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Welcome to the last session for the day < NLP for Business AnalystsIt’s been a great day, with some excellent speakers, and the IIBA have outdone themselves again with this years BA Development Day. It’s clear why they have been recognised as the top chapter in the world. Before we kick off, I realise that I’m the last thing standing between you and drinks at the end, so I hope this workshop will keep you entertained and educated, and please note this is not really about how to read minds or mentalise people … that’s potentiallya course for another dayI also want to ask you? Is it OK for us to learn some new things here today? It’s why we’re here isn’t it? Is it OK for us to not know the answer every time? That’s good, because I’m going to learn from you as well! And, is it OK for us to have a bit of fun while we’re doing this? Yes, good. That’s a relief. My name is David Morris, I’m an enterprise business analyst with Redvespa Consultants. Who are you? > ## throw the ball for people to make introductions #### write down their names on a map of the tables ##… when ready …> #who is this workshop for#
Why are you all here? What will you get out of this?This workshop will help business analysis practitioners to start being even more effective in how we use three of our key resources … ourselves, our teams, and our stakeholders. Technical prowess and long hours are not enough in themselves to ensure success on our projects … alongside our skills and knowledge, we need to develop our understanding and management of relationships. There are many ways to develop these … I have found NLP is one of the most effective. NLP is such a broad subject … so in the time we have today, we will covering enough to reinforce what you are doing today and give you a taste of what more you could get. > tuning into #WII FM#
Why should you be bothered? What can NLP do for you? As you’re sitting here, you’re tuning into WII FM> #what’s in it for me#< learn to have more control of your own state of mind< develop stronger communications skills< overcome obstacles in business (and in your personal life) < help others to get the results they wantWe’re only going to scratch the surface of this today … so, if you take anything away from this workshop, I want it to be:< an understanding of what NLP is; < the realisation that it can be applied to what you do; and < the practical knowledge to put it into action straight away. > #my journey with NLP#
Why am I interested in NLP? What qualifies me to talk about it? Interested in psychology from early age … Longmans … I’m OK you’re OK ~ Thomas Harris … self-studyRoute to business analysis … developer analyst/programmer systems analyst business analyst … it is all about people < how we help them identify their goals and achieve them < from the macro level … organisations achieve strategic goals < to the personal level … making someone’s job easierBoth these traits drew me to NLP and over the last 10 years, I have become increasingly familiar with and experienced using it.NLP provides a framework within which I have been able to: < approach the people-oriented aspects of my role < free myself from un-resourceful internal dialogue (self-doubt)< gain a common language with which to talk to others In 2011, I finally qualified as an NLP Practitioner and I am now developing a series of workshops and coursesI am also a consultant business analyst and board member of NZ chapter of IIBA. > #what do *you* want from this workshop#
Clarifying Outcomes for TrainingTiming: 5 minutes each wayObjectives:< To clarify participant's success criteria for the training, so that they get more out of it<To gain experience in helping another clarify their goals< Participants understand the importance of having specific success criteria for their outcomesProcedure:In pairs, One participant takes 5 minutes to talk through what they want from the training, and what will tell them that they have achieved it. Then swap round.Clear-Up:< What did you discover? < What will you do differently as a result?< What do you need to do to ensure you get your outcomes?> #what is NLP#
So, I have been bandying the term NLP around now for a few minutes without actually establishing what it is. So how can we define NLP? There’s quite a few definitions, and we’ll look at just a few of them:> #natural language processing#
NLP ~ Natural Language Processing, i.e. that a computer can interact with a human without it seeming artificial. > #meet Anna# from IKEAAnimation:Hi, I’m Anna from IKEA, how can I help you today? Response: No, not that type of NLP, we’d better go.> #what does NLP mean?#> #neuro-linguistic programming#
As you are no doubt aware, in this context, NLP stands for neuro-linguistic programming … … but what on earth does that mean? Here are some definitions: > #science of excellence#
NLP has been described as the ‘science of excellence’> #strike-through#… although we will see why it has been called this a little later … really this is a bit of hyperbole … and one of the many reasons that NLP is seen as quackery by many sceptics … and we will be looking at some of their views a little later... … actually … what John Grinder, one of the two founders of NLP said was …< "NLP is the study of excellence and how to reproduce it"… for now … let us just explore a few more things it has been called> #user manual for the mind#
NLP has been described as a ‘user manual for the mind’ ...… this is partly because it lifts the lid on what happens between something happening in the outside world and our reactions to it ... ... cause and effect ... > #studying the structure of subjectivity#
NLP has been described as ‘the study of the structure of subjectivity’… that’s even more complicated ... let’s break that down ... … it’s the structure … not the content … … it’s the bowl … not the soup inside …… it’s the lego blocks … not the house or car you make with them …… of subjectivity … again, what happens inside our unconscious mind …> #something else#
Recently I heard NLP described as "a conscious way of applying techniques that many people already apply unconsciously" … that we do it deliberately means we choose when to do it …> #modelling#
… after those ‘folksy’ definitions … here comes the hard stuff … There are two aspects to NLP … < modelling < applicationsApplications are where models are applied to create patterns and strategies … when most people think about NLP, they’re thinking of its application … to therapy … motivation … etc. … the techniques we’ll be looking at in a moment are applications of NLPAt it’s heart, NLP is about *modelling*… as business analysis practitioners, we all understand modelling don’t we?> #models on the catwalk# … oops … sorry … not that type of modelling …> #modelling#
