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Multiculturality & internationalization

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Multiculturality & Internationalization concepts into a user Centered Design process model

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Multiculturality & internationalization

  1. 1. MULTICULTURALITY & INTERNATIONALIZATION Grau en Enginyeria Informàtica User Centred Design
  2. 2. Index • Internationalization and localization • Culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Internationalization and localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 2 / 92
  3. 3. Some Concepts • Internationalization and localization. • Elements and international symbols. • Culture: concepts, cultural elements, cultural levels, cultural representations. • Understand meanings of colours, icons, numbers, currency representation, numerals, currency, writing, etc. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 3 / 92
  4. 4. Internationalization and localization • In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target market. • Internationalization • the process of designing a software application so that it can potentially be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes. • Localization • the process of adapting internationalized software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text. • Localization (which is potentially performed multiple times, for different locales) uses the infrastructure or flexibility provided by internationalization (which is ideally performed only once, or as an integral part of ongoing development). Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 4 / 92
  5. 5. Internationalization and localization • The internationalization and localization process Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intern ationalization_and_localization 5 / 92
  6. 6. Internationalization • Internationalized Software: product prepared to be used out of the region was conceived for. • Goal: to reach international markets • Problem: adjust the interface to different places • Extreme cases: web sites Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 6 / 92
  7. 7. Internationalization • Example: writing direction Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Washing machine instructions from left to rigth vs from rigth to left 7 / 92
  8. 8. vsInternationalization • Process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes. • An internationalized software does not have elements related to language or culture in the code. • Textual elements like messages or labels are outside of the code and they are included in a dynamic way Localization • Process of adapting internationalized software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text • Local conventions, culture and language of a particular region. • Set of characters used to write in a language (writing). Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Advantages • The same program works in the whole world • Low cost codification 8 / 92
  9. 9. Culture “A way of life, the sum total of one’s philosophy, beliefs, norms, values, morals, habits, customs, arts and literature…” Thomas Vulpe. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 9 / 92
  10. 10. Culture • Culture is taken for granted. There is no exhaustive definition for culture. • Culture is no limited to national cultures. • Culture does not exist at national level only. • At least we should avoid assuming that there is one national culture for every country. • The culture of a region or country can perceive the same object in different ways. • Example • “As soon as possible” • means immediately in US, and • could be during this month in Latin-American culture Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 10 / 92
  11. 11. Culture • A shared understanding about the world works • Shared patterns of behavior with shared meaning Ways of behaving Ways of thinking Ways of feeling That are learned, shared, transmitted and forgotten Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 11 / 92
  12. 12. Culture Consciousness Folklore Grammar Literature Theatre Art Music Dance Food Clothing/costume Postures/attitudes Politeness concepts of propriety Representations of Beauty Grammatical functions Raising / educating children “Going about” (Umgang) with other human beings “Going about” with animals attitudes/postures towards nature hierarchical relationships Cleanliness representations disease representations historical understanding Values Concepts of Virtues, Mistakes, Sins Linguistic interaction and discourse roles Leadership qualities goal orientation industriousness attitudes towards work Concepts of order Truth Sense of Justice concepts of time / space Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 12 / 92
  13. 13. Culture • Learned but • We don’t know what we know • We don’t know what we don’t know • Communication provides shared understanding • Without an effective communication there is no culture and intercultural communication Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 13 / 92
