Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

Environmental Law for Road Builders

2.601 visualizaciones

Publicado el

An overview of environmental law and nuisance for the construction industry

Publicado en: Empresariales, Tecnología
  • Inicia sesión para ver los comentarios

  • Sé el primero en recomendar esto

Environmental Law for Road Builders

  1. 1. Environmental Law Overview for Road Builders ORBA February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe, Ph.D.
  2. 2. First - Some Cases Dust  Silt  Salt  Liquids  Waste asphalt  First Nations  2 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  3. 3. Dust R. v. Warren Bitulithic (2001)  Dust from portable gravel crusher  Covered vehicles nearby  Paid cleanup  Fine: $15,000 plus VFS  3 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  4. 4. Dust, #2 R. v. Hard Rock Paving (2007)  Reconstruction of raised track  Strong winds, history of dust complaints  Angry neighbours  Owner authorized watering after MOE call  Prosecution 2 years later  Fine: $5700  4 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  5. 5. Silt R. v. Spruce Falls Inc. (2003)  Faulty road-building: silt into creek  Impact severe: altered course, changed habitat  Fines (+VFS): $25,000 (discharge that may impair)  $5000 (failure to report to MOE; had reported to  MNR) $10,000 (failure to follow work plan)  PLUS spent > $100,000 to remediate and upgrade  erosion-prevention measures 5 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  6. 6. Silt, #2 R. v. Barrie  Fisheries Act  CA fill permit  Is municipality liable for developers’s  erosion? City accepting dedication of roads, EPZ  6 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  7. 7. Salt R. v. Les Termineaux Rideau Bulk  Terminals (2001) Windblow  Impact on neighbouring businesses:  Vehicles - cleaning  People - material discomfort  Fine: $12,000  7 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  8. 8. Liquids Diamond Stonebridge & Gazzola Paving (1993)  Latex concrete for bridge  Wash water discharged through sand  Discoloured creek  Full cleanup once asked  DS: $6000 of stream bank stabilisation work  GP: fined $6000 (subcontractor experts - high  standard of care) 8 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  9. 9. Liquids, #2 Twnshp of McGillivray Bruce Kerr and  supervisor (2000) Dombind for dust suppression  Burst hose, 1000 gal into drain, not noticed  $7000 discharge, and fail to report, plus $8000  donation Supervisor: suspended sentence  9 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  10. 10. Waste asphalt Berendsen v. Ontario (2008)  Groundwater on dairy farm contaminated by  waste MTO asphalt (buried in the ‘60s) Cows refused to drink, became ill  MOE investigated, “no contamination”  Court disagreed:  Continued presence of waste is a continuing breach  of MOE’s duty to farmer MOE failure to investigate/remedy is a breach of the  OWRA and EPA 10 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  11. 11. Asphalt, cont’d MOE failed to consider “cumulative,  additive, or long-term effects of toxic chemicals…at trace levels” Court awarded $1.73 million in damages  Bottom line: What does it mean to meet  MOE standards? …No longer clear! The case may be appealed  11 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  12. 12. First Nations R. v. City of Vaughan  Proposed road through Pine Valley  Alleged breach of EAA  Lack of consultation  Unsatisfied land claims  12 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  13. 13. Overview Who Does What?  Key Statutes  Enforcement  Due Diligence  What to Do when the Inspector Comes  13 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  14. 14. Who does what? Federal  Provincial  Municipal  14 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  15. 15. Federal Role Issues of national/international concern  Crossing borders (e.g., climate change)  Toxic substances  Science/standard setting  Key federal statutes  Canadian Environmental Protection Act  Fisheries Act  15 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  16. 16. Provincial Role Most environmental issues  Property and civil rights  Natural resources  Key provincial statutes  Environmental Protection Act  Ontario Water Resources Act  Clean Water Act  16 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  17. 17. Municipal Role Steadily growing  Off-loading by provinces  More responsibilities than money  Key statutes  Municipal Act, 2001   Planning Act 17 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  18. 18. Environmental Protection Act Don’t Pollute  Air  Land (not water)  Discharges - s. 14   Spills - Part X Spills and Reporting  Permitted Pollution  18 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  19. 19. Discharge S. 14: No person shall  discharge … or cause or permit the discharge  of a contaminant  into the natural environment, that  causes or is likely to cause  an adverse effect.  19 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  20. 20. Who is the polluter? Who “causes or permits”?  “Influence or control”  “Charge, management and control”  R. v Sault St. Marie  20 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  21. 21. Who has “control”? Corporation  Senior management  Staff?  21 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  22. 22. What is Pollution? “Contaminant”, s.1  Anything with potential for adverse effect  Solid (e.g., dust, smoke)  Liquid (e.g., wash water)  Gas (e.g., vehicle emissions)  Vibration  Noise  22 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  23. 23. Adverse Effect Impairment, injury, damage, harm  Impair quality of environment for any use  Interference with normal use of property  Material discomfort  23 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  24. 24. How much is too much? Objective benchmarks  Regulations  Guidelines  Permits  Subjective  Adverse effect  Trivial impacts  24 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  25. 25. Spills What is a spill?  Abnormal discharge out of a structure, vehicle or other container of a pollutant  into the natural environment  that causes or is likely to cause an adverse  effect 25 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  26. 26. Is that a spill? No minimum quantity  Need not leave property  Odours or gas (not noise) can = spill  26 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  27. 27. Obligations Stop spill  Report  To MOE, Municipality, owner of pollutant, person in  control of pollutant, ALL of the above Plus OHSA if impact on a worker  Contain and clean up  Restore natural environment  Civil liability  27 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  28. 28. Permitted Pollution Pollution may be authorized by  Certificates of approval (permits)  Regulations  Orders  28 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  29. 29. Overview Who Does What?  Key Statutes  Enforcement  Due Diligence  What to Do when the Inspector Comes  29 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  30. 30. Compliance and Enforcement The Players  Orders  Prosecutions  30 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  31. 