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At the beginning of this year the board adopted a new mission statement. Creating the new mission statement involved a lot of discussion and compromise but its very important because the board does look to the mission statement to guide its work and discussions so I wanted to go through it in a little bit of detail today and explain the thinking behind it. First of all – you’ll notice that there is nothing in the mission about reference linking or DOIs. The mission is broad on purpose – reference linking is one particular service and DOIs are a tool to help the service work.
Good morning – I’d like to thank the committee for giving me the chance to present CrossCheck - it’s an honor to be shortlisted along with the other great projects. I’ll give an overview of the CrossCheck initiative and highlight how it is innovative in addressing a problem confronting the scholarly publishing industry.
So CrossRef has set up CrossCheck as cross-publisher service that uses innovative business arrangements to make screening scholarly content for plagiarism feasible and effective. One main point I’d like to make today is that CrossCheck is not just about technology – it’s a multi-pronged initiative involving many different organizations.
It has become increasingly difficult for publishers to ensure the originality of content that they publish. With increasing numbers of submissions and the ease of cutting and pasting on the internet there is a sense that plagiarism is a growing problem. There have been a few high profile cases and while there is actually little hard data about the level of plagiarism we have definitely heard from publishers that it is a big issue. From the publishers point of view even a small amount of plagiarism can undermine the trust and authority of scholarly journals.
So to give a quick overview of how the service works I’ll start with briefly describing how plagiarism detection works.
First of all – no technology can actually detect plagiarism. It’s better to describer the technology as a text matching system.
Of course, plagiarism implies intent and at the moment at least, computers can’t infer human intent.
The PD process: 1) You have a manuscript that you want to check 2) You need some documents to check it against
2) You submit it to the PD system, which breaks the text up into small chunks and creates a “fingerprint” for the document. 3) It then searches a database of content to see if the fingerprints are shared by any of the documents already added to the database 4) The PD system then produces an “originality report” which shows the “percentage overlap” between documents. This report has to be *interpreted* by the person checking the document- and that is where the real work is.
The PD system will allow you to compare the document you are checking with database documents that share the same fingerprint. So the submitted manuscript is on the left and the database “hit” is on the right. The similar passages are highlighted. The similarity might be due to: 0) An attempt at plagiarism 1) Incorrect citation 2) Acceptable or unacceptable “self-plagiarism” 3) Reverse plagiarism (e.g. somebody copied an early manuscript and got it published first) 4) Coincidence 5) Acceptable copying...For instance...
Now I want to talk about the importance of databases – and this is where the innovative nature of CrossCheck really comes into play.
Remember the database? This is the critical part of the equation. If it doesn’t hold relevant data, it isn’t going to be helpful to you. This
And this is where CrossRef can immediately help- we represent the vast majority of people who can provide the relevant data. Prior to CrossCheck there was a chicken and egg situation. No PD detection system vendor had enough full text scholarly content indexed to make it worthwhile for an individual publisher to participate and no one publisher – not even Elsevier had enough content to “go it alone” (note that above is not meant to imply that those titles/publishers have agreed to participate- it is just meant ot illustrate relevant content.)
So part a main focus of the CrossCheck service is to build the database – to get publishers to participate in CrossCheck. When publishers sign up to participate in CrossCheck there are obligations that they take on -
Now this is where the technology comes in. CrossRef has partnered with iParadigms – creators of the Turnitin and iThenticate services – the market leaders in plagiarism detection software at the undergraduate and secondary school level. Prior to CrossCheck they faced the same problem as publishers faced in the old days of “bilateral link agreements”. You don’t want there to have to be negotiations between N publishers under N terms, etc. Very inefficient. So publishers can’t do this on their own and PD vendors can’t do this on their own.
CrossRef brings multiple publishers into system under consistent terms, etc. and help to create that all-important database.
Commercial PD systems (e.g. iParadigms) can support multiple specialized databases. Now it’s very important to note that iParadigms is the exclusive provider for CrossCheck for a limited time. In future it will be possible to have multiple PD providers. This flexibility will give the industry the ability to adopt any new services or technologies that come along.
