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  1. 1. Art Philippines BS Biology 4 Shannon Alvior Michael Andan CJ Ballon Jade Leuterio Giselle Sabolbora Paolo Sanchez Chino Tan Kristoffer Uytiepo Dedric Yulo
  2. 2. Art Philippines Part of the charm of Philippine Art lies in its diversity of cultural influences. Out of these different influences, Filipino artists have distilled something that we Filipinos could recognize as truly our own.
  3. 3. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Pluralistic Expressions Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many
  4. 4. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism Pluralistic Expressions The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many
  5. 5. Art Philippines Sculpture was the main art form in pre-Hispanic Philippine culture. When the voyager Ferdinand Magellan introduced Spanish religious statuary into the Philippines in 1521, the queen of the southern island of Cebu chose the figure of the Christ as a boy—the Sto. Niño—for her baptismal present.
  6. 6. Art Philippines There were indigenous words both for carving and for sculpture. Portraits in wood – larawan (“picture”) and likha (“creation”) – represented specific ancestors and heroes. The idols or anitos were also made from stone, bone, ivory or crocodile tooth, clay or gold. Ancient Filipinos also drew images on bamboo or paper.
  7. 7. Art Philippines Chinese trade-ware pottery and porcelain containers used for calligraphy and brushwork have been unearthed in pre-Hispanic tombs along Laguna Lake. Traders from the Middle Kingdom must have displayed samples of their painting in the islands.
  8. 8. Art Philippines Filipinos were certainly familiar with the staple colors from herbs and clay, which they also used for tattooing, coloring pottery and dyeing.
  9. 9. Art Philippines The Spanish culture and religion inspired portraiture. It took Filipino artists only two to three centuries to absorb – and modify according to their taste and temperament – Western art, which had taken the Europeans themselves several centuries to develop.
  10. 10. Art Philippines In the process, the classical heritage of the ikon (the Greek word for portrait) as distilled in the Spanish concept of the imagen was integrated by Filipino artists with the Chinese idea of the hua and the Malay principle of the larawan.
  11. 11. Art Philippines Like Philippine pre- Hispanic art, the principal purpose of Hispanic art was religious. Art was a visual aid to propagation and enhancement of the Christian faith. The five major religious orders at first commissioned Chinese artists who had immigrated to the colony.
  12. 12. Art Philippines The colonial art were characterized with ubiquitous whorled and scrolled clouds, flowing drapery, flattened lions, almond eyes, soft brushwork and emphasis on line rather than light and shadow.
  13. 13. Art Philippines Indio sculptors too were summoned to carve icons for the first churches, as well as for home altars to replace the anitos. Thus was launched the “popular” style of religious sculpture, which thrived in the rural areas up to the close of the colonial regime.
  14. 14. Art Philippines The image carvers needed painters to animate their works. The usual method of extracting tinting pigments from natural sources had to be refined; coconut oil was a good solvent. Working with sculptors, early painters learned the Spanish estofado technique, in which the carved robes of the figures were embellished with polychromatic designs.
  15. 15. Art Philippines In the beginning, painting was lesser to sculpture. In fact, some of the earliest examples of folk art are “statue– paintings.” Drawn on wood were stiff santos copied from church retables, with their niches, pedestals, flowers and flickering candles. Till the end of the Spanish era, Philippine sculpture remained largely religious.
  16. 16. Art Philippines The 18th century was the formative period of Philippine art. After more than 100 years of apprenticeship and improvisation in Christian art under Spanish tutelage, the Filipinos, both indios and mestizos, were more than ready not only to erect some churches but also to adorn them. The Formative Century (1700–1800)
  17. 17. Art Philippines The most common subjects of religious painting and sculpture reflected Filipino social values. The fondness of children produced a proliferation of Sto. Niños, cherubim and seraphim. Christ in His Passion and Crucifixion may have evoked their difficulties under Spanish rule. Pre-Hispanic society’s high regard to women was affirmed in the countless tributes to the Virgin Mary. The Formative Century (1700–1800)
  18. 18. Art Philippines Between the evolution of sculpture and the flowering of colonial painting, the “midway” art of engraving reached its height in the 18th century. Colonial Engraving
  19. 19. Art Philippines This is not surprising, since it involved both drawing and carving on woodblocks and copper plates. The quality of their draftsmanship tells us that the first engravers were also painters. Until this time, Philippine art was religious. Engraving signaled the beginnings of secular art, particularly the quest for Filipino identity in a plural national community. Colonial Engraving
  20. 20. Art Philippines The leading engravers, Fransisco Suarez and Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay, did genre as well as religious works, showing their countrymen of different racial and social classes—including the tao, or common man—in various endeavors and settings. Colonial Engraving
  21. 21. Art Philippines Engraving, like other trades, was a craft whose skills and techniques were passed down through apprenticeship in a family enterprise. Colonial Engraving
  22. 22. Art Philippines Late in the 18th century, as interest in the black- and-white print waned and its quality declined, colonial painting began to flower. Colonial Painting
  23. 23. Art Philippines Inspired by a royal purpose (as ordered by King Charles III) and captivated by the beauty of the islands, a Spanish botanist named Juan de Cuellar commissioned Tagalog painters to draw the range of flora and fauna of the archipelago. Colonial Painting