NLP is properly is an approach to modelling … > it models #behaviour# > caused by #triggers# > that generates an #end state# > or #outcomes# as we call them in NLPLook familiar? … helps us understand about links between triggers and outcomes … lift the lid to see what is going on there … … so … we can change the links between triggers and behaviours if the outcomes are not resourceful … definition of insanity "doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results" ~ Albert Einstein …… first applications of NLP were modelling therapists and counsellors … which is why NLP is most often associated with that … but these are just applications of NLP …… we can also model and practice to repeat the behaviours of people who have resourceful outcomes … that enable them to be successful in reaching their goals … > #modelling success#
… so while in theory we could model anything … unless we’re counsellors or therapists … we tend to concentrate on … Modelling success … because who wants to repeat being a failure? … leaders in any field can be studied … and once the behaviours that lead to successful outcomes have been modelled … share that with others so that they too can adopt similar practices … … this is used in fields as diverse as … sales … sports … public speaking … politics … acting … etc. etc. etc. … this is what John Grinder was talking about when he said …< "NLP is the study of excellence and how to reproduce it"> #what is success#
What do you want to model?… what you model depends on what success means to you … this could be in: < your personal life … parent … snowboarder … poker player … < your professional life … a better influencer and negotiator … < or as a nation … > #webb-ellis cup# > to win #1987#> again #2011#> #what does success look like for you#
… in fact, most of these techniques will benefit you in all aspects of your life … once you start seeing the connections … … so a question for us all … as business analysis practitioners … what does success look like for you? … … what do you want to improve?> #exercise# get them up, writing on post-it notes, and sticking them on flipchartsFor me … to excel at business analysis requires being the best we can at < communication< influencing< negotiation… when ready …> #correlations#
… so if we’re going to understand how to model behaviours that lead to successful outcomes … we’re going to need to understand a little more about how that works … … so another definition of NLP is … NLP is about understanding the *correlations* between … > #outward patterns of behaviour#… and …> #internal patterns of thought#
*internal patterns of thought*... that is ... ... how can we think about what we do so that we can achieve success more consistently ...> #I will say that again# (for emphasis)
... how can we think about what we do so that we can achieve success more consistently ...… this means … an approach to planning …… not just planning our business analysis tasks or how we spend our day ... … more like… planning how we approach our communication with others ... … and … planning how we choose to deal with what happens around us …> #breaking NLP down#
… as we have established NLP is about … < modelling outcomes and triggers < lifting the lid on the behaviours by looking for correlations between our outward patterns of behaviour and our internal patterns of thought… in NLP we make these correlations based on three aspects of how we experience and behave …> our #neurology# our #linguistics# or communication and our #programming# or conditioning or patterningSo let us explore what we mean by these … > #neurology#
Our neurology … our central nervous system … as modelled by Bob and Betty here … is our primary way as a biological entity to …… gather input … and … once we’ve processed that input and made decisions … to then act those out … through any and all means available to us ... < internally biological, hormonal, etc. ... < externally through movement, vocalisation, etc. We will look at this process in a moment ...> #communication#
Our linguistics… this means our understanding of language … verbal, visual, kinaesthetic …… it is how we …< make sense of our sensory input< translate the stimuli, code and sort it in a way that enables us to make connections< convert our thoughts into actions that can have an impact on the outside world> #conditioning#
Our conditioning… or programming in terms of the ‘P’ in NLP …… is how our unconscious mind records patterns of behaviour and then later determines what options are possible for a set stimulus and then how to prioritise to choose the option most likely to achieve a resourceful outcome for us …… here is a hint of one of the fundamental principles of NLP …… all action is intended to be resourceful … to move us positively toward an outcome that our unconscious mind believes to be in our best interests …… we will deal with how that works … and how wires can get crossed> #exercise# recrossing the arms… when ready …> #NLP Is not#
Recrossing ArmsTiming: 3 minutesObjectives:< Demonstrates the 'programming' bit of NLP in a nonthreatening way< Helps to loosen up a skeptical audience, especially if they have their arms foldedProcedure:Ask participants to fold their arms …folding your own arms at the same time "Now notice that one hand is tucked under the other arm, while the other hand rests on top of the opposite arm …now fold your arms …the opposite way."Clear up:Point out that some people end up where they started …some are still trying to fold their arms the opposite way a minute or two later. When you finally do manage to fold your arms the opposite way, it feels really strange … because the chances are that every time you've folded your arms previously in your entire life, you've done it the same way, without thinking about it.This is a small and easily noticeable example of the habitual patterns that our brains run again and again, the same way every time …because it's easier. It takes less processing power that way. And that's fine …until a pattern, repeated without even being aware of it, doesn't serve you any more.I wonder what other habitual patterns …or "programs“…you've been running up to now, without noticing them?> #NLP Is not#
We have looked a little at what NLP is … and we will explore some of this in a bit more depth shortly …… before we do … I just wanted to dispel any myths you might have heard about NLP> #just for therapists#