CrossRef Annual Meeting, Cambridge, MA, November 2008, Ed Pentz
9 th Annual Meeting Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. CrossRef 18 November 2008 Boston, MA
The Team Ed Pentz Executive Director Lisa Hart Finance and Operations Manager Chuck Koscher Director of Technology Geoffrey Bilder Director of Strategic Initiatives Kirsty Meddings Product Manager Carol Meyer Business Dev and Marketing Manager Anna Tolwinska Membership and Marketing Coordinator Engineer Susan Collins Administrative Assistant Jon Stark Web Developer Tim Pickard System Analyst and Administrator Patricia Feeney Metadata Quality Coordinator
The Board <ul><li>Chairman - Robert Campbell Alternate: Craig Van Dyck WILEY-BLACKWELL John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Treasurer - Linda Beebe Alternate: Gary VandenBos American Psychological Association </li></ul><ul><li>Beth Rosner Alternate: Stewart Wills American Association for the Advancement of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Ingoldsby Alternate: Paul DeCillis American Institute of Physics </li></ul><ul><li>John R. White Alternate: Bernard Rous Association for Computing Machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Hunter Alternate: Joep Verheggen Elsevier </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony Durniak Alternate: Gerry Grenier The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry Cowhig Alternate: Judith Barnsby IOP Publishing </li></ul>
The Board <ul><li>Howard Ratner Alternate: Jason Wilde Nature Publishing Group </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Richman Alternate: John Shaw Sage Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Wim van der Stelt Alternate: Ray Colon Springer Science + Business Media </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Bannerman Alternate: Bob Hecht Informa UK Limited (Taylor & Francis) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Connertz Alternate: David Stewart Thieme Publishing Group </li></ul><ul><li>Rebecca Simon Alternate: Gabriel Alvaro University of California Press </li></ul><ul><li>Garrett Kiely Alternate: University of Chicago Press </li></ul><ul><li>Karen AbramsonAlternate: Zsolt Silberer Wolters Kluwer Health </li></ul>
Financial Achievements <ul><li>Major milestone: All start-up loans and interest repaid May 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Fees – 4 th year with no deposit fee increase and 2 nd year with no Annual Member fee increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backfile fee lowered to $0.12 through 2008, $0.15 for 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audit Committee working well </li></ul><ul><li>Successful 2007 audit with no adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and systems have grown with the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Earned Income + good cash position = financial stability </li></ul>
Financial Goals <ul><li>Board started process of establishing a new long-term plan in early 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Goals for PILA are… </li></ul>
Agreed Financial Goals <ul><ul><li>Sustain core services as directed by members & board. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make necessary capital investments to meet operational requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invest in new innovations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain a minimum of 2 months operating cash plus next year’s capital spending on hand at all times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a credit line of $250,000 to support current operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a cash reserve fund ($.5 million) for future improvements to the core services. </li></ul></ul>
2009 Draft Budget <ul><li>Revenue - $3,798 (5% growth over 2008LE) – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership growth leveling off/most new members in lowest tier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expenses - $3,618 (5% growth over 2008LE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investments in metadata quality, new initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain positive operating income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cash balances remain good (now that all loans have been repaid) </li></ul>
Strategic Financial Issues <ul><li>Ensure the long term viability of CrossRef (our “will”) through long term planning </li></ul><ul><li>Consider rebates to members when appropriate – no fee increases are effectively rebates </li></ul><ul><li>Define broad principles for investment in start up initiatives (i.e., innovations) </li></ul><ul><li>All new initiatives to be self-sustaining </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor all fees and adjust if necessary </li></ul>
Risks <ul><li>Decline of Backfile deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Leveling off of growth of Current deposits </li></ul><ul><li>New members all in lowest fee category - increasing support costs </li></ul><ul><li>Main CrossRef System 5 years old – major investment needed for upgrade in 2009 </li></ul>
Risks <ul><li>Collection on member & affiliate billings more challenging – some 90 days past due </li></ul><ul><li>IDF currently in good shape – other RAs seem to be picking up steam </li></ul><ul><li>Possible patent issues </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Excellent financial performance </li></ul><ul><li>All debt repaid </li></ul><ul><li>Fees steady or going down </li></ul><ul><li>Risks being addressed </li></ul><ul><li>CrossRef can expand and remain a viable non-profit for industry innovations. </li></ul>
CROSSREF BOARD CANDIDATES <ul><li>American Institute of Physics - Tim Ingoldsby </li></ul><ul><li>American Psychological Association - Linda Beebe </li></ul><ul><li>CSIRO Publishing - Andrew Stammer </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE - Tony Durniak </li></ul><ul><li>The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) - Patricia Shaffer </li></ul><ul><li>University of California Press - Rebecca Simon </li></ul>
Mission Statement <ul><li>To enable easy identification and use of trustworthy electronic content by promoting the cooperative development and application of a sustainable infrastructure </li></ul>
Who’s Citing You? Discover how your publications are being cited and incorporate DOI links to the citing content into your online publication.