  24. 24. Art Philippines These were the first still- life paintings in the Philippines. Over the next century they would appear unobtrusively in the background of portraits, genre pieces and landscapes. The earliest known painting of a Philippine historical episode—The Conquest of the Batanes (1783)— was a mural done by an unnamed Filipino painter in 1790 at the Palacio Real in Intramuros. Colonial Painting
  25. 25. Art Philippines Faustino Quiotan, a Chinese mestizo master from Sta. Cruz district in Manila, may have trained with the 18th century engravers and painters. Like Giotto in Western art, Quiotan stood at the threshold of a new tradition, which rejected the hieratic and stereotyped forms of the official art and gave its forms naturalness and solidity. Quiotan, Domingo & Philippine Academic Art
  26. 26. Art Philippines Quiotan was certainly one of the first Filipino artists to show emotion in his subjects. His most representative work , Sedes Sapientiae, shows a Madonna and child exchanging affectionate glances: the entire composition throbs with warmth and tenderness. Quiotan, Domingo & Philippine Academic Art
  27. 27. Art Philippines Damian Domingo y Gabor was the Filipino master in the early 19th century. Quiotan, Domingo & Philippine Academic Art
  28. 28. Art Philippines The self-assured Domingo speeded up the growth of art in the Philippines when, in 1821, he set up a private art school in his spacious house in Tondo town. Perhaps because he was acutely aware of his catalytic role in Philippine art, Domingo was the first known Filipino artist to do a self-portrait. Quiotan, Domingo & Philippine Academic Art
  29. 29. Art Philippines Filipino portraiture came of age in the 19th century. By this time the Filipino had gained some self- confidence, social standing and economic prosperity. Filipino artists had always been at the forefront of the search for identity. Domingo was the first Filipino artist to resist the system of racial classification and racial prejudice the Spaniards practiced. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  30. 30. Art Philippines Domingo was primarily a miniaturist. He had won his wife Lucia by giving her a miniature portrait of herself that he had done from a respectful distance. Domingo’s own autorretrato was painted on an oval ivory medallion. The romantic nature of the Filipino was probably responsible for the popularity of the miniature portraits during this period. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  31. 31. Art Philippines Domingo’s prize pupil was Justiniano Asunción y Molo, scion of a prolific family, both in an artistic and in genetic sense, of a Sta. Cruz, Manila. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  32. 32. Art Philippines Asunción’s flair for detail soon surpassed that of his teacher. Yet the details in his portraits always complemented rather than competed with his sitter’s face. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  33. 33. Art Philippines Rivaling the fame of Asunción was Antonio Malantic y Arzeo of Tondo, Manila. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  34. 34. Art Philippines Though almost as exuberant and certainly as competent as Asunción in rendering details of embroidery and jewelry, Malantic was handicapped by a marked linearity in his composition. Nevertheless, he was a master of lyricism and character delineation. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  35. 35. Art Philippines One government order which affected painting was Governor-general Clavería’s decree calling for the systematization of family surnames in 1849. This decree started an art form known as letras figuras. In graphic terms, it defines the identity of the subject by illustrating the letters of his complete name (including the maternal surname) with his figure together who those of relatives and friends. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  36. 36. Art Philippines Among the home grown painters, the two most acclaimed were Lorenzo Guerrero and Simón Flores. Simon Flores was the first Filipino oil native blood to garner a prize from an international exhibition. In 1876, he was awarded a silver medal at the Philadelphia Universal Exposition for his painting La musica del pueblo (The Music of the Town). Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  37. 37. Art Philippines During this time he might already have made the acquaintance of Mons Ignacio Tambungui who introduced him to the wealthy families of several towns of Pampanga, for whom he executed many portraits and religious paintings. Flores must have executed as many as 20 portraits which include the two versions of the Familia Quiason. Nineteenth Century Portraiture
  38. 38. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  39. 39. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism Pluralistic Expressions The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many
  40. 40. Art Philippines Historically, the names of Juan Luna and Felix Resurrección Hidalgo are inseparable; and their works are the measure of Filipino artistic excellence in the 19th century. The Other Luna
  41. 41. Art Philippines Both were men of their time; nationalists whose medals won in the academies of Madrid & Barcelona were blows struck for the cause of Filipino freedom. The Other Luna
  42. 42. Art Philippines Much has been written about the prizes both artists took in the 1884 Salon exhibition in Madrid. However for Juan Luna, his best works were still ahead of him. From a dramatic and allegorical style he learned from Rome and Madrid, he moved from a more expressive mode characterized by freer brushwork and a more liberal use of color. The Other Luna
  43. 43. Art Philippines In October 1884, Luna moved to Paris where his style became increasingly European. He turned away from the dark colors of the academic school to the bright palette of outdoor painting. The Other Luna