NLP is not just for therapistsAs we saw earlier, modelling for NLP started with a group of three therapists, so it is understandable that many of the initial applications for NLP were in that space. Remember we make a distinction between how we develop models and how we apply. NLP has since been used to develop models useful for sports, public speaking, leadership, business, etc. etc. > #stage hypnotism#
NLP is not stage hypnotismIt is easiest for us to make changes when we can communicate directly with our unconscious mind, and we know that this is when we are primarily active in theta brain-waves, which is normally typified as a trance-like state. We can achieve this through a level of hypnosis. One of the earlier proponents of this was Anton Mesmer, whose name became associated with the act of hypnotising others – mesmerism. Being in a trance is not itself a part of NLP, but is a more effective way to achieve the changes we’re often after when applying NLP techniques. Because this requires us to distract the conscious mind, it is often associated with a degree of showmanship, and is often associated with the work of well-known stage performers, Paul McKenna, Tony Robinson, and Derren Brown. Clip from ‘The Mentalist’.> #voodoo#
NLP is not aping body languageIn NLP … as in most of life … we get on with people easiest who we fell are like ourselves … as we’ll see later, this is the meaning of rapport … however there are those that hear us talking about matching, pacing, and leading … and this is all to easily misinterpreted as simply copying their body language and suddenly we have the key to their soulWhile people in rapport often do unintentionally sit, talk, and dress alike … amongst other things … deliberately copying someone else’s body posture is a sure way to make them focus on what you’re doing and break what little rapport you might already have had … we do look to sense body language and feed that back to people … but subtly people subtly
So, that’s given us a *context* to what NLP is and is not. We will explore that further when we get to the next section. Before that, it would be good first to understand how modelling of triggers, behaviour, and outcomes helps us as business analysis practitioners. > #he tangata#
As we’re in this wonderful Te Papa museum, it is a wonderful opportunity to rehearse the Maori proverbIf you ask me “What is the most import thing in the world”? I will reply: “It is people, it is people, it is people!”> #all about people#
The starting point for me is that NLP concerns itself with soft systems … that is the bunches of biological uncertainty sitting in this room … and those with whom we live and work. How do people concern us as business analysis practitioners? Business analysis is about more than use cases, business process modelling, functional decomposition, or entity relationships … useful tools that we can use as appropriate. Fundamentally our role is to help people and organisations find ways of realising their goals. An understanding of people … what motivates us, switches us on, and turns us off … helps us better manage ourselves as well as our relationships with our team and our stakeholders. This is why I’m not keen on the label *soft skills* … it sounds like it’s the easy option … whereas it is the most important and in many ways the hardest to get right. > #IIBA calls this the underlying competencies#
IIBA Underlying Competencies IIBA calls this the *Underlying Competencies* … implying you need to be competent in these if you are to be successful with the knowledge and techniques in the rest of the BABOK.< communication< influencing< negotiation< Behavioural Characteristics … development of effective working relationships< Communication Skills … eliciting and communicating requirements … listen to and understand the audience< Interaction Skills … working with large numbers of stakeholders… work as part of a larger team and to help reach decisions … combination of leadership and facilitation… this isn’t just the IIBA either …> #SFIA calls this Behavioural Skills#
SFIA Behavioural Skills SFIA calls this Behavioural Skills … we should embody these behaviours if we are to be successful across their seven levels of competence. For business analysis, the entry level competence includes …< Interacting with People: … establishing relationships … maintaining contacts … with people from a variety of backgrounds … effective and sensitive communicatorAnd progressively up to the top level it also includes: < Org. Awareness: understanding culture … identifying influencers< Influencing and Persuading: others to take action< Leadership: towards achievement of goals and objectivesThat’s all very well, but you’re probably asking yourselves: > #what does that get me#
< These capabilities are important in all the frameworks < You already see them in your own working and personal lives … understanding modelling and applications of NLP helps us be …*more resourceful* … in NLP, we use this term in two ways: < having more resources at our fingertips for any situation< helping others within our circle of influence*more at cause* … in NLP, we talk about cause and effect… do you want to be …< in effect … like a ball of paper blowing down the road? soft armchair … impression of the last arse who sat you< at cause … the driver of your own destination …accepting full responsibility for your own actions and outcomes and, ultimately, *more successful* … by < modelling what we do on the successful approaches of others< reflecting when we’ve achieved our own successes< better able to plan steps towards being more successful> #techniques for BAs#
Now you have a handle on the context of NLP … both as a toolset for modelling and a series of techniques and strategies that apply those modelsYou also see that as people motivated to be the best we can in our interactions with others … how NLP models and applications are useful to us as business analysis practitionersNow we’re going to start exploring what this means and learn some of the applications … remembering the difference between modelling and application … there are hundreds of applications, techniques, strategies, and programs that build on NLP modelling. We are going to look at techniques across four areas that have a particular resonance for business analysis practitioners. As I said earlier, to excel at business analysis we need to recognise we operate in an environment with people and need to develop our communication, influencing, and negotiation. So for the first of these I need a volunteer who does not mind being hypnotised. ... wait ... Only kidding ... but, then if I’d realised there would be so much interest in that I could have prepared something for that too ... perhaps a future event ... Actually you have already been in a trance state during one of our earlier exercises ...> #cornerstone of NLP#
