests especially if it is a PA Often poor local infrastructure Government funding often the only source of capital
  22. 22. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Tourism challenges of rural areas • • • • • Government funding increasingly under pressure Few local tourism professionals available Management skills are scarce – networking seldom Depopulation due to urbanization pressure Lack of local Marketing Knowhow and funding
  23. 23. Uniqueness of rural areas Peneda-Geres NP © PGNP Archives
  24. 24. What can a rural area offer? • • • • • • Unique landscapes Unique experiences Unique flora and fauna Unique wildlife Unique destinations Unique cultural and social traditions
  25. 25. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives What can a rural area NOT offer? • • • • • • Guarantee of wildlife sightings Uncontrolled access Uncontrolled growth opportunity Events specifically for tourists Stop of the natural community processes Tourism specific infrastructure
  26. 26. Must Do´s Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Konstantin Gabrichidze
  27. 27. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Many ways to Rome • • • • • • • Define long-term objectives Define how locals in the region will benefit Define a long term investment strategy Define the basic tourist infrastructure Define the carrying capacity limits Define the benefits to the local economy Involve all stakeholders
  28. 28. The Stakeholders Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Konstantin Gabrichidze
  29. 29. Stakeholders Involve ALL stakeholders of all genders, ages, social status, political affiliation, marital status, cultural heritage and nationality living in the region DO NOT JUST FOCUS on local tourism professionals
  30. 30. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Get them Involved • • • • • • • Clear objective understood by everyone Bottom up approach – minimize management! Step by step approach Regular meetings and perfect communication Work without subsidies to encourage local ownership Take risk and encourage dissent Take them serious regardless of outcome
  31. 31. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Sustainable Tourism Planning • Establish tourism development objectives and policies • Ensure that natural and cultural resources are maintained and conserved for present and future use • Integrate tourism into overall development policies and patterns of a region and establish linkages with other economic sectors
  32. 32. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Sustainable Tourism Planning • Provide rational basis for decision-making by public and private sector • Co-ordinate development of the many elements of the tourism sector • Optimise and balance economic, environmental and social benefits of tourism, whilst minimising impacts • Provide an appropriate physical structure for the location in which development is taking place
  33. 33. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Sustainable Tourism Planning • Establish guidelines and standards for development • Provide necessary organisational and institutional framework • Provide framework for effective co-ordination of public/private sectors (After Getz, 1987; Hall et al., 1997)
  34. 34. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Sustainable Tourism Planning Step 1: Conduct preliminary studies Step 2: Community knowledge of tourism Step 3: Determine level of participation Step 4: Determine appropriate participation mechanism Step 5: Collective decision-making Step 6: Development of an action and implementation plan Step 7: Monitoring and evaluation
  35. 35. Reasons for Failure Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Konstantin Gabrichidze
  36. 36. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Design Stage Failure • • • • • • • Ambiguous or conflicting objectives Absence of analytical detail Too much emphasis on physical development Inadequate market assessment Projects only evaluated on financial basis No consideration of impact on host community economy or environment Poor involvement of local stakeholders
  37. 37. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Implementation Stage Failure • Miscalculations regarding use and control of land • High debt/equity ratios Lack of co-ordination between public and private sectors Poor communication • Failure to produce planning legislation in time • More concern with profit than with quality of product • Public opposition Poor location or design of the facilities
  38. 38. Pros and Cons Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Konstantin Gabrichidze
  39. 39. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Economic Impacts Positive Negative Economic growth Foreign Investment Value of real estate rise Standard of living increase Infrastructure improvement Local products demand Inflation Foreign Labour and Investments Speculation Wealthy and poor spread Neglecting other sectors Loss of ownership
  40. 40. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Tourism Commercial Impacts Positive Increased destination image Improved infrastructure Negative Uncontrolled destination image Facilities for tourism only – two sided coin
  41. 41. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Environmental Impacts Positive Environmental values Environmental awareness Maintenance of biodiversity Preservation of heritage Negative Destruction of habitat and ecosystems Exceeding physical carrying capacity Loss of heritage Architectural pollution Resource conflicts (water) Increase pollution Traffic congestion
  42. 42. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Social Impacts Positive Negative Influx of new ideas Cultural exchange Quality of life Increase local identity Local participation Improved living conditions Local knowledge less worth Loss of cultural uniqueness Loss of community values Overcrowding Prostitution/Alcohol Changes in community structure
  43. 43. Tourism in EWS areas Peneda-Geres NP © PGNP Archives
  44. 44. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Mix of Partners The European Wilderness Society certifies protected and wilderness areas, tour operators and local business partners in Europe. All of them must meet a certain set of criteria. In addition the European Wilderness Society has just launched a new Website to promote sustainable tourism in protected areas.
  45. 45. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Quality standard for local business • Quality Standard is defined as a part of overall the European Wilderness Society Quality Standard • that includes the principles Wilderness and Environmental Values, Management Effectiveness, Visitor Management Strategies, Sustainable tourism development strategy and local business partner. Each principle has a set of Criteria and each Criteria a set of Indicators • An independent quality audit is the basis of certification • Quality Standards for local business partners focus on environmental, socio-economic, communication and partnership aspects • The aim is to show how well managed wilderness protected area/s provide a benefit to the local economy
  46. 46. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Quality standard for tour operators • International tour operators (usually small or medium size) are well known for their sensitive, environmentally friendly operation • These partners have an interest and commitment to introduce to their clients a wilderness experience but simultaneously respect environmental, social-economical and ethical standards as defined above. • Each Tour operator signs a letter of understanding defining the European Wilderness Society principles.
  47. 47. Summary Polistovsky NR © Polistovsky Nature Reserve archive
  48. 48. Archipelago NP © ANP Archives Sustainable Tourism can help rural areas • • • • • • • It It It It It It It needs to be managed bottom-up must meet a set of sustainability criteria must be aware of the limitations the region must be locally owned and operated must involve community stakeholders should not be the only source of income should be long-term oriented
  49. 49. The European Wilderness Society works to identify, designates, manages and promotes Europe ’s wilderness, the continent’s most undisturbed areas of nature