  44. 44. Art Philippines This post-academic period is said to be the period of “the other Luna.” Two works of this period are Ensueños de Amor and Street Flower Vendors. The Other Luna
  45. 45. Art Philippines In 1894, Luna returned to the Philippines. During this period, Manila Period, Luna painted what some consider being his best work: portraits of his family, particularly the women and children, Tampuhan (1895) and the celebrated Una Bulaqueña (1895), a full-figure portrait of a lady in gala costume. The Other Luna
  46. 46. Art Philippines Luna died at the age of 42 just three weeks before the 1900s began. He left 1,000 paintings; about half survive. Luna’s life and works are testimony enough of his greatness as an artist and patriot. The Other Luna
  47. 47. Art Philippines Even before Luna’s time, Malantic and other painters of the primitive schools painted everyday scenes: the planting and harvest of rice, people going to market, women doing the chores of home, and religious festivals. These were the start of what the critic-painter E. Aguilar Cruz calls “autochthonous tradition,” that started in 1850 and still exists to this day. Genre: Depicting Everyday Scenes
  48. 48. Art Philippines Genre scenes were first depicted by the engravers Francisco Suarez and Nicholas Cruz Bagay in 1733, whom the Jesuit Pedro Murillo Velarde commissioned to draw maps of the Philippines. The map were decorated with picture of carabao-drawn plows, cockfights, tropical fruits and flowers and indios, Chinese and Spaniards of the period in bright costumes. Genre: Depicting Everyday Scenes
  49. 49. Art Philippines In 1855, with the establishment of the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura, the painting of genre scenes became routine. Aside from copying the religious works prescribed by the Academy, students were painting subjects from their environment. Genre: Depicting Everyday Scenes
  50. 50. Art Philippines From 1890s until 1904, possibly as a result of improved technology in photography, artists began to depict scenes strong on mood and atmosphere. Artists were painting scenes that stopped action or scenes suffused with life. These resolved the tension between the guiding European aesthetics and their native sensibility. Genre: Depicting Everyday Scenes
  51. 51. Art Philippines The 19th century genre painters were more truly representative of an indigenous style with their depiction of the Philippine landscape, people and their activities. One example was is Lorenzo Guerrero who painted “with nature always close at hand, believing God to be the only true creator.” Genre: Depicting Everyday Scenes
  52. 52. Art Philippines One of the most profound influences on Philippine genre painting in general was Fabian de la Rosa, the brightest name in Philippine painting after Luna. At the core of his art were good drawing, balance and an austere palette. Among his famous genre paintings is Planting Rice, that combined the immediacy of the everyday sight with the classicism of the eternal. Masters of Genre: De la Rosa & Amorsolo
  53. 53. Art Philippines De la Rosa excelled in depicting women in the middle of their daily round activities. His best works depict women together as a group. De la Rosa was not only a genre painter but an accomplished portraitist and painter of landscapes with modulated colors, classical lines and well-ordered composition. Masters of Genre: De la Rosa & Amorsolo
  54. 54. Art Philippines By the 1930s the most successful and celebrated artist was Fernando Amorsolo. His works are characterized by bright splashes of color mixed with grays. He specialized in painting idyllic rural scenes peopled by typical heroes, and idealizing country women with sensuousness. He discovered the painterly brilliance of the Philippine sun in landscape painting. Masters of Genre: De la Rosa & Amorsolo
  55. 55. Art Philippines The years 1920 to 1945 stand out as Amorsolo’s Golden Period. One critic cited Amorsolo’s use of “color, triumphant over realism” as the undoing of Philippine genre. His works captured the optimistic spirit and grace of peacetime Philippines, before the Pacific War of 1941 – a time of innocence for the Philippines. Masters of Genre: De la Rosa & Amorsolo
  56. 56. Art Philippines Modernism as a movement in the Philippines opened formally in 1928 with a bang with an exhibition of works by another architect and painter, Victorio Edades. The most controversial painting in this landmark exhibition was The Builders, a dark and heavily textured work depicting men working in a quarry. Roots of Modernism
  57. 57. Art Philippines Edades found inspiration in the modernist idiom of Cezanne, Picasso and Gauguin. His works departed entirely from the classicism of de la Rosa and the pastoral style of Amorsolo. Seven years after Edades’ landmark exhibit, the modernist Diosdado Lorenzo exhibited works with “moderate distortion” with a well- ordered kind of turmoil and tension. Roots of Modernism
  58. 58. Art Philippines In 1935 Edades was commissioned to paint a mural for the lobby of a fashionable Manila theater. He executed it together with his students Carlos Francisco and Galo Ocampo. Together, they became known as the “Triumvirate of Modern Art”. Roots of Modernism
  59. 59. Art Philippines In 1913 Juan Arellano returned from studies in Europe a licensed architect and a full-fledged Impressionist. Although he studied in Europe, he did not attend any European art school. He “made the world his finishing school and nature his teacher”. He was also a dazzling colorist. He is the first true impressionist painter the Philippines has produced. Roots of Modernism
  60. 60. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  61. 61. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism Pluralistic Expressions The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many
  62. 62. Art Philippines Modern painting, is the kind the public often describes as abstract, began belatedly soon after World War II with the rise of neo-Realism in the 1950s. The original members of this movement were Hernando R. Ocampo Ramon Estella, Vicente Manansala, Victor Oteyza, Cesar Legaspi and Romeo V. Tabuena.
