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Safety in Mechanical Industries

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What makes mechanical equipment dangerous? It is because of the Mechanical Movement and Forces. Static Force If a support is not strong enough for an object with increasing weights, it might collapse suddenly. Dynamic Force The magnitude of some dynamic forces are constant but most of them change due to acceleration and deceleration. You should not enter the area covered by the mechanical movement of the equipment. Pressure If the safety valve for a pressure vessel e.g. the storage tank of an air compressor, is not working, the pressure will build up to a point it suddenly cause the tank to explode.

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Safety in Mechanical Industries

  1. 1. Safety in Mechanical Industries Hazards, Risks and Controls
  2. 2. Download your free e-book on Safety Audit Click Here You should download your e-book here.. Its free! This is a knowledge initiative
  3. 3. Now on the subject: Safety in Mechanical Industries This is a knowledge initiative
  4. 4. Introduction
  5. 5. Mechanical Industries – Branch of engineering concerned with the design, manufacture, installation, and operation of engines, machines, and manufacturing processes. It deals with A branch of engineering concerned primarily with the industrial application of mechanics and with the production of tools, machinery and their products 1. textile machinery 2. printing machinery 3. packaging machines 4. agricultural machinery 5. metal working machines 6.machine tools 7.motor vehicles 8.HVAC 9.Welding and many other machines and processes essential to an industry.
  6. 6. What makes mechanical equipment dangerous? Forces and Mechanical Movement It is because of the Mechanical Movement and Forces. Static Force If a support is not strong enough for an object with increasing weights, it might collapse suddenly. Dynamic Force The magnitude of some dynamic forces are constant but most of them change due to acceleration and deceleration. You should not enter the area covered by the mechanical movement of the equipment. Pressure If the safety valve for a pressure vessel e.g. the storage tank of an air compressor, is not working, the pressure will build up to a point it suddenly cause the tank to explode.
  7. 7. Cutting Forces In the operation of machine tools, forces arising from cutting are unavoidable. You should know before the operation the direction of these forces in order to clamp your job in a proper manner. Incorrect operation of the machine tools will cause abnormal behaviour of the machine tool and unusual forces to damage it or cause injury to the operator. Torque Machine tools operation involves with a lot of rotation of the cutting tools or the workplaces. The centrifugal forces of a suddenly broken grinding wheel while in operation cause the broken pieces to fly out in various directions. The torque in drilling may rotate the job and the clamping device if it is not securely bolted onto the machine table.
  8. 8. Vibration Mechanical vibration is undesirable. It is harmful to the health of the equipment as it may loosening some joints, create additional stresses or induce fatigue. Resonance is evenly more damaging as the amplitude of vibration explodes to a very large scale, causing the collapse of the equipment. If there is unusual vibration or noise caused by the mechanical movement, you should immediately stop the running of it and find out the cause. NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THEM! Movement of a machine can be dangerous You have to understand what kind of Forces and Mechanical Movement you will be involved with while operating the equipment. To this you need to understand the basic working principles of the equipment or the proper machining processes associated with that particular machine.
  9. 9. Hazard
  10. 10. Hazard Source, situation, or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health or a combination of these
  11. 11. General Mechanical Hazards include –  Tripping  Falling objects  Cutting/abrasion  Pinch points  Elevated work surfaces  Bump hazards  Noise  Slipping and many more… Situational Awareness – The best way to prevent an accident is to be aware of your surroundings
  12. 12. Hazards associated with components and tools Moving components and tools Relative location of moving components and tools In-running nips (rollers, conveyors, etc.) Inadequate strength Hazardous shapes (cutting, pointed, rough, etc.) Grinding abrasive wheels
  13. 13. Bench-style and pedestal grinders create special safety problems due to the potential of the abrasive wheel shattering exposed rotating wheel, flange, and spindle end a naturally occurring nip point that is created by the tool/work rest. The main hazards are
  14. 14. Material handling – Crane, Gantry, Hydra, Fork Lift, chain pulleys
  15. 15. Electrical hazards Live conductors Live machine components Electrostatic hazards
  16. 16. Thermal hazards Objects or materials at extreme temperatures (high or low) Presence of flame or explosion Presence of water and molten metal Radiation from sources of heat Cold or hot work environment, etc. Noise &Vibration Working of engines and drives Working of machineries Movement of vehicles Burners of boilers, kiln Ventilators DG Sets CPP
  17. 17. Hazards produced by materials, products, contaminants Hazardous materials (harmful, toxic, corrosive, reactive, humid, teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or irritating) Infectious materials and combustible/flammable, oxidizing or explosive materials, etc. Welding, gas cutting – Compressed gas cylinder
  18. 18.  fire caused by heat, sparks, molten metal or direct contact with the flame explosion when cutting up or repairing tanks or drums which contain or may have contained flammable materials; fire/explosion caused by gas leaks, backfires and flashbacks fumes created during flame cutting fire/burns resulting from misuse of oxygen burns from contact with the flame or hot metal crushing or impact injuries when handling and transporting cylinders Eye and skin irritation due to radiation The main hazards are
  19. 19. Hazards produced by non-respect of ergonomic principles Non neutral posture, force, repetition, absence of micro-breaks, frequent handling Difficult access to the working space, layout of premises, Inadequate lighting, Inadequate visibility, poor location of controls etc. Radiations Low frequency, radio frequency, microwave, X- ray and gamma radiation, Laser/infrared, visible and ultraviolet light, etc.
