Main Parts of an Automobiles
In this articles we will learn about the
components and parts of an automobile
Components, Parts of Automobile
An automobile has several numbers of parts. But there are
four essential components of automobile. These are:
1. The Chassis.
2. The Engine.
3. The Transmission System.
4. The Body.
Apart from these four essential parts of automobile, there
are controls and auxiliaries.
1. The Chassis.
The chassis of an automobile incorporates all the
major assemblies consisting of an engine,
components of transmission system such as clutch,
gearbox, propeller shaft, axles, a control system
such as brakes and steering, and suspension system
of the vehicle.
In other words, it is the vehicle without its body
2. The Engine.
The engine is the source of motive power to an
automobile. Obviously, it is a very important part of the
automobile because in the absence of an engine, the
automobile may not move at all, and its basic function of
transporting passengers or goods would be defeated.
The power of the engine determines the working of the
automobile. In the same manner, the efficiency of the
engine determines the efficiency of an automobile.
3. The Transmission System
The transmission system transmits power developed by the engine to the
road wheels .The power available as output from the engine is in the
form of rotation of the crankshaft.
This movement is to be transferred to the road wheels to cause their
rotary motion. Their rotary motion makes possible the movement of the
The transmission system consists of different parts.
The clutch, part of the transmission system is next to the crankshaft. It is a
mechanism enabling the rotary motion of one shaft transmitted to the second
shaft ‘at will.’
When the engine starts, it should not be connected to road wheels, i.e., these
should not start moving as soon as the engine starts.
The gearbox is the component of the transmission system next to the clutch. It
has got a gear train, and it provides different gear ratios. These ratios
determine the rotary speed of output shaft from the gearbox.
The axle is the next component of the transmission system. The axle receiving
power from the engine is termed as ‘live’ axle. It is in two halves.
The ends of the axle have road wheels connected to it. These road wheels are
in direct contact with the road surface. The body of the automobile is above
when the automobile is moving on a curved path. On a
curved path, the outer wheels are required to traverse a
circle of a bigger radius than the inner wheels.
This means that the outer wheels are required to traverse
larger distance as compared to inner wheels. As the
automobile is to move as a single unit, all the four wheels
must travel together.
Therefore, the outer wheels should travel larger distance
and inner wheels should travel smaller distance in the same
Hence, the variation in the speed of inner and outer wheels
is needed. This is performed by the differential with the
help of sun and planet gear system.
4. The Body.
The use of a separate frame to which the body
structure is attached is now almost obsolete except
for some applications for heavy-duty commercial
Many heavy vehicles now use ‘sub-frames’ of simple
construction to which the engine and gearbox are
The sub-frame is supported on the mainframe and is
fixed on it through some suitable rubber connections
to isolate the engine vibrations.
5.Control System and Auxillaries
The control systems are used to control the motion of an
automobile and therefore are essential in an automobile.
i. The steering system, and
ii. Braking system or brakes.
These are the components of an automobile which may
not be essential, but it can make the driving more
Examples: indicators, air-conditioners etc.
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