How big is the CrossRef Cited-by Network? <ul><li>One-third of the journals in CrossRef </li></ul><ul><li>80 million cited-by relationships </li></ul><ul><li>More than 120 publishers </li></ul><ul><li>6 million articles with deposited references </li></ul>
Building on Success <ul><li>Logical for CrossRef to have expanded role in helping to define and run new infrastructural services for scholarly and professional publishing </li></ul>
It’s not good enough to sit on the fence and watch, you have to participate. The hardest challenge is to get competing forces to recognise what they compete on and to start to collaborate on the rest in order to make a new offer that is different because of the collaboration. One of the best examples in publishing was the Crossref initiative and organisation. Martyn Daniels, Brave New World Blog, Booksellers Association, UK and Ireland http://bookseller-association.blogspot.com/
CrossCheck An innovative, collaborative service Ed Pentz Executive Director CrossRef
CrossCheck <ul><li>A cross-publisher service, based on innovative business agreements and licenses, that makes screening scholarly content for plagiarism feasible and effective </li></ul>
Plagiarism: From a Latin word meaning “to kidnap”… the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work
Document to check Database of potential source documents
Text fingerprinting: a target document broken into short, normalized substrings which are then compared against a database of pre-indexed documents; originality report issued - must be interpreted by a human being
submitted manuscript on left, database “hit” on right; similarities highlighted. Textual overlap might be due to: plagiarism attempt, incorrect citation, “self-plagiarism”, reverse plagiarism (when somebody copies an earlier manuscript but gets published first), coincidence, acceptable re-use Duplication of bibliographies is perfectly legitimate; a valid pre-print may exist; or a math paper might legitimately contain lots of quoted material and only a few lines of original text -- say, in the context of completing or extending a proof, etc.
Database as critical limiting factor; if it doesn’t hold the relevant pre-indexed content, you are PD checking in vain
CrossRef has records for 30+ million scholarly articles, books, theses, conference proceedings, etc., registered
Depositor CrossCheck Terms of Participation Must make available content on an ongoing basis in a timely manner. Content must be made available within no more than 7 days of online publication. Must deposit full, correct and current metadata along with DOIs including article title and all authors. Must make available full text of content to other CrossCheck participants Users of the service who are not CrossRef members who are participating in CrossCheck will only see snippets of text with a DOI link to the publisher full text. May not submit content to be checked until substantially all their own content is in the CrossCheck database. "CrossCheck Deposited": To be displayed on articles or other content to indicate that the item has been deposited into CrossCheck Deposited
PD vendors would have a tough time building such a database on their own…
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KARGER AG ● LAMAZE INTERNATIONAL ● LANDSCAPE ONLINE ● LASER PAGES PUBLISHING LTD. ● LAVOISIER ● LIBRAPHARM ● LOGICAL METHODS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE ● LOGOS INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING EDUCATION FOUNDATION ● M.E. SHARPE INC. ● MANEY PUBLISHING ● MARS INFORMATICS ● MARSHFIELD CLINIC ● MARY ANN LIEBERT ● MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY ● MATHEMATICAL SCIENCE PUBLISHERS ● MBLWHOI LIBRARY "WOODS HOLE OPEN ACCESS SERVER" ● MCFARLAND & COMPANY INC., PUBLISHERS ● MCON INC. ● MEDICAL LIBRARY ASSOCIATION ● MEN'S STUDIES PRESS LLC ● MILBANK MEMORIAL FUND ● THE MINERALOGICAL SOCIETY ● MIT PRESS ● MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA ● MOHR SIEBECK e.k. ● MONASH UNIVERSITY EPRESS ● MORGAN & CLAYPOOL PUBLISHERS LLC ● MTT AGRIFOOD RESEARCH FINLAND ● MULTILINGUAL MATTERS LTD ● MULTI-SCIENCE PUBLISHING CO LTD. ● NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BUSINESS ECONOMICS ● NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL NURSES ● NATIONAL