1. FOREST FIRE : THE BURNING ISSUE
(A CASE STUDY FOR UTTARAKHAND
WILDFIRE IN 2016)
• A wildfire or wild land fire is an uncontrolled fire in an area of
combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside.
• Depending on the type of vegetation the wild fire can also be
termed as brush fire, bush fire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire,
hill fire, veld fire etc.
• The wild fire classified as surface fire, canopy fire and crown fire.
• Uttarakhand is a forest fire zone. Uttarakhand faced many wild
fire in several years like 1911,1921,1930,1931,1939,1945,
2007,2011,2013 etc. Very recently
the area also see a gigantic wild
fire in 2016.
• This forest fire happened in the
month of April to May in 2016.
• Location : Almora district of
Uttarakhand and it spread to
4. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF WILD FIRE
• The forest fire is a QUAZI NATURAL HAZARD,
there are some natural (which beyond
control) as well as anthropogenic causes
(which can control).
• There are several types of possible natural
causes behind the disastrous wild fire in
Uttarakhand in 2016 .
High temperature – due to low
rainfall or scanty rainfall temperature
increases which cause wild fire.
The 2015-16 el-Niño cause the
temperature change in Uttarakhand.
Sparks from rock fall – due to
landslide the trees fall down and
the leaves grind each other which
make the sparks and cause wild fire.
Windy condition are certainly fanning the fire and helping it to
5. ANTHROPOGENIC CAUSES
• Role Of Timber Mafia: As thousands of trees have been burnt, selling them
would bring huge revenue to the officials and the mafia that would buy
• Role of Farmers : Farmers set fire to their agricultural fields hoping for a
better crop in the next season.
• Role of Local People: People leave burning cigarettes or bidi buds in the
6. • Role Of Forest Dwellers: Forest dwellers often start fire to
crate new ground to get a fresh crop of grasses for livestock.
• Other Reasons: Collection of honey ,collection of Sal seeds,
extraction of timber may lead to accidental fire.
8. Environmental impact
• Fires in Uttarakhand lead to glaciers melting
• Black carbon’ from the smog and ash prone to melting.
• Water in the rivers get very polluted
• Raised average temperatures across northern India by 0.2
• Loss of carbon sink and increase in the amount of carbon
• glaciers most likely to be affected by this are the ones
situated at low altitudes, like Gangotri, Milam,
Sundardunga, Newla and Cheepa.
• forest fire causes several changes in soil.
• Soil erosion affecting productivity of soils and production
• burn away the thick layer of litter on the forest floor
• the kind of organisms living in the soil changes, compounding the changes in
the soil properties.
• Fires destroy biodiversity directly and have more indirect long-term impacts
• Loss of wildlife habitats
• wildlife reserves across the state have also come under the fire.
• 198 hectares (Jim Corbett National Park), 70 hectares in (Rajaji Tiger Reserve)
and 60 hectares (Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary)
• Pauri, Tehri and Nainital are the worst hit by these fires as they abound in
Cheed and Sal trees which are highly inflammable
• Extinction of animals
• Loss of insects leads to significant impact on forest ecosystem
• A study conducted in Sal forests of Uttarakhand, and published in early 2016,
found a decline in insect population .
13. Social impact
• Loss of livelihood for tribal people and rural poor
• Commercial loss from the fires
• Loss to agriculture and horticulture
• various health hazards
• Forest fires threaten Uttarakhand's status as tourist haven
• Loss of income from the lack of tourism
• People fighting the fire often lose their lives.
• Daily life disrupted as well as educational institution, and workplaces were
• Roads works was suspended and recreational areas were restricted
14. A woman walks through haze as a forest
fire burns bushes and fields
The forest fires in Uttarakhand,
which have devastated acres of green
cover in the hills
People fighting wildfire
15. Woman fighting fire with a small bowl
Local people extinguishing the fire in the
forests at Kotdwar, Uttarakhand
16. MANAGEMENT OF FOREST FIRE IN UTTARAKHAND
• There are two types of methods:-
1. Traditional method
2. Modern method
1. Traditional method :
• Forest officials say the traditional method of
“beating the fire down” with green branches
& ‘Fire Breaks’ work best.