31. The Players MOE / EC  Minister  Director  Provincial Officer Inspectors / abatement  Investigators  Technical support  31 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  32. 32. Provincial Officers May make inspections at any reasonable time and  with any reasonable assistance Does not need warrant or court order  What is inspection?  May not enter dwelling without consent  Unless has Order  32 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  33. 33. PO Powers: Part XV Excavate, require that any thing be operated or  set in motion, take samples, conduct tests Require production of any document/data  required to be kept under Act; examine, record or copy these Remove documents/data to make copies  Take photo, video or other visual recording  Seal site  33 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  34. 34. Interviews PO may  Make reasonable inquiries of any person - verbally  or in writing Exclude from questioning any person except counsel  for the individual being questioned Does the individual have to answer? s. 163.1  Before/ after has “reasonable grounds”?  34 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  35. 35. Compliance and Enforcement The Players  Orders  Prosecutions  35 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  36. 36. Orders Minister’s Orders  Director’s Orders  PO Orders (POO)  Court / ERT orders  36 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  37. 37. Offences: Breach Act or regulations  Fail to comply with Order  Fail to comply with CofA, certificate of  property use, licence or permit 37 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  38. 38. Offences: Less serious  More serious  Breach numerical limit in order, CofA  Discharge adverse effect (actual or likely)  Fail to report  Obstruct PO, false info  38 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  39. 39. Penalties less serious offences Individuals:  First conviction: < $50,000 per day (first offence)  Subsequent convictions: < $100,000 per day and/or  imprisonment for < 1 year Corporations:  First conviction: < $250,000 per day  Subsequent convictions: < $500,000 per day  39 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  40. 40. Penalties - more serious offences Individuals:  First conviction: $5,000 to $4 million per day   Second conviction: $10,000 to $6 million per day  Subsequent convictions: $20,000 to $6 million per day and/or  imprisonment for < 5 years s. 187(3)  40 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  41. 41. Penalties - more serious offences Corporations:  First conviction: $25,000 to $6 million per day  Second conviction: $50,000 to $10 million per day  Subsequent convictions: $100,000 to $10 million per  day, per offence! Plus:  s. 189  s. 190.1, other orders  41 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  42. 42. Prior “convictions” count! The EPA (other than Part IX offence)  The Nutrient Management Act, 2002  The Ontario Water Resources Act  The Pesticides Act  42 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  43. 43. Sentencing considerations Aggravating factors (adverse effect,  intentional/reckless, motivated by profit, prior convictions) Mitigating factors (act done in good faith, quick  response…) Limitation period  Two years after the later of the day the offence was  committed and the day on which evidence re the offence first came to the attention of a Director 43 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  44. 44. Duties of officers/directors- s.194 Duty to take all reasonable care to prevent corporation  from contravening Act by Discharging or causing/permitting discharge  Failing to notify MOE of discharge  Contravening an Order under the EPA  Failure to discharge that duty - person is guilty of an  offence A director or officer of a corporation may be convicted  regardless of whether the corporation is prosecuted or convicted 44 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  45. 45. Overview Who Does What?  Key Statutes  Enforcement  Due Diligence  What to Do when the Inspector Comes  45 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  46. 46. Due diligence  What is it?  Reduces Risks  The opposite of negligence  Defence to prosecution:  Proof on a balance of probabilities that you did everything reasonable to prevent the offence from occurring. OSHA s.66(3) “every precaution reasonable in  the circumstances” 46 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  47. 47. Prevent what offences?  Any regulatory offence, e.g. environmental, health and safety, income tax  Committed by anyone under your influence and control:  Employees  Contractors  Others (?) 47 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  48. 48. Who must use due diligence? Anyone who can be prosecuted:  Company  Officers/ directors  Managers / supervisors  Employees 48 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  49. 49. How much is enough?  The standard of care: high and rising  Depends upon the circumstances:  gravity of potential harm,  available alternatives,  likelihood of harm,  foreseeability  control available 49 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  50. 50. Need more care if: Knowledge and Expertise  Notice  Past problems  Unusual Hazard  The activity  The location  50 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  51. 51. Benchmarks:  Laws, regulations and guidelines  Government and industry reports  Custom of the trade (the better competitors)  Voluntary standards, e.g. ISO 14000, Responsible Care 51 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  52. 52. Due diligence - Key Elements Identify impacts and risks  Know applicable laws and benchmarks  Audit current practices  Establish good operating procedures, assign  responsibilities Improve equipment, training, documentation  Monitor results, detect and correct, continuous  improvement 52 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  53. 53. Overview Who Does What?  Key Statutes  Enforcement  Due Diligence  What to Do when the Inspector Comes  53 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  54. 54. What to do when the Inspector comes Inspection versus Investigation  Always know who and why  Reasonable grounds to believe that an  offence has been committed? 54 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  55. 55. Inspection Scope  During the inspection  Removal of documents  Solicitor/client privilege  55 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  56. 56. Investigation Consent  Plain View  Search Warrant  Search orders  56 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  57. 57. When an investigator asks Ask them why they want it – there may be  no legitimate reason Investigators can demand information for  abatement purposes Record the reason (or the investigator’s  refusal to provide) 57 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  58. 58. The Charter Reasonable expectation of privacy  Self incrimination  Exclusion of evidence  58 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe
  59. 59. Questions? Comments? Saxe Law Office 355 St. Clair Avenue West, Suite 1506 Toronto, Ontario M5P 1N5 Tel: 416-962-5882 Fax: 416-962-8817 Email: admin@envirolaw.com envirolaw.ca 59 February 25, 2008 Dianne Saxe

×