  63. 63. Art Philippines The neo-Realists “shattered Manila’s calm artistic atmosphere” by taking modernism much further than Victorio C. Edades did before the war. Viewed from the perspective of the 1950s, the work of Edades, the solitary, much vilified vanguard of prewar days now widely regarded as the “Father of Philippine Modern Art,” was beginning to pall.
  64. 64. Art Philippines One reason a post war generation turned to modernism was the need to break with the genteel tradition of Fernando Amorsolo that had long dominated the art scene who had reduced post- Liberation painting to little more than pretty illustration.
  65. 65. Art Philippines Another reason was Life Magazine and the spate of art books brought into the country at war’s end. As Arguilla recounts, “The end of the war released pent-up creativity. Enthusiastic groups of painters met frequently in coffee shops and in each other’s homes to talk art and to criticize each others work.”
  66. 66. Art Philippines The Neo-realists represented 2 directions in abstract painting. One (1) is non-naturalistic, in which subject matter is transformed by innovative or radical simplification, “distortion,” fragmentation and deconstruction. The other (2) direction deletes subject matter altogether as abstraction.
  67. 67. Art Philippines What rocked the academic establishment of the time even more was the Neo-Realist assumption that art didn’t have to soothe nerves or bring relaxation, but rather to open their eyes to new ways of seeing, to shake people up from complacency and presupposition, to make them think.
  68. 68. Art Philippines The criteria for judging art then emphasized not only technical excellence but also originality or freshness of creative ideas.
  69. 69. Art Philippines Modernism meant internationalism and had little to do, if it all, with native subject matter. Most artists espousing this were convinced that “Filipinism” not only distracted from producing a good work of art; it was also parochial, narrow-minded, irrelevant.
  70. 70. Art Philippines In the comparative quiet of Angono, Rizal, meanwhile, lived the greatest muralist the country has produced – the legendary Carlos “Botong” V. Francisco. Although regarded as one of the moderns, he upheld the importance of subject matter – nationalist ideals –which the more vocal Neo- Realists chose to eliminate from their paintings.
  71. 71. Art Philippines Francisco’s most impressive feats are mural commissions he did for a number of Manila’s public buildings and residences. In these oils canvas murals, he depicted Filipino legends, customs and traditions as well as important historical events from pre-Magellan to contemporary times with authenticity and panache.
  72. 72. Art Philippines Botong’s contribution to Philippine art is considerable. He showed the way toward the evolution of a distinct representational idiom based not on subject matter alone but on those formal qualities reflecting an artist’s particular response to things conditioned by environment and tradition.
  73. 73. Art Philippines Manansala’s own type of abstraction which he called “Transparent Cubism” held on to whole images, distorting them to produce curves and angles in delicate balance, rarely breaking them up into jigsaw puzzle pieces, in order to fully exploit their sensate aspects of shape, color and texture.
  74. 74. Art Philippines The baroque sensibility showed up early on in the works of Fernando Zobel. An inveterate draftsman, filling up sketchbook after sketchbook wherever he went, Zobel delighted in drawing the Spanish elements in Philippine culture with unabashed enthusiasm and with an eye for the piquant and ludicrous.
  75. 75. Art Philippines Another painter who stuck to pure abstraction was Constancio Bernardo. Fresh out of Yale University, where he studied with one of the country’s renowned masters of modern art, Josef Albers, he displayed a geometric type of abstraction wedded to a highly sophisticated colors sense.
  76. 76. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  77. 77. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism Pluralistic Expressions The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many
  78. 78. Art Philippines The decade of the 1960s was significant not only because it linked the representational painters of the immediate past with the expressionists and nonfigurative painters of the succeeding generation. It also provided the nurturing environment for the encounter of different artistic traditions.
  79. 79. Art Philippines In its hospitable environment, artists of at least three generations were challenged to develop their talents and set their own directions. Thus the decade was a freeing and prolific period for national art. Through the 60s, the by-then legendary neo-realists moved from strength to strength such as Carlos Francisco, Vicente Manansala, Hernando Ocampo, and Cesar Legaspi.