  14. 14. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 14 / 92
  15. 15. Culture: Global Design • What is for? Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 15 / 92
  16. 16. Culture: Global Design • Send a letter Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 16 / 92
  17. 17. Culture: Global Design (global Signs) Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 17 / 92
  18. 18. Culture • Take care how to draw men and women together and how they are dressed • Some symbols such as the swastika, hammer and sickle, rising sun, crosses and stars represent political and/or religious beliefs • What in a fundamentalist country can be understood as offensive, in the West may have no meaning • Moving head, say good-bye, women in bikinis, alcohol Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 18 / 92
  19. 19. Cultural markers • Text • Icons • Audio clips • Currency • Date/time format, numbers • Spelling • Weights and measures • Colours • Graphics • Telephone numbers • Address • Titles Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 19 / 92
  20. 20. Index • Internationalization and localization • Culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 20 / 92
  21. 21. Icons • Usually, icons have a deep language and/or culture dependence • Examples: • Mail box • spelling checker acceptance (tick) Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 21 / 92
  22. 22. Colours • They have associated meanings through the tradition in most cultures • Occidental • BLACK: colour associated with mourning and funerals : associated with marriage and birth • Oriental : associated with mourning • RED: associated with marriage • Each culture has its standards, then, it’s difficult to generalize • Example: traffic lights • RED (stop), (caution) and GREEN (go) • Even it seems to be standard, this cannot be globally assumed (China standard: Blue/ : Cross). Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design colour Symbolism Chart by Culture Understand the Meanings of colour in Various Cultures Around the World http://webdesign.about.com/od/color/a/bl_colorculture.htm 22 / 92
  23. 23. Cultural Meanings of Colour and Colour Symbolism • By mixing appropriate amounts of different colours however you can often neutralize inherent negative cultural connotations. • However • Times change and old associations may be slowly altered over the years. • Western cultures have adopted some Eastern colour uses while some Eastern cultures have adopted Western ideas. • The Internet has allowed people to learn about other cultures and to adopt what them like from these cultures. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://www.empower-yourself-with-color- psychology.com/cultural-color.html Cultural colour Meanings of Orange Western: • affordable or inexpensive items • Halloween, combined with black Eastern: • happiness • spirituality Thailand: • colour for Thursday Ireland: • religious colour for Protestants • appears on the Irish flag along with white for peace and green for Catholics Netherlands: • colour of the Dutch Royal Family Hinduism: • Saffron, a soft orange colour, is considered an auspicious and sacred colour 23 / 92
  24. 24. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/vis ualizations/colours-in-cultures 24 / 92
  25. 25. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://blog.kissmetrics.com/color-psychology/?wide=1 25 / 92
  26. 26. Calendars, dates and hours • There are more calendars than Gregorian !! • Buddhist, Islamic, Chinese, Hebrew, etc. • Even in one calendar, there are different formats: • dd/mm/aaaa 11 de Enero de 2005 • mm/dd/yyyy January the 11th, 2005 Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 26 / 92
  27. 27. Calendars, dates and hours • in some countries the date format is day/month/year (e.g. the UK), whilst in others month/day/year (e.g. the USA) is the norm. • In addition, some countries treat Sunday as the first day of the week, whilst others traditionally view Monday as the start of the week. • Calendars must reflect these variations to prevent erroneous date selections. • Therefore, cultural differences must be taken into consideration when designing event calendars as incorrect choices could lead to big problems, such as appearing at the airport on the wrong day. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 27 / 92
  28. 28. Numbers, currencies and units of measure • For each country we need to note the currency symbol and numeric format • USA $ 1,234.56 • UK £ 1,234.56 • Euro 1.234,56 € • Most of the world uses the metric system • BUT United States or UK • Use miles (1.609 m), inches (2,54 cm), ... Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 28 / 92
  29. 29. Sorting • Order forms are important in the process of internationalization and are a complex issue • Initially ordinations of characters are A through Z, uppercase first, then lowercase, and numbers are arranged in 0-9 • This type of rule is not always acceptable, because there are rules more complicated when a second character must be considered. • Example: ‘CH’ and ‘LL’ in Spanish Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphabetical_order • Guidelines for Alphabetical Arrangement of Letters and Sorting of Numerals and Other Symbols (National Information Standards Organization - American National Standards Institute, ANSI): http://www.niso.org/publications/tr/tr03.pdf 29 / 92