Being effective in NLP means having … effective communication … for which we need to …> be#outcome-oriented#… know what you want; have a clear idea of your desired outcome in any situation> have good #sensory awareness#… termed ‘acuity’ in NLP …be alert and keep your senses open so that you notice what results you’re getting> have great #flexibilty#… have the flexibility to go on changing what you do until you get what you want.> building and maintaining #rapport# with others … this needs to happen in a context of rapport … of being on the same wavelengthFirst let’s see what we mean and what’s involved with:> #communication#
CommunicationEarlier we defined communication … or linguistics … as how we …< make sense of our sensory input … verbal … visual … kinaesthetic < translate the stimuli, code and sort it in a way that enables us to make connections< convert our thoughts into actions that can have an impact on the outside worldNow we need to understand that process if we are to see how we can improve our communications skills …… but …as business analysts … it’s really important that we understand everything that goes on around us so that we can capture and document it … right? … as this is so important … imagine you had a dysfunction where what you could see, hear, and feel was being constantly blocked … how would you cope …… how much will it mess with your head to learn that is what is happening now for all of us … let’s take a look at …> our #unconscious mind# (based on European XFEL)
The unconscious mindThe traditional (Freudian) model of our brains: > #conscious mind#Our brain has finite active conscious mind-space … brightly lit counters in an information office … most of us cognitively capable of handling only 7 (±2) activities in parallel … or get overloaded> #pre-conscious mind#Things we don’t need now … but might need quickly … cached memory … dimly lit space behind the counters … the less in there the easier it is to swap between active tasks> #unconscious mind#Things that are in the past … deeper storage … library … lights off … librarian with torch … frequently accessed information is retrieved faster … date of birth vs. date you first startedThis model is ok as far as it goes … however it implies the unconscious mind is a passive storage system … in fact it is the busiest part of our brain … constantly at work … often deciding for us what we’ll focus on and process before we are consciously aware of it … although we can override it … as we’ll see> Let’s see it at work with the #communication model#
The (simplified) communication modelSo, here’s Bob again …> from observation … we can see a triggering #stimulus# > Bob gives a #response#We saw this before with the trigger-behaviour-outcome model … let’s now lift the lid and understand some of what happens inside> #open Bob’s head#We can that when a stimulus comes in, it is > firstly #filtered# for us> then it is codified / matched / assembled into a #model#> conditioning #state# (emotional, physiological, etc.)> and that state will then give rise to certain #behaviours#> which form our response and generate our #outcomes#< give an example … reaction to squealing tyres walking down the road or shadow overheadIf anyone needs convincing of this, we’ll run a short exercise to prove it: > #blind-spot#
Blind-spot exerciseHold the card at arm’s length … close one eye, and focus your open eye on the ‘X’ … now without changing what you’re focusing on, slowly move the card toward you … at some point the spot disappears … your neurology has just filtered it out … and interestingly compensatedThis is a commonly available exercise … on many websites … if you’re intrigued, there’s a great O’Reilly book … nothing to do with NLP … called ‘Mind Hacks’ … this was hack #16This is just in our visual system … but it also works with our auditory and kinaesthetic senses too …< do you remember remarking the last time the air-conditioning was switched off while you were at work … it’s suddenly much quieter < likewise, you don’t constantly feel the sensation of the clothes you’re wearing … it’s unimportant so filtered out> now, let’s look at our #models of reality#
Models of realityUnderstanding that we all have an internal representation or model of reality, we see that we never truly experience reality, it’s all at one step removed after our unconscious mind has filters, coded, matched into its model and applied it’s patterns before it’s presented to our conscious mind. It’s like having maps. Maps are a 2D representation of reality in 3D-plus. They have abstract shapes and colours that stand in for real things. Because our model is based on our understanding of reality from past experiences, and nobody has lived exactly the same life, we can see from this that everyone’s model of reality is unique to them. Knowing this, means that when we get an unexpected response we see while the response doesn’t make sense according to our model, maybe it does for theirs. Perhaps they’ve never come across a situation like this before and don’t know how to respond. It could be like trying to find your way around Wellington with a map of Auckland. > Exercise #draw my living room#
Drawing My Living RoomTiming: 10 minutes each wayObjectives:< Demonstrate the difference between the 'deep structure' of our internal representations and the 'surface structure' of the words we use to describe them< Demonstrate the tendency to use information from our own map of the world to fill in gaps in incoming information ProcedureIn pairs: Describer and Artist. This is an alternative to the 'Drawing From Words Alone' exercise above. Give some drawing paper to the Artist. Artist must draw a picture of the Describer's living room, based on a verbal description only. Artist must not show the picture to Describer before the time is up.At the end of 10 minutes, Artist shows the picture to the Describer and gets feedback as to its accuracy. Allow them a few minutes to discuss their learnings from the exercise, then swap roles.Clear up:What did you learn?How close did the picture get?Describers - did you describe everything in that picture? If not - where did those additional elements come from? (often it's the Artist's own living room).