  80. 80. Art Philippines Unless an artist is carried away by his emotions, it is technique which moderates his art, which give it order and clarity. Technique provides the balance. It reigns in the artist’s emotions during the process of painting.
  81. 81. Art Philippines The basis of Manansala’s technical proficiency was his ability to draw. Draftmanship was a discipline to which the artist subjected himself. Colors are integral to Ocampo’s forms. His bold, solid and often highly intense colors – red, blue, yellow, green, orange with touches of black – clash in contrast even as they complement each other in uneasy harmony.
  82. 82. Art Philippines Legaspi’s leitmotif is concern for the disinherited, struggling to exist in a harsh world. The social content of his murals reflects the influence of the protest movements of the postwar period. His later paintings show the artist, having arrived at a kind of liberation, in a milieu of his own creation, orchestrating his creative energies into a complex and resonant symphony.
  83. 83. Art Philippines Dominant during the fifties and sixties was abstract expressionism or action painting, and the country’s leading avant-garde painter of that period was Lee Aguinaldo, whose works eloquently spoke the nonfigurative idiom of the international art style. The period was Aguinaldo’s “gold period”, because his paintings were monochromes in gold.
  84. 84. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  85. 85. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism Pluralistic Expressions The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art
  86. 86. Art Philippines The 70s were marked by political unrest in many parts of the world. In the Philippines authoritarian rule was sharpening poverty and oppression. Amid all this tension, an art boom was strangely forming in Metro Manila. A busting commercial market was cashing in on the business of art- making.
  87. 87. Art Philippines The decade was the redoubtable “Golden Age of Philippine Art”. The politicized atmosphere at the beginning of the seventies influenced shifts in perception and value in national art. By the middle of the decade, anti-Establishment sentiment had turned into outright protest. Not only was art politicized; it was helping shape the national consciousness.
  88. 88. Art Philippines In the late1960s the CCP had gained stature as the place in which the arts were rooted. Under young and assertive directors, its museum assimilated Western avant-garde and conceptual philosophies. This interest widened to include pop art, “happenings”, environmental assemblages, new realism, performance and sound works.
  89. 89. Art Philippines Figurative Expressionism had first appeared in the sixties. By the seventies the style had reached maturity. The term is an expression of defiance against the norms of what is considered traditionally “beautiful”. Strange faces and forms, oddly familiar, reveal hidden truths from some subconscious source. Figurative Expressionism
  90. 90. Art Philippines Local figurative expressionist art conveys images of sickness, fear, death and anguish. The paintings are characterized by emotional intensity and the use of bold colors to suit mood and temperament. Figurative Expressionism
  91. 91. Art Philippines Ang Kiukok, a cubist of the sixties, moved into a more intense expressionism. His earlier works, although geometrically distorted, had a quiet lyricism vanished from his works of the seventies. He painted ferocious dogs and fighting cocks. Kiukok also painted men on fire; Christ writhing on His cross; empty bottles framed by the window; fish bones. Figurative Expressionism
  92. 92. Art Philippines Onib Olmedo uses street children, vendors, prostitutes and other denizens of the big city as his subjects. His portraits probe the deepest feelings of his subjects. He distorts their faces to the extreme. The monstrous personalities that emerge have no identifying marks to denote their social rank, occupation, or even identity. Figurative Expressionism
  93. 93. Art Philippines Danilo Dalena started out by painting an unsanitized view of life and times at subsistence level. Dalena uses strong contrasts to add a surrealistic drama to his paintings. Earth colors that are distinctly urban become even more intense because they are set off by light and dark: a chaotic composition of moving, breathing, vibrating humanity seen only through highlighted limbs and featureless faces. Figurative Expressionism
  94. 94. Art Philippines Painters became engrossed in finding distinct images or symbols to portray the Filipino and his distinct culture. The Search for National Identity
  95. 95. Art Philippines A painter of strength and psychological penetration is Benedicto Cabrera, who signs his works “Bencab”. His works are characterized by stylized figures and their surrounding space, often enriched by graphic compositional devices. The Search for National Identity