17. • There are already preventive and
remedial measures for forest fires,
implemented by the state and Central
governments in vulnerable areas with
sufficient fund allocations.
• Forest department has influenced
people to help in preventing forest fairs
by taking necessary precaution.
• Migration is an indirect issue that
needs to be addressed to control
• For immediate relief, tankers should
be arranged and on a long term
basis, traditional water sources
should be revived and preserved, it
was directed tankers will be sent to
provide water in wildlife parks.
19. LIMITATION OF TRADITIONAL METHOD
• The traditional method is not practised
properly due to a lack of manpower.
• The forest department needs to exclusively
recruit forest fire fighting staff acquanted with
modern technologies .
• It is difficult to cover the looking after for a
forest guard even over several days .
20. 2. MODERN
METHOD :- • NDRF, SDRF, PAC and the forest
department, were still on the
ground to keep a watch on the
• More modern systems of fire
monitoring alongside traditional
methods like maintaining fire lines,
so there is a clearing between two
forests to prevent the fire from
spreading from one to the other.
• IAF aircrafts fly sorties to dump
water picked from the neighboring
• The pine needles, the main fire
hazard, need to be converted into a
21. • Forest scientists have already developed different
uses of chir pine needles for briquettes, compost,
boards, tiles, etc.
• Modern fire-fighting techniques like the Early Forest
Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding
System, Doppler radar, etc.
• Use of modern forest fire detection and monitoring
systems with help from the Forest Survey of India
(FSI) and ISRO.
• Creating awareness among locals along with their
participation, can be a better solution.
22. LIMITATION OF MODERN METHOD
• Forest communities need capacity-building and
acquaintance with modern methods of combating
forest fires .
• Lack of educational training .
• Government can not take care this problems .
• The plantation of indiganous brodly moisture
conserving species .
• The department made six suggestions people asking
them not to cook in the open, remove bushes, dry
leaves, garbage and inflammable material dumped
near their homes to prevent fire.
• It also asked people not to let women, children and the
elderly members of the family to go to areas where a
forest fire has occurred.
• Banning people from carrying matchboxes .
• plantation of indigenous broad-leaved, moisture-conserving
species, particularly banj oak, Myrica, Alder, Rhododendron,
etc at higher elevations and Sal, khair, Harad, Baheda, Arjun,
sissoo, etc at lower elevations.
24. PREVENTING WILDFIRES
Human-initiated fires cause the high amount of property damage, loss of
wild-habitat, the lives of humans & animals. Some forest fire engaging
in outdoor activities.
• Comply with all local laws and regulations.
• Check the weather states as wind act as both an accelerant and can
spread the fire.
• Established fire outlooks which are used in United States, Canada,
other countries over the world for forest fire prevention.
• Follow safe debris burning school.
• Practice firework safety as sometimes fireworks a common human
blunder that causes a high no. of forest fire.
• Practice proper ash disposal as wildfire have been known to break out
for the imporer disposal of ash that comes from wood stoves, fire
places, outdoor wood boilers etc.
• Depending on a size of a forest fire prone region, a variety of detection
services are available to prevent the spread of forest fire.
25. • Performing routine maintenance checks and safety on all machinery
• Monitor electric fencing that are often used in maintaining livestock
on firms or keep intruders out. Malfunction in construction of this
type of fence can cause fire.
• Building homes out of flame resistant materials help to prevent
spread of forest fire.
• School programmes and proper education also help in teaching
how to prevent fire at a young age.
• creating a safe campfire, contact with your local landfill are also
considered as the prevention of fire.
• Blaming Timber Mafia for the Forest Fire is
• The lethargic role of Forest Department,
State Government has gone unnoticed.
• Need for more study on the impact of
repeated fires on Pine/Oak Forest.
• Working with Local People, a way forward in
containing Forest Fires.