  30. 30. Index • Internationalization and localization • Culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 30 / 92
  31. 31. Alphabet • Classified into ideograms and phonetic scripts • An ideogram has special meaning and is not related to its pronunciation • The letters of a phonetic script represent certain sounds • The most important alphabets are: • Western (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) • Arabic or Middle Eastern • East Extreme Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 31 / 92
  32. 32. Western alphabet • Latin, Greek and Cyrillic • Common characteristics: • Phonetics • Left to right • Use upper and lower case • Numbers in Arabic format: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 y 9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_alphabet Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 32 / 92
  33. 33. Arabic • There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms • Alphabetical order two different ways: Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_alphabet#Computers_and_th e_Arabic_alphabet 33 / 92
  34. 34. East Extreme • Based on chinesse ideografic characters • Currently are used a lot of characters standard: 20.000 characters extended: 50.000 characters Minimun to talk: 3.000 characters Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 34 / 92
  35. 35. Fonts • Culture impacts your preference for fonts • One explanation for why some fonts make you feel in a certain way is because of deep links to culture. • Many people relate Helvetica with the US Government because it’s used in tax forms. • These associations are difficult to remove and should be considered when deciding on a font choice. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Because fonts are designed by humans, there is usually some meaning attached to them. You don’t want to choose a font that is easily associated with something in our culture that’s markedly different than the vibe you’re trying to give off. https://medium.com/who-what-why/1523564d966c 35 / 92
  36. 36. Translation • All languages have different syntax and grammar • The translated text could change of size, so its is neccesary to consider this aspect • Example: • Move (in English) its translated as verschieben (in German) • To be considered in: • Messages • Grammar and syntax • Menus design • Prompts • dialogue boxes • Icons Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 4char vs 11char 36 / 92
  37. 37. Index • Internationalization and localization • Culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 37 / 92
  38. 38. Coding Schemes • Each type of writing has to be represented in computer systems • This representation takes the form of a coding scheme • These schemes are encrypted through character mapping • Character maps allow the representation of scripts in the computer and include characters that are not in the alphabet and punctuation • Types of schemes • ASCII • Map one byte character (SBCS) • Map double byte characters (DBCS) • Unicode Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 38 / 92
  39. 39. ASCII • American Standard Code for Information Interchange • Based on the English alphabet that encodes 128 specified characters • numbers 0-9, letters a-z and A-Z • some basic punctuation symbols, some control codes (originated with Teletype machines), and a blank space - into the 7-bit binary integers • Each character is indexed in the character map • Ex.: number 65 = ‘A’ and number 97 = ‘a’ • ASCII was the most commonly used character encoding on the World Wide Web until December 2007, when it was surpassed by the ASCII-derived UTF-8 Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_ascii.asp 39 / 92
  40. 40. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design ASCII ISO Character Sets 40 / 92
  41. 41. ASCII ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 41 / 92
  42. 42. ASCII ISO 8879 Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 42 / 92
  43. 43. Problems • Duplicity in the character encoding • Inconsistent characters codes due to national and industry standards conflicts. • 7-bit ASCII & 8-bit ASCII codes are limited to 128 & 256 positions  not useful for a global/wide context • Internet has “complicated” this situation: it demands for a unique set of characters in the world Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 43 / 92
  44. 44. Unicode enables people around the world to use computers in any language • Because the previous character-sets are limited in size, and are not compatible in multilingual environments, the Unicode Consortium developed the Unicode Standard. • Unicode Standard • covers all the characters, punctuations, and symbols in the world. • enables processing, storage and interchange of text data no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language • Industry consensus • Apple, Borland, Digital, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Lotus, Metaphor, Microsoft, Next, Novell, Research Libraries Group, Sun, WordPerfect, Xerox Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://www.unicode.org 44 / 92