We’ve established how we communicate, now we’re going to look at our ... Sensory awareness< Are you consciously aware of what is going on around you … or are you just going through day-to-day? Are you responding to the opportunities that are there … if you just take a moment to choose to see, hear, feel or experience them? Are you listening to your own internal signals as to what you really want to do or are you doing what you think others expect or demand of you. And is it time for you to … start paying attention NOW!In effective communication … in fact applying any NLP techniques … it’s important that we’re in rapport with others … to achieve this we first need to develop a more acute sensory awareness … you may have heard of this called sensory acuity. > #sensory acuity#
Sensory: relating to sensation, to the perception of a stimulus and the voyage made by incoming nerve impulses from the sense organs to the nerve centres.Acuity: the level of sharpness of a sense and it's usefulness in resolving fine levels of detail.Sight, sound, touch, smell and taste are the tools we use to perceive what is going on in the world - both within our own body and outside of it. It stands to reason therefore that the most effective use of our senses will yield the highest quality information. Higher quality information in turn improves our chances of enhancing our performance.Our major aim in the practice of sensory acuity is not necessarily to improve the senses themselves … we can only use the tools we have … rather it is to improve our use of those tools by increasing and enhancing our awareness of the information provided to us by our senses and to improve our abilities to make ever finer distinctions in that information.> #body language#
Body languageIn the 1970's … respected scientist, Albert Mehrabian, got his students to work out how we can sense when someone is telling the truth … i.e. the congruence between what is said and what is meant… they found> biggest determinant was #physiology# (facial expressions) > followed by #tone of voice# > with the content of what we say being the lowest… words carry the lie … tonality and physiology give us away … the tells … Lie to Me …> misuse #7% of meaning of communication is in our words# However,understanding *congruence* and *tells* is important …< not for it tells us in absolute terms … arms behind heads …< more about when there is a change … change in breathing …< recognise that something changed … ask them what happened …… this is called calibration … of course you need rapport firstLet’s put some of this into practice now> #peripheral vision# exercise
Peripheral VisionTiming: About 5 minutes for the 'induction'Objectives:< To give students an undeniable experience of being able to change their own state< To relax the group and bring it together< To get the group used to obeying your commandsWhat to say beforehand (Whys):Would it be useful to have a way of calming yourself down in two minutes or less, without having to do a whole yoga routine or 20 minutes of progressive relaxation, while still being able to pay attention - in fact greater attention - to what is going on around you, *and* nobody will know that you are doing it?Talk the whole group through the peripheral vision exercise using the annotated script from the Peripheral Vision handout. They should be seated with their feet flat on the floor and put down their manuals etc.Clear up:< ask … what happened … generally, students will report being relaxed< ask … if any habitually have 'internal dialogue' … what Susan Jeffers calls 'the chatterbox‘… most students will admit to internal dialogue at least some of the time.< ask … what happened to it when they were in peripheral vision … most students will report that it slowed down or stopped.> #rapport#
We’ve established how we communicate and how to increase our sensory awareness, now we’re going to look atRapport Rapport can be described as:< state of mutual trust and responsiveness between individuals or groups of people< being in synch < being on the same wavelength < commonality of perspectiveWe’re going to explore what this means> #what is rapport#
What is rapport?From the French rapporter… this means literally to send back to someone what they are sending to usWhat this really means is that consciously or unconsciously we reflect some of their physiology, tonality, or share similar experience and values … from which they to see we have something in common … that we are like them in some way … so that they will relax, extend some trust to us, and be more open On the basis that "people like people who are like themselves". Rapport is one of the most important features or characteristics of unconscious human interaction.In inter-personal communication the prior establishment of a good rapport can mean the difference between a successful, productive communication and an unsuccessful, non-productive interaction.We can use rapport in inter-personal communication to encourage the person we are communicating with to relax, to feel a sense of familiarity and comfort in their interaction with us and to lower the barriers of resistance and become more receptive to our communication.
Establishing rapportYou cannot really know a man until you have walked in their shoes, seen things from their perspective. Steven R Covey said: "seek first to understand before you seek to be understood"In essence, establishing rapport means that we are seeking to see things from the other person’s model of reality … while we cannot literally do this, because we don’t have the same filters and experiences as them, we can use our sensory awareness to pick up how somebody is feeling and behaving and to sense when they are operating from a different model and adapt or expand our own so that we can try walking in their shoes. > #second part of quote# from Jack Handey (US comedian SNL).At a simple level we can do this by taking a little time at the beginning of meetings to connect on a human level, the objectives of the meeting can be much more easily achieved. I used to think that the 'chit-chat' at the start was a waste of time and we should just get on with the business, and while I understand that frustration in others now, I find it far more effective to be in rapport first. A few moments spent asking after health, children, what they did at the weekend, and so on, allows us both to relax and be more resourceful. Making a conscious effort to do this makes meetings seem far more pleasant and collegiate as a result. > #boundaries of personal space#
