Dimensions and principles of curriculum design

Jay Cee
Jay CeeTeacher at DepEd en DepEd
(Purita P. Bilbao, Ed.D.)
Scope
Sequence
Continuity
Integration
Articulation
Balance
All the content, topics, learning
experiences, and organizing threads
comprising the educational plan. (Tyler in
Ornstein, 2004)
It does not only refers to the cognitive
content but also affective and
psychomotor.
Broad, limited, simple, general are the
words used to describe the scope.
Decision making of the teacher is needed.
Curricular coverage
Time
Diversity
Maturity of the learners
Complexity of content
Level of education
Scope of the Curriculum can be divided
into chunks:
Units
Sub-units
Chapters
Sub-chapters
Each Chunk is guided by the general curriculum
objectives or goals.
Division of the content may use deductive principle.
Arrangement of scope is inductive.
Content Outline of the Curriculum may follow some
design:
Thematic
Linear
Logical
Contents and experiences are
arranged in hierarchical manner.
A particular order in which related
events, movements, or things
follow each other.
(Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)
Simple to complex learning – content &
experiences are organized from simple to
complex, concrete to abstract, easy to
difficult.
Prerequisite Learning- there are
fundamental things to be learned
ahead.
Whole to Part Learning –
overview before the specific
content or topics. Related to
gestalt principle.
Chronological learning – the
order of events is made as a basis
of sequencing the content and
experiences.
World-Related
sequence
Concept-
related
sequence
Inquiry-
related
sequence
Learning-
related
sequence
Utilization-
related
sequence
World-Related sequence
• Space – spatial relations will be the
basis for the sequence.
• Time – from the earliest to the most
recent
• Physical Attributes – the physical
characteristics of the phenomena such
as age, shape, size, brightness &
others.
Concept-related sequence
-how ideas are related together in logical
manner
• Class relations – group or set of things
that share common practices
• Propositional relations – a statement
that asserts something
Inquiry-related sequence
-based on the process of
generating, discovering &
verifying knowledge, content and
experiences are sequenced
logically and methodically
Learning-Related Sequence
- How people learn
• Empirical Prerequisites - based on
empirical studies where the
prerequisite is required before learning
the next level
• Familiarity – prior learning is important
in sequence
• Difficulty – easy content is taken
ahead than the difficult one
• Interest – use interesting
contents and experiences to
boost their appetite in learning
Continuity
Vertical repetition and recurring
appearances of the content provide
continuity in the curriculum. This process
enables the learner to strengthen the
permanency of learning and development of
skills.
Gerome Bruner calls this “spiral
curriculum” For learners to develop the
ideas, these have to be developed and
redeveloped in a spiral fashion in increasing
depth and breadth as the learners advance
Integration
“Everything is integrated and
interconnected. Life is a series of
emerging themes.” This is the essence
of integration in the curriculum design.
Organization is drawn from the world
themes from real life concerns.
Subject matter content or
disciplined content lines are erased
and isolation is eliminated.
Articulation
Can be done either vertically or
horizontally. In vertical articulation,
contents are arranged from level to
level or grade to grade so that the
content in a lower level is connected
to the next level. Horizontal
articulation happens at the same time
like social studies in grade six is
related to science in grade six.
Balance
Equitable assignment of content,
time, experiences and other elements
to establish balance is needed in
curriculum design. Too much or too
little of these elements maybe
disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping
the curriculum “in balance” requires
continuous fine tuning and review for
its effectiveness and relevance.
Guidelines in Curriculum Design
Pointers
• Curriculum design committee should
involve teachers, parents, administrators
and even students.
• School’s vision, mission, goals and
objectives should be reviewed and used as
a bases for curriculum design.
• The needs and the interests of the
learners, in particular, and the society, in
general, should be considered.
• Alternative curriculum design
should consider advantages and
disadvantages in terms of cost,
scheduling, class size, facilities
and persona; required.
• The curriculum design should take
into account cognitive, affective,
psychomotor, concepts and
outcomes.
1 de 20

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Dimensions and principles of curriculum design

  • 3. All the content, topics, learning experiences, and organizing threads comprising the educational plan. (Tyler in Ornstein, 2004) It does not only refers to the cognitive content but also affective and psychomotor. Broad, limited, simple, general are the words used to describe the scope. Decision making of the teacher is needed.
  • 4. Curricular coverage Time Diversity Maturity of the learners Complexity of content Level of education
  • 5. Scope of the Curriculum can be divided into chunks: Units Sub-units Chapters Sub-chapters Each Chunk is guided by the general curriculum objectives or goals. Division of the content may use deductive principle. Arrangement of scope is inductive. Content Outline of the Curriculum may follow some design: Thematic Linear Logical
  • 6. Contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner. A particular order in which related events, movements, or things follow each other.
  • 7. (Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957) Simple to complex learning – content & experiences are organized from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, easy to difficult. Prerequisite Learning- there are fundamental things to be learned ahead.
  • 8. Whole to Part Learning – overview before the specific content or topics. Related to gestalt principle. Chronological learning – the order of events is made as a basis of sequencing the content and experiences.
  • 10. World-Related sequence • Space – spatial relations will be the basis for the sequence. • Time – from the earliest to the most recent • Physical Attributes – the physical characteristics of the phenomena such as age, shape, size, brightness & others.
  • 11. Concept-related sequence -how ideas are related together in logical manner • Class relations – group or set of things that share common practices • Propositional relations – a statement that asserts something
  • 12. Inquiry-related sequence -based on the process of generating, discovering & verifying knowledge, content and experiences are sequenced logically and methodically
  • 13. Learning-Related Sequence - How people learn • Empirical Prerequisites - based on empirical studies where the prerequisite is required before learning the next level • Familiarity – prior learning is important in sequence
  • 14. • Difficulty – easy content is taken ahead than the difficult one • Interest – use interesting contents and experiences to boost their appetite in learning
  • 15. Continuity Vertical repetition and recurring appearances of the content provide continuity in the curriculum. This process enables the learner to strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills. Gerome Bruner calls this “spiral curriculum” For learners to develop the ideas, these have to be developed and redeveloped in a spiral fashion in increasing depth and breadth as the learners advance
  • 16. Integration “Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emerging themes.” This is the essence of integration in the curriculum design. Organization is drawn from the world themes from real life concerns. Subject matter content or disciplined content lines are erased and isolation is eliminated.
  • 17. Articulation Can be done either vertically or horizontally. In vertical articulation, contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that the content in a lower level is connected to the next level. Horizontal articulation happens at the same time like social studies in grade six is related to science in grade six.
  • 18. Balance Equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to establish balance is needed in curriculum design. Too much or too little of these elements maybe disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping the curriculum “in balance” requires continuous fine tuning and review for its effectiveness and relevance.
  • 19. Guidelines in Curriculum Design Pointers • Curriculum design committee should involve teachers, parents, administrators and even students. • School’s vision, mission, goals and objectives should be reviewed and used as a bases for curriculum design. • The needs and the interests of the learners, in particular, and the society, in general, should be considered.
  • 20. • Alternative curriculum design should consider advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, scheduling, class size, facilities and persona; required. • The curriculum design should take into account cognitive, affective, psychomotor, concepts and outcomes.