  45. 45. Unicode Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 45 / 92
  46. 46. Unicode • Universal (wide capacity) • Fixed width • Not ambiguous • Capacity: more than 39.000 characters Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 46 / 92
  47. 47. UTF-8 • Can represent every character in the Unicode character set • Designed for backward compatibility with ASCII • Dominant character encoding for the World Wide Web • Recommended by the Internet Mail Consortium (IMC) for all e-mail programs (display and create mails) • Increasingly being used as the default character encoding in operating systems, programming languages, APIs, and software applications Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 47 / 92
  48. 48. KANJI • Defined by el JIS (Japan Industry Standard) • Level 1  3.000 characters • Level 2 adds 3.500 characters • Level 3, recently defined. It increments the map with more than 6.000 characters • Based in a 7-bit format. Requires special ESCAPE sequences Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 48 / 92
  49. 49. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 49 / 92
  50. 50. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design April 2015: Support for utf8mb4 The character encoding of the database has changed from UTF8 to UTF8mb4, this adds a wide range of 4-byte characters set. 50 / 92
  51. 51. Index • Internationalization and localization • HCI and culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 51 / 92
  52. 52. Localization Model Localized resources + Application Code = Localized Product • Contain data but not code • Contain string of characters and graphics used in the interfaces • Contain specific elements of localization • Contain application code that is executed in all countries and languages Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design • Key points for designing a localized product: • Place all data, text, graphics and multimedia in a separate data file (o several files) • Organize and document files • Create a process to build the localized product 52 / 92
  53. 53. Localization Model • Some examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 53 / 92
  54. 54. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 54 / 92
  55. 55. Localization Model • Key points for designing a localized product: • Place all data, text, graphics and multimedia in a separate data file (o several files) • Organize and document files • Create a process to build the localized product Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 55 / 92
  56. 56. Index • Internationalization and localization • HCI and culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 56 / 92
  57. 57. Technical guide. Points to Revise • Specific localization elements • Convention text processing: • sorting, character classification, pronunciation, hyphenation, character-chains management functions and exchanging information files • Inputs management • keyboard driver support and other input methods • Outputs management • Ex. Translating Text: every language ​​has different grammar and syntax • Translated text is resized, growing must be expected • Move (in English) = Verschieben (in German) [4 against 11] Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 57 / 92
  58. 58. Technical guide. Be aware of • Messages • Grammar and syntaxes • Design of menus • Prompts • State Bars • dialogue boxes • Icons Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 58 / 92
  59. 59. Technical guide. Dialogues organization • Organization of controls and window elements should consider text of labels growth • In Hebrew and Arabic, the information is written from right to left (take care of text presentation) • Some languages ​​include diacritical marks that require additional space • Rule: allow 30% of growth Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 59 / 92
  60. 60. Technical guide. State Bars and Menus • State Bars • Do not fill all the bar with text • English version should occupy 50% of bar space • Menus • Avoid dense menus • Accelerator keys coincide with the first character of a word. This can cause problems when translating. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 60 / 92
  61. 61. Technical guide. Cultural elements • ZIP code • Solution Allow flexibility Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 61 / 92
  62. 62. Technical guide. Programming • Document ALL the resources hat must be localized • It is useful to develop two locations in parallel in order to evaluate the internationalization • It is important to have tools and utilities to make the location • Ex.: java language • Supports Unicode: • It has a 16-bit char type (in C + + is platform dependent) • It has a notation for defining a Unicode character constant ' uxxxx' • It has predefined objects • Extends Object Class java.util.Locale. A Locale object represents a handle to a region Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 62 / 92