Finding The Boundaries Of Personal SpaceTimings: 5 minutesObjectives:< Participants develop their sensory acuity< Participants get a sense of their own personal space, and how this may vary for different peopleWhat to say beforehand (Whys)< Introduce the concept of personal space - a crucial element in rapport.< visual preference will like having people where they can see them< auditory will like people where they can hear them clearly< kinaesthetic will prefer to be close enough to touch the other person.< Imagine what can happen when 'visual' and 'kinaesthetic' meet - the visual always backing away and the kinaesthetic always trying to get closer – like chase sequence from the Benny Hill show.ProcedureDemo this first with a volunteer. Two participants - A and B.A approaches B until A notices the non-verbal signal (a flinch, a wince, a change in breathing) that says that the boundary of personal space has been crossed. Find out where the boundaries are by approaching B from different directions (they may not be a constant distance). Swap roles. Then change partners and repeat, as many times as you can before the end of the exercise.Clear upWhat did you discover? How did you know that you had intruded on B's personal space? What differences did you notice about how far out the boundaries were? - from different directions? - same sex or different sexpartner? - any other factors (e.g. the relative height of the partners)?> #are you listening#
Listening/Not ListeningTiming: 7 minutes each roundObjectives:< To highlight the effects of fully attending vs. not fully attending< To illustrate how we naturally 'do' rapport in everyday life< Participants sharpen their sensory acuity< Participants recognise the role of minimal encouragers as positive behavioural feedbackProcedureThree participants: A, B and C. Chairs arranged in a triad (ie at the points of an equilateral triangle).A – has a conversation with B about something A is interested in (i.e. a subject they can talk about with ease). B's job is to be interested for the first 2 minutes, then (without overtly indicating it) to be completely uninterested for another two minutes. For the final minute B reverts to being interested.C's job is to observe the two participants in relation to each other (ie not take part in the conversation). C should be in peripheral vision. At the end of the round, C can give a couple of minutes of sensory specific feedback on what they observed.A can also give feedback about how they felt at different stages of the exercise.Then rotate (it's best to anchor the roles to individual chairs) until each participant has been in all three roles.Clear upWhat did you learn/what did you notice – as A? as B? as C? What are the implications for your coaching/for your life? Draw attention to the role of minimal encouragers (grunts, nods, smiles etc) as behavioural feedback encouraging the speaker to continue.> #outcome-oriented#
Having established how we communicate, how to increase our sensory awareness, and how to establish rapport, now we’re going to look at: Being outcome-oriented in our thinkingBefore embarking on a particular course of action it's a good idea to know what you want the final outcome to be. Ask yourself - what's my outcome for this, what do I want?Even when it’s something as straight forward as a phone call, email exchange, catch-up with your manager, or coffee with an old colleague … it is still good to have a firm idea of what you want to achieve, and give some thought toward what you might say or do to help achieve that … and outline planTo achieve this, we need clear goals, so we’re going to look at sound goal-setting. > #goal-setting#
Goal-setting covers anything from be how we derive corporate goals, strategic goals for the whole organisation, through to how we establish the goals for our projects, to setting goals for ourselves. It doesn’t really matter which level you take this at, for ease of working with this today, we are going to be looking at some form of personal goal. Let us take a moment to factor where we see goals fitting in to the whole scheme of things. A model I really like working with, is the business motivation model. It is another model, so it simplifies the subject matter to make it digestible, however it is effective. I like it because it uses a human language to understand how businesses are motivated, what drives them. I do think it works on a personal level too … maybe to a lesser degree. We can see that goals sits between vision and objectives in the ‘ends’ section … that is, so we know where we’re heading at each level. > #values#
Eliciting valuesBefore we start think about the goals themselves we need to ensure that we know clearly why we’re setting them. We set goals because we have some value in mind that we want to realise … this can be business value on a project … or personal values like being recognised by our peers. One way of think about goals is that they are values that have been set as if they were realised at some future point … and now we just need to take action to achieve themBy eliciting values, we ensure that … for example … we only capture objectives for our project that will achieve the aspirations of our stakeholders … they help define our scope … or we only set ourselves goals that we care about.Thinking about the motivation model again … values are what motivate us … get us out of bed in the morningThey could include values such as: < success< praise< recognition< responsibility< pleasure< love and acceptance< achievement< creativityValues like these shape the outcomes we seek and choices we make … so it’s good having them explicitly stated.> #exercise# in eliciting values
Eliciting ValuesTiming: 5-10 minutes per roundObjectives:< Participants become skilled at eliciting values< Participants understand the difference between elicitation and installation< Participants clarify their own values for a particular area of their livesProcedure:In pairs (coach and client). Use the ‘Values’ handout.Demo this first, using a flip chart to write up the values down the left side of the page. Make sure that 'coaches' understand they need to keep their own values out of the way, that they are after abstract concepts, and that they are not concerned at this point with the meaning of the nominalisations used by the client.For a particular context (e.g. work and career, finances, health and fitness), ask: “What’s important about <context>?”If the answer is not sufficiently abstract (e.g. "meeting clients for lunch", which is a specific behaviour rather than a value) keep going until you get an abstract value: “What’s important about <answer>?”“What else is important?” and when they run out of answers ask: “What else is important?” to get the values they are less consciously aware of (often among the most important)Clear up:Normally one would expect between five and 15 values to emerge.If there are more, it's not a problem – usually some of them turn out to be part of other values and this will resolve during the next exercise.Check that the values elicited are in fact abstract – if any are too concrete, ask "what's important about that?" to force the client up into the abstract realm.> #what is a goal#
Goals are something we aim for …uhm… simplistic but effective I think you will agreeWithin BMM, we have the idea of the ends and the means. The ends are where we are trying to reach; the means are the way we get there. You first have to have very clear goals in order to be able to plot an effective path to them and also to know when you have arrived. American philanthropist Elbert Hubbard:"Many people fail in life, not for lack of ability or brains or even courage, but simply because they have never organised their energies around a goal.“> #SMART goals#