  96. 96. Art Philippines These paintings portrayed specific Filipinos in different stages of exile. Traces of homesickness, clinging to memories of traditions, and friends on foreign soil are the themes around which his figures existed. The Search for National Identity
  97. 97. Art Philippines Other artists who refused to conform to the urban aesthetic of Manila – some as a form of protest – were Angelito Antonio, Antonio Austria, Norma Belleza and Mario Parial. The Search for National Identity
  98. 98. Art Philippines Jose V. Blanco’s themes rendered in murals and large paintings presents the human figures as large as life. He uses the town and people of Angono to represent the quintessential Filipino. His works stand out in their stubborn refusal to be documents of passing events. The Search for National Identity
  99. 99. Art Philippines The DIMASALANG GROUP got its name form the Old Manila street on which some of its members began to eke out a living. They used the Impressionist language which had revolutionized European art in the 1870s. The acknowledged leader of the Dimasalang Group was Emilio Aguilar Cruz, a journalist, diplomat and painter. Neo-impressionism & Magic Realism
  100. 100. Art Philippines The seventies also saw emerge a branch of Philippine realism which looked up to the New England master, Andrew Wyeth. Their style came to be known as “Magic Realism”. Wyeth’s rendering of nature produced paintings almost as lifelike as photographs. Neo-impressionism & Magic Realism
  101. 101. Art Philippines Among the artists whose styles bordered on Magic Realism were Lito Barcelona, Jose Burgos, Tom Burgos, Cee Cadid, Criz Cruz, Andi Cubi, El Gajo, Agustin Goy, Amado Joson, Nestor Leynes, Efren Lopez, Ulpiano Morada, Cesar Poseca, Vincent Ramos, Rudy Roa, Jaime Roque, Ephraim Samson and Steve Santos. Neo-impressionism & Magic Realism
  102. 102. Art Philippines Lino Severino reworks the legacy of colonial house architecture in his Visayan province of Negros Occidental. Neo-impressionism & Magic Realism
  103. 103. Art Philippines Severe economic and social inequality in society and the class struggles that arose from this condition are powerful subject of Philippine art after the imposition of martial law in 1972. Dissident artists began to consider alternatives to traditional subjects and media. Artists in the city shifted from oil painting to more urgent propagandist forms: posters, illustrations, cartoons and comics. The Rise of Social Realism
  104. 104. Art Philippines Social Realism sought to depict the situations and concerns of the poor and the voiceless majority under the authoritarian regime. It addressed itself to the comfortable middle class – to awaken its social and political consciousness – as well as to workers and peasants, to inspire them to take part in the national struggle. The Rise of Social Realism
  105. 105. Art Philippines Social Realism would continue in the next decade. It has guided artists who believe that art crystallizes the experiences and aspirations of a people. The movement therefore is a vital part of the Filipino’s historical struggle for social equality and economic emancipation. The Rise of Social Realism
  106. 106. Art Philippines The impact on the cultural scene in the 1960s of the abstractionist Jose Joya signaled the critical and commercial triumph of abstractionism in the Philippines. Joya stormed the citadels of figurative painting of which the cubist-inspired Vicente Manansala was patriarch. 2nd Generation Abstractionists
  107. 107. Art Philippines Minimalist Movement’s painting liberated the Filipino artist from ornamental excesses of his essentially baroque sensibility. The pictorial inventiveness of the Filipino artist is evident in his joyous fragmentation of space through patterning and festive colors. Minimalism – with its eloquence of silence and its basic, non- emotive geometry –freed the Filipino artist from visual parodies. 2nd Generation Abstractionists
  108. 108. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  109. 109. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism Pluralistic Expressions Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Transition to Maturity
  110. 110. Art Philippines The turbulent eighties saw dynamic movements in national politics. The assassination of the opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., resulted barely two years later in a peaceful. Popular rebellion under Aquino’s brave and stubborn widow.
  111. 111. Art Philippines The cultural center started a move to bring art to the regions. But art lost its official patronage under Imelda Marcos, as the successor to the regime sought to keep the country afloat amid financial bankruptcy and debt, natural disasters, and coup d’etat attempts. In this turbid atmosphere, social comment increased in art, writing and even popular music.
  112. 112. Art Philippines Artistic expression reflected the national struggle to survive and to prosper. New materials emerged together with new methods of expression. It is this pluralistic state of the arts that leads today’s Filipino artist toward defining what is distinctly Filipino.