  63. 63. http://www.w3.org/International Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Internationalization Quick Tips for the Web: http://www.w3.org/International/quicktips/Overview 63 / 92
  64. 64. Index • Internationalization and localization • HCI and culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 64 / 92
  65. 65. Cultural Models • Edward Hall: Determine to send the correct answer more than send the correct message. • Victor David: Determine the cultural aspects could be easily used in a communication in business scenarios. • Geert Hofstede: Determine thinking patterns, feeling and attitude convey the mental culture. • Trompenaars: Determine the way people resolve their problems. • A cultural model could be used to • identify global information (relevant information in some contexts without modifications) • identify effective cultural metaphors • avoid some mistakes (that could be offensive in some cultures) • evaluate effectiveness of an interface used by an international user. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 65 / 92
  66. 66. Hofstede Model • Collectivism vs. Individualism • the relationship between the individual and the collective/group which prevails in a given society • Collectivism: Korea, Japan, Brazil • Individualism: USA, France, Germany, Costa Rica. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 66 / 92
  67. 67. Hofstede Model • Feminity vs. Masculinity • predominant socialisation pattern is for men to be more assertive and for women to be more nurturing • work goals indicated a near consistency on men scoring advancement and earnings as more important, and • women scoring supervision, social aspects of the job, working conditions, working hours and ease of work as more important. • Hofstede calculated scores of Masculinity/Femininity that are available for a small group of nations • Masculinity: USA, Japan, Germany • Feminity: Costa Rica, Denmark, Norway Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 67 / 92
  68. 68. Index • Internationalization and localization • HCI and culture • User Interface elements • Writing • Codification schemes • Localization model • Technical guide • Cultural Models • Examples Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 68 / 92
  69. 69. Some examples Individualism - Switzerland “You’re immediately at the centre of attention - your individuality, your everyday life, situations in which you recognize yourself and where you would like to see yourself.” Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design http://www.mcdonalds.ch 69 / 92
  70. 70. Some examples Individualism – Germany, Switzerland Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 70 / 92
  71. 71. Some examples Colectivism - India Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 71 / 92
  72. 72. Some examples Colectivism - Japan Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 72 / 92
  73. 73. Design for China • China – websites are more complex, more oriented towards entertainment (high context / collectivist)  more complex because of 1. Principle: “give the people what they want at once” “…clearness and transparency in Chinese not only means, to ‘get an overview’ but also means ‘to find quickly what one is looking for’. In contrast to western website that are characterized by a deep hierarchy and fewer elements on each level, Chinese websites have a flat hierarchy with as many elements on each level as possible. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 73 / 92
  74. 74. Designing for China  more complex because of 2. “aesthetics of abundance” –Chinese popular culture, e.g., in New Year’s pictures, calendars, paintings. “…strong and rich colour, density, and opulent presentation symbolize happiness and wealth.” 3. search patterns: • mainland Chinese prefer vertical layout • Hong Kong Chinese prefer horizontal Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 74 / 92
  75. 75. China vs USA Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 75 / 92
  76. 76. Yahoo! US Caract. Principales Web Site Directory (14 Temas principales) Noticias Yahoo! Worldwide Búsqueda Overview: Yahoo! Services Caract. Principales Overview: Yahoo! Services Web Site Directory (14 temas principales) Noticias Entretenimiento Búsqueda Yahoo! Worldwide Servicios SMS Deportes: Liga China de Fútbol Advertisement Musica & Email Películas Headlines Wallpaper Downloads Películas Compras Sección miembros Yahoo! Announcement US Local Yahoo! Search Field (2) Other Yahoo! Services Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred DesignYahoo! China 76 / 92
  77. 77. Examples – BMW Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 77 / 92
  78. 78. Examples – BMW Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 78 / 92
  79. 79. Examples – BMW Argentinan Web of BMW does not use correctly the verbal times or the tone typic of Argentina, the web page uses the typica spanish style:: Mantenga el control (Maintain the control)..., Manténgase seguro (maintain safe)... Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 79 / 92
