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Brief Introduction of Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs)

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For more information, please visit https://www.creative-proteomics.com/services/protein-protein-interaction-networks.htm. Protein-protein interactions play important roles in various biological processes. PPIs can be classified based on different factors, including composition, affinity, and lifetime.

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Brief Introduction of Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs)

  1. 1. Protein-Protein Interactions Biological Effects, Types, and Working as Drug Targets Creative Proteomics Presentation
  2. 2. Protein-Protein Interactions Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) refer to intentional physical contacts established between two or more proteins as a result of biochemical events and/or electrostatic forces. Proteins, biomolecules or macromolecules, perform a wide range of functions in organisms. 1 Almost all of the cellular processes require that proteins specifically recognize a multitude of different interaction partners. 2 Proteins can carry out their roles by interacting with other molecules, including DNA, RNA, proteins, and small molecules. 3
  3. 3. Biological Effects of Protein- Protein Interactions 1 2 PPIs can alter the kinetic properities of enzymes, which may lead to subtle changes in substrate binding or allosteric effects. PPIs can act as a general mechanism to allow for substrate channeling by moving a substrate between domains or subunits. PPIs play important roles in various biological processes, including cell-to-cell interactions, cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and metabolic pathways.
  4. 4. Biological Effects of Protein- Protein Interactions 3 PPIs can create a novel binding site for small effectors molecules. PPI can inactivate or suppress a protein. PPI can change the specificity of a protein for its substrate by interacting with different binding partnersIn an upstream or a downstream event, PPIs can work as a regulatory role. 4 5 6
  5. 5. Types of the Protein- Protein Interactions  Composition Affinity Lifetime
  6. 6. Types of the Protein-Protein Interactions Compositions homo- oligomer PPI occurs between identical chains hetero- oligomer PPI occurs between non-identical chains GroEL consists of 14 identical subunits of 57 kDa each forming two heptameric rings arranged back-to-back. A chaperonin protein is formed by seven GroEL proteins associating as a homo-heptamer Several enzymes, carrier proteins, scaffolding proteins, and transcriptional regulatory factors carry out their functions as homo-oligomers.
  7. 7. Types of the Protein-Protein Interactions Affinity Obligate Constituents (protomers, monomers) of a complex are unstable on their own in vivo Non-obligate The components of non-obligate interactions can exist independently Ku proteins, which are involved in DNA repair, are shown to bind DNA as obligate homodimers. Krishna S S, Aravind L. The bridge-region of the Ku superfamily is an atypical zinc ribbon domain. Journal of structural biology, 2010, 172(3): 294-299.
  8. 8. Types of the Protein-Protein Interactions Affinity Obligate Constituents (protomers, monomers) of a complex are unstable on their own in vivo Non-obligate The components of non-obligate interactions can exist independently H-Ras protein, a G protein, can interchangeably form non-obligate complexes with guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activating proteins (GAPs).
  9. 9. Types of the Protein-Protein Interactions Lifetime Transient The components of transient interaction associate and dissociate temporarily in vivo Permanent Permanent interactions are usually very stable and irreversible
  10. 10. Types of the Protein-Protein Interactions Acuner Ozbabacan S E, Engin H B, Gursoy A, et al. Transient protein–protein interactions. Protein engineering, design and selection, 2011, 24(9): 635-648. • Components are stable only in complex form. • Association or dissociation takes place under certain triggers. • Complexes are broken and formed continuously and Kd is in a micromolar range. • The domain-peptide complexes are mostly transient
  11. 11. Types of the Protein-Protein Interactions Based on lifetime Based on affinity Protein-Protein Interaction Non-obligate Transient Strong transient Weak Transient Permanent Obligate
  12. 12. Protein-Protein Interactions in Drug Development • Targeted modulation of PPIs with small molecules is one of the most promising approaches with more than 50 PPIs that have successfully been targeted with small molecules. • Most of these are inhibitors of PPIs, but stabilization of PPIs is also a strategy for targeted PPI modulation.
  13. 13. Protein and Protein Interaction In Drug Development Competition Stabilization Competitive mode of inhibition Allosteric mode of inhibition Connectional mode of stabilization Allosteric mode of stabilization Compounds have different modes of action on PPIs.
  14. 14. Protein- Protein Interactions Services Our Services 01Co-immunoprecipitation 05Far-Western Blot Analysis 02 Pull-Down Assay 03 Crosslinking Protein Interaction Analysis 04 Label Transfer Protein Interaction Analysis At Creative Proteomics, our team of experts with extensive experience can help you understand what you are trying to investigate and give you the most appropriate solutions about protein and protein interactions.
  15. 15. Thanks For Your Listening Please contact us for more information Web: Email: www.creative-proteomics.com info@creative-proteomics.com

Notas

  • compounds have different modes of action on PPIs. For PPI inhibitors, they can display a competitive effect on the PPI to prevent the binding of the natural binding partner, which was called competitive mode. Another way is by binding of a compound to a site not-directly part of the PPI interface but arresting the protein in a low-affinity conformation, so that binding of the natural binding partner is impeded. A connectional or allosteric mode of stabilization is also possible. Through binding of a compound in an allosteric mode of stabilization, a protein can bind to its natural ligand in a high-affinity conformation to enhance PPI. Another form of stabilization is the connectional mode of action, which is the direct binding in the rim of the interface with simultaneously contacting both protein partners.
  • At Creative Proteomics, our team of experts with extensive experience can help you understand what you are trying to investigate and give you the most appropriate solutions about protein and protein interaction. We can provide protein-protein interaction services based on different methods, including:
    Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP)
    Pull-Down Assay
    Crosslinking Protein Interaction Analysis
    Label Transfer Protein Interaction Analysis
    Far-Western Blot Analysis
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