  113. 113. Art Philippines The 80’s were ushered in by the lifting of martial law and the pastoral visit of Pope John Paul II in 1981. Both events renewed interest in religious subjects and in works with strong social comment. The social realists continued their crusade. New hope was their primary message. Figurative Art
  114. 114. Art Philippines Edgar Talusan Fernandez painted Kahapon, Ngayon at Pangarap (“Yesterday, Today and Hope”), which shows a brown Filipina standing in the center of a picture of the Philippine Flag in the manner of the Crucified Christ. Figurative Art
  115. 115. Art Philippines The woman is clearly the allegorical Motherland, surrounded by enemies, as symbolized by the ropes tied to her wrists. But the painting is hopeful that the country will survive poverty and oppression as shown by the vertical display of the flag: the red field is on the viewer’s right, which is the way the Philippine colors are displayed in times of peace. Figurative Art
  116. 116. Art Philippines Renato Habulan moved from themes contrasting classes on society to themes incorporating the importance of traditional beliefs – particularly the role of religion in the struggle for social justice. Figurative Art
  117. 117. Art Philippines His paintings showed Christian religious scenes and rituals celebrated by the tillers of the earth. Christ’s struggle is highlighted strongly in strongly religious thematic paintings. Although dressed in classical robes, both the Christ and His mother have native features. Figurative Art
  118. 118. Art Philippines Social realism now gained adherents among regional artists, particularly in the province of Davao, Negros Occidental and Cebu, which all have severe agrarian conflicts. Regional artists painted large scale works and murals on local issues and in styles open to technical innovation and the use of nontraditional materials. Figurative Art
  119. 119. Art Philippines Two artists from Negros Occidental gave voice to social themes in an expressionistic manner. Charlie Co chooses the surreal landscape as backdrops for freely distorted figures. His flamboyant paintings have a wry humor. Nunelucio Alvarado paints the migrant workers and the settled people of the sugarcane plantations. Figurative Art
  120. 120. Art Philippines Bencab continued his effort to portray the Filipino as an iconic image in the country’s changing history. His current images reflect the turbulence brought about by recent earthquake and volcanic eruptions. Figurative Art
  121. 121. Art Philippines Also working in a combination of the expressionist and realist manners on socioeconomic statements are artist who call themselves the “Salingpusa” (Junior Players) Group. Elmer Borlongan focuses on one or two figures, often those of street children. His works rise to the level of drama because of his expressionistic distortions of the figure and the strong contrast of light and shadow. Figurative Art
  122. 122. Art Philippines Other members of the group – Marc Justinian , Neil Manalo, Tony Leano, Ferdie Montemayor and Karen Flores – work in varying manners of realist-expressionist handling of paint, while making social commentary. Other artist working in the neo-figurative expressionist mold include Isabel Limpe-Chungunco, Stella Roxas, Karise Villa, Marcel Antonio, and Ramil Segovia. Figurative Art
  123. 123. Art Philippines The patchwork configurations in the paintings of Roy Veneracion signaled an exciting direction in Philippine abstraction. His works, with their tattered and clumsy patterns, are an aesthetic criticism of the cosmetic refinement that soon characterized the smooth and immaculately crafted minimalist Philippine paintings. Abstract Painting
  124. 124. Art Philippines Veneracion’s intentional shabbiness of texture and his exaltation of trashy and scratched surfaces force the viewer a recognition of the painting as an object controlled by the artist. Linear drawing, oscillating color areas, select figurative forms, energetic and rhythmic interlacing of undetermined puzzle parts combine in an elegance like the improvisation of jazz musicians. Abstract Painting
  125. 125. Art Philippines Sid Gomez Hildawa combines an adventurous temperament with intellectual restraint. His works are animated by dissonant compositions. Shape as a descriptive device in abstraction was the format elaborated on by Romeo Gutierrez. Sharply defined curvilinear blocks of space emerge from the rhythmic interlacing of his planar forms. Abstract Painting
  126. 126. Art Philippines The late 60s into the 1980s were filled with activity of centered on the CCP. Filipino experimentalists were fired by both the counterculture of new “smart art” and the decline of formalism and old values. Many of these iconoclasts derived as much joy from trying new territory as they did from shocking polite audiences. A kind of “neo-Dadaist” mentality pervaded many works. Abstract Painting
  127. 127. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  128. 128. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism Pluralistic Expressions The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Rise of Neo-Realism
  129. 129. Art Philippines For centuries painting and sculpture were devoted to religious subjects, under the exclusive patronage of the Catholic Church. Spanish Period from 1879
  130. 130. Art Philippines In 1879 the Academia de Pintura, Esultura y Grabado de Manila began to offer courses in sculpture and the first sculptors were Bonifacio Arevalo, Marcelo Nepumoceno and Graciano Nepumoceno. Spanish Period from 1879
  131. 131. Art Philippines Like the early painting, early secular sculpture consisted of portraits, three-dimensional tipos del pais, local animals, symbolic dramatic subjects, genre works and tableau reliefs. The genre figures strived toward realism, while staying within conventional norms. In the late 19th century, the first nudes where then done in the classical style. Spanish Period from 1879
