The APA Style 7th Edition
• The American Psychological Association (APA) style, is widely accepted in
the Social Sciences.
• The APA citation format requires citation within the text rather than
endnotes or footnotes.
• In-text citations usually include the name of the author and the date
of publication, to lead the reader to the listing found in the
“References” section, which is placed at the end of the research
• Complete information about each source cited in the text is supplied
in the “References” list.
Citations in Text with No Page Numbers
• If citing a particular part of a document which has no page numbers,
include the paragraph (para.) or section heading with the number of the
• Use paragraph number or section heading with the number of the
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para.1)
Citation of a Work Discussed in Another
• In general it is expected that you seek out and use the original
source of the information. However, this is not always practical.
To cite a secondary source, do the following.
• In the Text:
Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart,
Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993)
• Note: You will list the Coltheart reference in the reference list.
Article without DOI or In Print
Scroggins, W. A., Thomas, S .L., & Morris, J. A. (2008).
Psychological testing in personnel selection, Part II: The
refinement of methods and standards in employee
selection. Public Personnel
Management, 37(2), 185-199.
Two or more Authors (up to 20 authors)
Klimonske, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in
organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and
Research, 45(2), 10-36. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10
• Note: If an article has 21 authors or more, list the first 19 authors, then insert an ellipsis (…) and
then the last name and first initials of the last author.
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua,
L., Johnson, A., Ito, H., Ramirez, J., Jones, H., Anderson, P., Winkle,
S., Short, A., Bergen, W., Wentworth, J., Ramos, P., Woo, L., Martin,
B., Josephs, M., … Brown, Z. (2005). Study of the brain. Psychology
Journal32(1), 1-15. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.1.11
Websites:organization name as author
National Institutes of Mental Health. (2015, May). Anxiety
• Note: when the author and the name of the website are the same, you
don’t need to list it as the name of the website.
Websites: no author, no date
What is psychology? (n.d). BestPsychologyDegrees.com.
• Only include a retrieval date if the information on the page is designed to change over time.
• If you cite multiple webpages from a single website, you should create a separate reference for
If you want to mention a website in its entirety, just mention it in your text with the URL in
• parentheses; don’t include it in your references.
Electronic copy from a database
Rockey, R. (2008). An observational study of pre-service teachers’
classroom management strategies (Publication No. 3303545)
[Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania]. ProQuest
Dissertations and Theses Global.
Electronic copy from an online archive or
Gerena, C. (2015). Positive Thinking in Dance: The Benefits of Positive Self-
Talk Practice in Conjunction with Somatic Exercises for Collegiate
Dancers [Master’s thesis, University of California Irvine]. University
of California, eScholarship.
• Personal communications such as Emails, lectures, or conversations
should be cited as personal communications in the text only (not in the
reference list) in the following format:
R. J. Smith (personal communication, August 15, 2015)