  80. 80. Examples – Use of colour Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 80 / 92
  81. 81. Examples – Individualism Vs. Colectivism Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 81 / 92
  82. 82. Nescafe (may ‘14) Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Japan: http://nestle.jp Italy: https://www.nescafe.it/home 82 / 92
  83. 83. Nintendo (May ‘15) Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Japan: http://www.nintendo.co.jp Spain: http://www.nintendo.es 83 / 92
  84. 84. Nescafe (may ‘14) Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design France India: http://www.nestle.in/brands/beverages http://www.croquonslavie.fr/corner- marque/nescafe/Pages/Homenescafe.aspx?hbxCm p=TD_NESCAFE 84 / 92
  85. 85. EEUU web site Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Data format NOT consistent dd:mm:aaaa instead of mm:dd:aaa Measures American format US dollars Miles and Galons Colours In US RED and GREY are related with necessity and luxury Colectivism 85 / 92
  86. 86. Brazil web site Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Colours Luxury referred with càlid colours and expensive elements (Chinese porcelain vase) Colectivism or Individualism undefined 86 / 92
  87. 87. Russia web site Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design Menus and colours Simple and Austere Alphabet cyrillic (some) Conclusions • High localization (a different scheme for every country even Brazil and Portugal different pages) • Japan very similar to EEUU 87 / 92
  88. 88. Examples – Writing Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 88 / 92
  89. 89. Examples - Writing Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 89 / 92
  90. 90. Conclusions • Computerized market is global, in that way it is necessary to design for the whole world • Internationalization is a necessity not an option • It is precise to consider it at the early design Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 90 / 92
  91. 91. Interesting readings • Cross cultural considerations for user interface design, by Nehal Shah, April, 2013: • http://www.humanfactors.com/coolstuff/cross-cultural- considerations-for-user-interface-design.asp • The future of global user experience in local contexts, by Apala Lahiri Chavan, February 2013: • http://www.humanfactors.com/coolstuff/the-future-of-global-user- experience-in-local-contexts.asp • International Usability: Big Stuff the Same, Details Differ, by Jakob Nielsen, 2011: • http://www.nngroup.com/articles/international-usability-details-differ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalization_and_locali zation Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 91 / 92
  92. 92. Bibliography • Bucher, Hans-Jürgen. (2002). The power of the audience: Interculturality, interactivity and trust in Internet Communication. In F. Sudweeks and C. Ess (eds.), Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication. Proc. Third International Conference. Montreal, CanadaMurdoch University Press. • Duncker, Elke. (2002). Cross-cultural usability of computing metaphors: Do we colonize the minds of indigenous web users? In F. Sudweeks and C. Ess (eds.), Proc. the Second International Conference on Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication, 217ff. Murdoch University. • Collazos, C., González, M.P., Neyem, A., Sturm, C. (2007) Guidelines to develop Emotional Awareness Devices from a Cultural-Perspective: A Latin-American Example, LNCS, HCCI. • Ess, Charles (ed.). (2001). Culture, Technology, Communication: Towards an Intercultural Global Village, with Fay Sudweeks, Foreword by Susan Herring. Albany, NY Press. • Gil, R., Collazos, C. (2007). Integrating emotions and knowledge in aesthetics designs using cultural profiles, LNCS, HCCI. • Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. Beverly Hills: Sage. • Heaton, L. (2001). Preserving Communication Context: Virtual Workspace and Interpersonal Space in Japanese CSCW. In Ess (2001), 213-240. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. • Hongladarom, S. (2001). Global Culture, Local Cultures and the Internet: The Thai Example. In Ess, 307-324. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. • Jørgensen, G. (2003). Can an online library service bridge the gap of cultural understanding? Seeing design isues in the light of cross-cultural communication. IT University, Denmark. • Kampurri, M. and Markku T. (2004). Culture in Human-Computer Interaction Studies: A survey of ideas and definitions. Proc. Cultural Attitudes Towards Communication and Technology 2004, 43-57. Murdoch, Western Australia: Murdoch University • Würtz, E. (2004). Intercultural Communication on Websites: An analysis of visual communication in high- and low-context cultures. Proc. Cultural Attitudes Towards Communication and Technology 2004, 109-122. Murdoch, Western Australia: Murdoch University. Multiculturality & Internationalization - User Centred Design 92 / 92

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