How many of you have heard of setting SMART goals? Once you have your vision and values sorted … turn your attention to developing several goals that will enable you to be successful. At a minimum, goals should be SMART.A goal might be to hold a weekly project meeting with the key members of your team or to organise and run a continuous test programme throughout the project.Setting SMART goals is fairly well understood already … in fact we could almost regard them as an entry-level approach to goal setting From NLP we now get the idea of well-formed goals … expressed in ways that are more powerful because they use linguistic and conditioning cues … how much better will it be to have goals that are SMART and POWERful too. > #goals with POWER#
The POWER well-formed outcome conditionsAs well as using the SMART acronym, we can give our goals a real NLP spin by:< PositiveAlways set goals in the positive sense … that is … what do you want, rather than what you don't want … we’re not wired to process negatives well … don’t think of a pink elephant … most of you probably had to think of a pink elephant first before you could then know what not to think about … it’s like telling a child not to touch things in a shop … before you mentioned it they were probably not even thinking about it< OwnedIs it initiated and maintained by you … or your organisation … what can you do to bring this about by your own actions … what can you do to influence the outcome … what do you need to do to achieve this goal … Responsibility for your own goals< WhatPut yourself in the situation of having achieved this already … what do you see/hear/feel when you have it … make sure that your image of the goal is sensory-rich, vivid, and compelling.< EthicalWill the results take you towards a resourceful outcome… ecological … the effects on every area of your life … < Route and resourcesWhat resources do you have that will help you reach your goal? What additional resources do you need? It's much easier to work out how to get to your goal once you've got there! Put yourself in the position of having achieved the goal. What had to be in place immediately before to allow your goal to happen? And what had to be in place before that? And so on – all the way back to the very first step.Challenge yourself that this is something you really want:< Quantum linguisticsWhat will happen when you achieve thisWhat will not happen when you achieve thisWhat will happen if you don’t achieve thisWhat will not happen when you don’t achieve thisHow would having this outcome affect each area of your life?Who else would be affected by you having this outcome?How would you having this outcome affect the planet?How do you feel about this goal?Do you want it 100%?Does your energy increase when you think about it? If not, adjust the goal until you feel enthusiastic about it!> #exercise# in using positive language
Defining Goals in Positive LanguageTiming: 2 minutes each wayObjectives:< Become more aware of away-from motivation in your goal< Notice where your goal is defined in terms of what it is not rather than what it isProcedureIn pairs. Person A talks about a goal that they have. Person B listens. When Person B hears the goal described positively, give the thumbs-up sign. Any time Person A talks about what the goal is not, or what the goal will stop happening or get away from, Person B gives the thumbs-down sign.Swap over after two minutes.Clear up:What did you notice?How easy was it to talk only about what the goal is, rather than what it isn’t, or what you want to get away from?What have you learned, and what are you going to do differently as a result?> #exercise# in setting power goals
POWER Goal-SettingTiming: 10 minutes (demo), 15 minutes per personObjectives:< Participants can check goals against well-formed outcome criteria< Participants shape up one of their own goals using these criteriaProcedureDemo this first. Participants should have previously been thinking about some goal that they have.In pairs (coach and client). Coach interviews the client about their goal, checking that the goal satisfies each P.O.W.E.R. criterion and assisting the client in tweaking the goal where necessary.Use the P.O.W.E.R. criteria from the Handouts.P - PositiveO - OwnedW – WhatE – Ethical (Effects on every area of your life)R – Resources and RouteClear-up:What have you learned? What do I need to know?How do you feel about your goal now?(If any doubt or incongruence, demo how to amend the goal to bring it in line with POWER)
So by now, we’ve established how we communicate, how to increase our sensory awareness, how to establish rapport, and now how to be outcome-oriented in our thinking. Finally, we’re going to look at:Flexibility In this context we mean, how we can have more options to choose from, more resources as we call them in NLP. Richard Bandler said "if something you're doing isn't producing results, do ANYTHING else. If what you're doing isn't working, ANYTHING else has more chance of success". For example … at a personal level … say we’ve decided on the outcome we want, established rapport, and started communicating … when our sensory awareness tells us that what we’re saying is not getting through, we can change tack and try a different way. At a team or organisation level, this means that when we see that other people are in conflict, we can lend our flexibility to that too, and help resolve the conflict. Another, perhaps more succinct way to put this is: "if you always do what you've always done, then you'll always get what you've always got" > #hierarchy of ideas#
Hierarchy of ideasAs we think and communicate, we’re dealing with things at varying levels of abstraction and concreteness ~ love is an abstract concept ~ cheese on toast is concrete (well, if it’s overcooked) In inter-personal communication the person who controls the level of abstraction within the communication controls the communication itself.The hierarchy of ideas is a model which assists us in our ability to move through and between different levels of abstraction from vague and ambiguous to concrete and specific.The Communication Model we looked at earlier introduced us to sensory input being divided into chunks of variable size and the conscious mind can usefully attend to 7+/-2 chunks of information at any one point in time.The hierarchy of ideas also utilises this concept of chunks of information and our ability to take such a chunk and< 'chunk up' to a higher level of abstraction, < 'chunk down' to a lower level of abstraction, and even < 'chunk sideways' or laterally between two chunks at the same level of abstraction.> #chunking#
In this context, chunking is our means of navigating concepts. This is partly why it is called chunking, because it deals with things in level s of abstraction. Let us look at an example (by the way that was an example of chunking). Take my phone as an example:We take as a starting point that this is a mobile phone. If we want to be more specific, we could say that it is an Apple iPhone. More specific still, an iPhone 3GS. Even more, a 32MB. More still, OK, it is black. That is about it unless you want to start looking at the apps I have installed or pictures I have taken. Now, let us say that we want to go to higher levels of abstraction. We could say that this is a phone. Another level higher, it is a form of communication. Another level, it is a form of interaction. A level above that, it is a form if existence. > #example of chunking#