  20. 20. Risk
  21. 21. Risk Combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure (s) and the severity of injury or ill health that can be caused by the event or exposure (s)
  22. 22. Control
  23. 23. Controls including Legal requirements 1. Elimination 2. Substitution 3. Engineering Control 4. Administrative Control 5. PPE
  24. 24. 1. Elimination Designing of Machines 2. Substitution Replace process/technology 3. Engineering Control Designing Machine Guard 4. Administrative Control Warnings, work methods 5. PPE Protective Clothing Controls on Moving components Chapter IV Safety Section 21. Fencing of Machinery
  25. 25. In every factory the following, namely :- I. every moving part of a prime-mover and every flywheel connected to a prime- mover, whether the prime-mover or flywheel is in the engine- house or not; II. the headrace and tailrace of every water-wheel and water- turbine; III. any part of a stock bar which projects beyond the head stock of a lathe; and IV. unless they are in such position or of such construction as to be safe to every person employed in the factory as they would be if they were securely fenced, the following, namely:- every part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary convertor; every part of transmission machinery; and every dangerous part of any other machinery; shall be securely fenced by safeguards of a substantial construction which [shall be constantly maintained and kept in position] while the parts of machinery they are fencing are in motion or in use:
  26. 26. Dangerous moving parts require safeguarding in three basic areas : The point of operation: that point where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. Power transmission apparatus: all components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears. Other moving parts: all parts of the machine which move while the machine is working. These can include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.
  27. 27. Is the danger zone, which is located above, accessible from below? Is the danger zone accessible from above the guard? Is the danger zone accessible through one of the openings in the guard? Is the danger zone accessible from below the guard? Plan Your Guard
  28. 28. Fixed guards: fixed enclosing guard fixed distance guard fixed nip guard Movable guards: interlocking guard interlocking guard with guard locking power-operated automatic closing There are two types of guards
  29. 29. Fixed guards A fixed guard (permanent protector) is a guard that can only be removed with the assistance of a tool or that is set in place permanently, for instance by being welded Note. – Depending on its shape, the guard can be called a housing, cover, door, screen or cabinet. Fixed distance guardFixed enclosing guard
  30. 30. 4.Single distance guard, if the use of an enclosure guard is impossible and if the number or the dimension of the danger zones is large. Fixed nip guard Fixed guards be chosen in the following order of priority 1.Guards enclosing each danger zone if the number of danger zones is small. 2. Single enclosure guard for all the danger zones if the number or dimensions of these zones are large. 3.Multiple distance guards, if the use of one enclosure guard is impossible and if the number of danger zones is small (each guard protects one part of the machine).
  31. 31. The first is designing for a range (the smallest to the largest, usually from the 5th percentile to the 95th percentile). The second is designing for the extremes (the smallest or the largest, usually for the 5th percentile or the 95th percentile), such as the design of the doorpost height for the largest person's stature (plus ample clearance) or the design of a shelf for the smallest person's functional reach. The third is designing for an average. ERGONOMICS IN THE WORKPLACE Occupational Safety & Health Administration
  32. 32. Safety Precautions: General Machine Shop 1. Be sure that all machine’s have effective and properly working guards that are always in place where machine’s are operating. 2. Replace guards immediately after any repair. 3. Don’t attempt to oil, clean, adjust or repair any machine while it is running, stop the machine and lock the power switch in the off position. 4. Don’t operate any machine unless authorized, to do so by the supervisors or under his supervision. 5. Always see that work and cutting tools on any machine are clamped securely before starting. 6. Don’t operate machinery when the instructor is not in the workshop. 7. When working with another worker only one should operate machine or switches. 8. Don’t rest against the machine.
  33. 33. Safety Precautions: Grinding Wheel Safety 1. Select correct wheel for your operation. 2. Ring wheel and inspect for cracks. Never use cracked wheel. 3. Never exceed maximum safe speed established for wheel. Be sure machine speed is not excessive. 4. Never alter hole in wheel or force wheel on spindle. 5. Use clean, recessed, matching flanges at least 1/3 wheel diameter. 6. Use one clean, smooth blotter on each side of wheel under each flange. 7. Tighten nut only enough to hold wheel firmly. 8. Adjust wheel guard and put on safety glasses before starting wheel. 9. Adjust dust hood and coolant nozzle (for wet grinding). Keep work rest adjusted within 1/8” of wheel face (periphery). 10. Stand aside and allow wheel to run idle a full minute before starting to grind.