  132. 132. Art Philippines Classical Philippine sculpture reached its peak in the work of Guillermo Tolentino. His works were mostly made of marble and cast bronze. He is best known for three sculptures, which are the Oblation, Venus and the Bonifacio Monument. Tolentino used classical and romanticism ideals with his Bonifacio monument. The American Period
  133. 133. Art Philippines Tolentino was also an excellent portraitist having Anastacio Caedo and his son Florante as his students. Both students were known for being master portraitists and for making relief sculptures of Filipino Heroes. The American Period
  134. 134. Art Philippines Modernist Sculpture took so long to make its mark. Only in the 1850s was Guillermo Tolentino’s dominance challenged by his student Napoleon Abueva. Abueva was a pioneering modernist in sculpture using both eccentric and common materials. Modernism in Philippine sculpture began by stylizing natural shapes, showing the influence of Cubism, Brancusi and Henry Moore. Contemporary Sculpture
  135. 135. Art Philippines Abueva did numerous pieces which were made to draw out the basic plastic form of the figure. He then broadened his style on the abstract. Much of his works were made of narra, molave and bronze. In bronze he approaches realism, but for a slight distortion or elongation of the figures. Contemporary Sculpture
  136. 136. Art Philippines Abueva rarely idealizes the human figure. He maintained an earthly at times erotic, quality with it. So rich and diverse is Abueva’s imagination that his work draws from every source, and ranges from the representational to the most abstract. Contemporary Sculpture
  137. 137. Art Philippines In the 1960s, sculpture was both fruitful and innovative having great contributors such as J. Elizalde Navarro, Lamberto Hechanova and Edgar Doctor. Contemporary Sculpture
  138. 138. Art Philippines Other contemporary sculptors include Francisco Verano, Ildefonso Marcelo, Renato Rocha, Ramon Orlina, Imelda Pilapil, Pablo Mahinay, Conrado Mercado, Honrado Fernandez, and Charlie Co. Contemporary Sculpture
  139. 139. Art Philippines A Bacolod artist, Charlie Co, uses terra-cotta as his medium in depicting his figures of the oppressed migrant workers of the sugarcane plantations. Particular merit of the hand molded clay medium lies in its personal quality, the soft clay responds to the every movement of the creative impulse and bears the impression of the artist hands. Contemporary Sculpture
  140. 140. Art Philippines Philippine Sculpture has been marked by rich diversities of concepts, forms, and media. From its roots in the ancestor- figure and rice god, through its classical definitions in the academy, it has come to achieve a contemporary breadth of form and expression, reflecting both technological developments and conceptual revelations. Contemporary Sculpture
  141. 141. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  142. 142. Art Philippines The Loom of Colonial Art The Leap to Modernism Pluralistic Expressions The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways Art for the Many The Rise of Neo-Realism The Essence of Form
  143. 143. Art Philippines During period of American rule (1898-1946), the Philippines had no graphic art to speak of. 1900 to 1950
  144. 144. Art Philippines In 1957, a Graphic Art Exhibition was held in the Philippine Art Gallery by Juvenal Sanso whose etchings were done in Paris. Sanso exerted no direct influence to the development of Philippine graphic art since he lived in France since 1953. He was named Print Artist of the Year by the Cleveland Museum of Art Print Club in 1964. 1900 to 1950
  145. 145. Art Philippines In 1959-1960, Boyd Compton, a representative of the Rockefeller foundation visited Manila to see if he could interest a Filipino artist or two in print making in the Untied States. 1900 to 1950
  146. 146. Art Philippines The Rockefeller Foundation chose Manuel Rodriguez, Sr. Their grant enabled him to work with the South American printmaker Mario Lasansky in Iowa. He studied at the Pratt Graphic Institute in New York to further sharpen his skills. Rodriguez set up an art gallery in Malate where he began to acquaint the public with original fine prints in cooperation with the art broker Enrique Velasco. The 1960’s
  147. 147. Art Philippines Arturo Luz, who studied art in Oakland, New York and Paris, also brought back print making as part of his artistic repertoire when he came to Manila in 1950. Luz also set up an art gallery in Ermita, exhibiting works by Picasso, Matisse, Chagal, Bernard Childs, Antonio Clavel, together with Japanese masters of the traditional woodcut like Munakata and Saito, and Eskimo prints. The 1960’s
  148. 148. Art Philippines In the early years of the 80s, the Philippine Association of Printmakers (PAP) underwent a leadership and organizational crisis. The association suffered a setback in the absence of printmaking activities, graphic arts competitions and workshops. The PAP was revived after the EDSA revolution through the efforts of Adiel Arevalo who gathered printmakers to talk about the situation. The 1980’s
  149. 149. Art Philippines The following are some of the Filipino print artists: Hilario Francia, Vergilio Aviado, Manuel Rodriguez, Jr., Marcelino Rodriguez, and Ray Rodriguez, Mario Parial, Rodolfo Samonte, Romulo Olazo, Ileana Lee, Lito Mayo, Benedicto Cabrera, Ofelia Gelvezon Tequi, Manuel Soriano. The 1980’s
  150. 150. Art Philippines The Leap to Modernism The Rise of Neo-Realism The Transition to Maturity Exploring Alternative Ways The Essence of Form Art for the Many The Loom of Colonial Art Pluralistic Expressions
  151. 151. Art Philippines Art for the Many The Essence of Form Exploring Alternative Ways Pluralistic Expressions The Rise of Neo-Realism The Leap to Modernism The Loom of Colonial Art The Transition to Maturity
  152. 152. Art Philippines Shannon Alvior Michael Andan CJ Ballon Jade Leuterio Giselle Sabolbora Paolo Sanchez Chino Tan Kristoffer Uytiepo Dedric Yulo Back to Start Page Philippine art defines and captures the Filipino identity. It has become a tangible representation of the most important facets of our people, while giving form to the ideals and aspirations innate in every Filipino. Identity, culture and dreams are breathed life by the arts.