INQUIRY SERVICES CENTRE/AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (NISC/AJOL) ● NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON DRUG ABUSE (NIDA) ● NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATICS ● NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SERBIA ● NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA (NRCC) ● NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION ● NATIONAL STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING ASSOCIATION ● NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP ● NEPAL JOURNALS ONLINE ● NEOPLASIA PRESS ● NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE ● NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ● NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES ORGANIZATION ● NOW PUBLISHERS INC. ● NUCLEAR RECEPTOR SIGNALING ATLAS ● OCEANSIDE PUBLICATIONS INC. ● OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION ● OLDENBOURG WISSENSCHAFTSVERLAG GMBH ● ONCOLOGY NURSING SOCIETY ● OPERATIVE DENTISTRY ● OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA ● OSTERREICHISCHE AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN, VERLAG ● OXFORD INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS ● OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS (OUP) ● PACIFIC NORTHWEST FUNGI PROJECT ● PATRICIA SEYBOLD GROUP ● PEETERS PUBLISHERS ● PHARMACEUTICAL PRESS ● PHARMACOTHERAPY PUBLICATIONS, INC. ● PHORTE EDITORA ● PIERS ENTERPRISE ● PION, LTD ● PLEIADES PUBLISHING ● THE POLICY PRESS, UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL ● PORTLAND PRESS ● PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (PNAS) ● PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING PUBLISHING ● PROJECT EUCLID ● PROTEIN DATA BANK, RUTGERS UNIVERSITY ● PROUS SCIENCE ● THE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE ● QUESTIONS PUBLISHING ● RADIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA ● RADIOLOGY CASE REPORTS ● RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF THE CFA INSTITUTE ● RESEARCH INFORMATION LTD. ● RILEM PUBLICATIONS SARL ● THE ROCKEFELLER UNIVERSITY PRESS ● ROYAL COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNAECOLOGISTS ● ROYAL COLLEGE OF PSYCHIATRISTS ● THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND ● THE ROYAL SOCIETY ● THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY (RSC) ● THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE ● RURAL SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY ● SAGE PUBLICATIONS ● SCHATTAUER GMBH ● SCHWEIZERBART ● SCIDEA LTD. ● SCIELO/PAHO/WHO ● SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS ● SCIENCE REVIEWS 2000 LTD. ● SCIENCE SOCIETY OF THAILAND ● SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL PUBLISHERS LTD ● SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA ● SHERBORNE GIBBS LTD ● SOCIAL SCIENCE ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING, INC ● SOCIEDADE PORTUGUESA DE VIDA SELVAGEM ● SOCIETE DE PATHOLOGIE EXOTIQUE ● SOCIETY FOR APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY ● SOCIETY FOR BIOMEDICAL DIABETES RESEARCH ● SOCIETY FOR ENDOCRINOLOGY ● SOCIETY FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR ● SOCIETY FOR GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY ● SOCIETY FOR IMAGING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ● SOCIETY FOR INDUSTRIAL AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS ● SOCIETY FOR LEUKOCYTE BIOLOGY ● SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE ● SOCIETY FOR PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY ● THE SOCIETY FOR SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY ● SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF REPRODUCTION ● THE SOCIETY OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY ● SOCIETY OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE ● SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS ● SOCIETY OF RHEOLOGY ● SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION SOCIETY ● SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA ● SPIE - THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING ● SPRINGER PUBLISHING COMPANY ● SPRINGER SCIENCE + BUSINESS MEDIA (Kluwer Academic Publishers) ● STEWART POSTHARVEST SOLUTIONS ● SWISS CHEMICAL SOCIETY ● SWISS FORESTRY