  34. 34. Ring Test 11. Dress wheel if out of true. 12. Make grinding contact without bumping or impact. 13. Grind only on face of straight wheel. Use disc wheels for side-grinding. Light side-grinding permissible on cup or saucer wheel. 14. Never force grinding so that motor slows noticeably or work gets hot. 15. Protect wheel when not in use. Store safely if removed from grinding machine.
  35. 35. Safety Precautions: Welding and Cutting 1. move the work piece to a safe location for carrying out hot work 2. remove nearby combustible materials (such as flammable liquids, wood, paper, textiles, packaging or plastics) 3. protect nearby combustible materials that cannot be moved. Use suitable guards or covers such as metal sheeting, mineral fibre boards or fire-retardant blankets 4. check that there are no combustible materials hidden behind walls or in partitions, particularly if the welding or cutting will go on for some time. (some wall panels contain flammable insulation materials, eg polystyrene) 5. use flame-resistant sheets or covers to prevent hot particles passing through openings in floors and walls (doorways, windows, cable runs, etc) 6. if the consequences of a fire are severe, eg work inside ships, you may need to appoint a fire watch during and after the work finishes. It is normal to maintain fire watch for 30 minutes after hot work finishes 7. prevent flame, heat, sparks or hot spatter from landing on the hoses
  36. 36. 8. Use the correct lighting-up procedure. Purge the hoses before lighting the torch to remove any potentially explosive gas mixtures. Use a spark igniter and light the gas quickly after turning it on 9. Make sure the blowpipe is fitted with spring-loaded non-return valves 10. Use the correct gas pressures and nozzle size for the job 11. never use oxygen to blow dust off clothing 12. never attempt to improve air quality inside confined spaces by releasing oxygen in the space 13. never allow oil or grease to come into contact with oxygen valves or cylinder fittings 14. Maintain the equipment in good condition 15. close the cylinder valves when the equipment is not in use 16. always provide adequate ventilation during welding and cutting operations 17. store gas cylinders outside whenever possible, or in a well-ventilated place 18. avoid taking gas cylinders into poorly ventilated rooms or confined spaces 19. keep fire extinguishers nearby
  37. 37. Clothing and Safety Equipment: 1. Always wear safety glasses, or face shields designed for the type of the work operating any machine 2. Wear safety shoes if heavy work is being done. 3. Wear clothing suited for the job, wear shoes with thick soles. 4. Don’t wear rings, watches, bracelets or other jewellery that could get could get caught in moving machinery. 5. Don’t wear neck ties or loose turn clothing of any kind. 6. Wear shirts or uppers with sleaves cut off or rolled above the elbows. 7. Always remove , gloves before turning on or operating a machine. If material is rough and sharp then gloves must be work place or handle material with machine turned off.
  38. 38. House Keeping: 1.Keeping floor free of oil, grease or any other liquid. Clean up spilled liquid immediately they are sleeping hazards. 2.Aisles should be clear, at all time to avoid tripping of other accident. 3.Store materials in such a way that they cannot become tripping hazards. 4.Don’t leave tools or work on the table of a machine even if the machine in not turning. Tools or work may fall off and cause the fact of injury. 5.Put tools always when not in use. 6.Place the scrap box. Beware of the heat generated in machining. Beware of the radiation generated and the possible toxic gases created during the operation of laser materials processing.
  39. 39. Signage
  40. 40. Emergency Planning & Response • Identification of possible emergency situations • Emergency preparedness plan • Training of people • Practice
  41. 41. What are the hazards ? What are the controls Required ? What are the Risk ?
  42. 42. What Consultivo does? Consultivo is an international advisory firm involved in the field of Responsible Business, Business Excellence and Risk Management. 1 Assessment Identifying the gaps in a system against standard(s) and requirement. to meet compliance and facilitate improvement. 2 Consulting Supporting & handholding organisations to solve their problems and to meet the gaps identified during the assessment or any other audit. 3 Training Empowering people to perform their duties effectively and efficiently. 4 Assurance & Certification Ensuring that a process, product, or service meets relevant techni cal standards and fulfils relevant requirements. Consultivo services in Occupational Health & Safety • Safety Audit • Safety Management System • Ergonomic • Electrical Safety • Accidental Investigation • Safety Legal • Fire Risk Assessment • OHS Due Diligence • Behavior bases safety • Safety Management System Maturity Assessment Safety, Health & Environment People ExcellenceFood Safety Social Compliance Quality & Business Excellence Information Security Sustainability Risk Management
  43. 43. Helping Businesses in their pursuit of… Responsi ble Business Health & Safety Environme nt Social Responsibili ty Sustainability Quality Informatio n Technolog y Food Safety Training Consulting Assessment People Excellence Thank You