SOCIETY ● SYMPOSIUM JOURNALS ● TASH ● TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES ● THEOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXCHANGE NETWORK ● THIEME PUBLISHING GROUP ● THOMAS LAND PUBLISHERS ● THOMAS TELFORD LTD. ● TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD ● TURPION ● UBC PRESS ● UITGEVERIJ BOOM ● UNITED KINGDOM SERIALS GROUP (UKSG) ● UNIVERSITE DU QUEBEC A CHICOUTIMI ● UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA ● UNIVERSITY OF BATH ● UNIVERSITY OF CADIZ LIBRARY ● UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS ● THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS ● UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS INC. ● UNIVERSITY OF VETERINARY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES ● UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB - UNIVERSITY COMPUTING CENTRE ● US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS) ● USDA FOREST SERVICE ● VATHEK PUBLISHING ● VERSITA ● VIETICA INC. ● VIETNAM JOURNALS ONLINE ● VITTORIO KLOSTERMANN GMBH ● WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH & CO. KG ● WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION ● WESTBURN PUBLISHERS LTD ● WILDERNESS MEDICAL SOCIETY ● WHO PRESS ● JOHN WILEY & SONS ● WHITE HORSE PRESS ● WITPRESS LTD. ● WOLTERS KLUWER HEALTH ● WOODHEAD PUBLISHING LTD. ● WORLD ADVERTISING RESEARCH CENTER ● THE WORLD BANK ● THE WORLD CONSERVATION UNION (IUCN) ● WORLD SCIENTIFIC ● WORMBOOK
Web PD vendors support multiple databases, with varied access policies; CrossCheck will have its own database and will also compare targets against the open Web
Timeline <ul><li>2006: CrossRef members and board identify plagiarism detection as strategic priority </li></ul><ul><li>2007: Pilot in partnership with iParadigms with: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 publishers 3.2 million articles indexed 4,600 documents checked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2008: CrossCheck launched June 20 th </li></ul>
Database of Published Articles Phase 1 Phase 2 Workflow Integration Phase 3 Duplicate Submission Checking Deposited
The service provides… <ul><li>Model agreement for licensing full text to iParadigms where indexing process, content security, pricing, access, support, etc. are addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive databases (scholarly and web) to check content against </li></ul><ul><li>CrossCheck publisher can see full text of matching documents </li></ul><ul><li>Steeply Discounted fees to check content </li></ul>
The service provides… <ul><li>API for Integration into editorial management software </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines and best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Logos to indicate value add to the community </li></ul><ul><li>Verification that all participating publisher content is included and indexed </li></ul>
The service provides… <ul><li>CrossCheck content is available for other iThenticate and Turnitin users (not full text, though!) – deterrent effect </li></ul><ul><li>Level playing field for all publishers large and small, for profit and not-for-profit </li></ul><ul><li>Other PD technology options in the future </li></ul>
CrossCheck Fees <ul><li>Annual admin fee to CrossRef, not to exceed 20% of publisher’s member dues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charged in arrears; reduced as more publishers opt in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Per document checking fees to iParadigms </li></ul>
CrossCheck Progress <ul><li>33 publishers have joined </li></ul><ul><li>30 more in process of joining </li></ul><ul><li>CrossCheck database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.1 million content items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3,614 publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 million items when all participants are indexed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PubMed content to be indexed by iParadigms </li></ul></ul>
More Info <ul><li>Check website – www.crossref.org </li></ul><ul><li>Email [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to staff – Kirsty Meddings is here </li></ul><ul><li>Book an appointment for Online – stand 526 </li></ul><ul><li>Attend an upcoming webinar </li></ul>