One particular area where I have found chunking to be great is in discussion rather than abstract objects ... for example < What shall we do tonight?< What about going to the cinema? (down: an example of doing things)< I'd rather go to the opera. (across: another example of doing things)< You prefer something artsy? (up: something more general than opera)< Yes.< What about the ballet? (down: an example of artsy).What this conversation highlights is that as we navigate up and down the hierarchies, we can change the theme – to begin with it was activities (i.e. types of things to do), then it became categories (e.g. artsy versus popular)It’s also great for matching levels of detail to the speaker ... so, for example, some people prefer to think at the high-level abstract, some at the here and now, and some at the detailed step-by-step meticulous level – and some just do not get it at all. Knowing that someone is struggling to understand, we can attempt to reframe to the point where they can. By the way, if you’re familiar with theories on thinking styles, communication styles, or behavioural styles like Myers Briggs Type Indicator, Hermann Brain Dominance Instrument, and Dominance Influence Steadiness Compliance ... please note that although they all use different terms to describe broad groups of people, they tend to agree that thinking and communication styles differ in this way. > #chunk for investigation#
You can also think of it as an investigative tool, another form of 5 Whys if you like, so we can ask a question, then based on whether we want to get more specific or more abstract, we can ask directing questions which prompt an answer that takes us in that direction. Examples of questions that will take us to more specific levels, we can think of “do you have an example of that”, “when did that last happen”, “where do you normally do that”, “who found that to be the case”. Examples of questions that will take us to more abstract levels are: “what is this an example of”, “what does this help you achieve”, “for what purpose do you do that”.We’ve also seen that we can navigate sideways too ... so we can use this when ideas have been exhausted and we need find a new seam to mine ... as a way of encouraging lateral thinking when people are too stuck in one way of thinking. For example, “so, we’ve been talking a lot about mobile phones, what are they an example of ... yes, that’s right , communication ... so to stretch our thinking here a little ... can we think of some other examples of communication ... email, letters, video, personal”.Clearly, what we are describing is an overly simplistic 2-dimensional grid of concepts/objects. Reality is both messier and more complex than that. Hey, at least it gives us some tools to start working out what is going on, eh?> #exercise# in chunking
So we have seen that we can chunk up to get agreement. We also chunk up to separate intention from behavior. You can ask the following three example questions:chunk down to get details and distinctions. We also chunk down to maintain agreement for action. You can ask the following three example questionslateral chunk to access other examples. The structure of intuition is the ability for one to chunk up, find connections and relationships, and then chunk back down and relate to the current situation.
Chunking ExerciseTiming: 5 minutes per round + 2-5 minutes feedback/discussion between rounds + 5 minutes clear-upObjectives< Participants gain experience of maintaining rapport through matching "chunk size" in conversation< Participants may gain some experience of leading "chunk size" in a particular direction< Participants are aware of the importance of flexibility in matching chunk size< Participants increase their rapport skillsProcedureIn threes. A and B sit facing each other. C stands behind B.A initiates a conversation with B. B matches A, especially chunk size in the conversation. C directs A to chunk up, down or sideways at random by silently pointing up, down or sideways (NB this has to be out of B's field of vision).Change over after 5 minutes so each person gets to experience each role.Before they start, instruct the group "Don't have too much fun".Clear upWhat did you notice?What do you want to ask? What do I need to know?What did you find easiest – big picture, details or in between?Which direction was easiest for you – chunking up, down or sideways?
We’ know how the NLP communication model works, we’ve worked on our sensory awareness and establishing rapport, how to be more outcome-oriented, and the basis of how we can use this for flexibility. ReframingThis now we are going to build on these techniques and look at reframing ... a way to maintain discussion on a positive footing, work to avoid or resolve conflict, etc. etc. Reframing in NLP is a linguistic tool which we can use to quickly and elegantly change the meaning of things, but what exactly does that mean, and for what purpose? How might changing the meaning of things usefully serve us?The meanings that we apply to our experience of the world influence our behaviours, sometimes in useful ways and sometimes in less than useful ways.When we experience this phenomenon passively, from the effect side of the cause-and-effect equation, it can be limiting to our behaviours and to the choices that we perceive as being available to us. On the other hand, once we learn to take active control of this phenomenon and place ourselves at the cause side of the equation it becomes a very effective way to empower ourselves and others.Reframing provides the means to take any given situation or experience and, by placing a different frame around it, change its meaning, either directly or by placing it in an alternative context in which it means something else.
The optimist sees the glass as half full. The pessimist sees the glass as half empty. The realist simply sees an opportunity to quench their thirst.The partially filled glass, it would seem, means different things to different people and those meanings affect their states and behaviours.In and of itself though, the partially filled glass doesn’t mean anything in particular – the meaning is supplied by the observers, each from their own viewpoint, from their own unique world models. The meaning of the glass depends on who is experiencing it and in which context that experience takes place.All meaning is subjective and context dependent. Sometimes the meanings that people apply to their world, to events both within and beyond their influence, to the words and actions of others, to the results they get, to their ‘successes’ and ‘failures’ can affect them in ways which are less than congruent with their objectives/goals/desires/dreams.The meanings which we apply to our model of the world directly influence our behaviours, the ways in which we respond to the world around us.For example, if a person is resting in bed and hears his bedroom door open, that exact same noise will have two totally different meanings to him and evoke drastically different reactions depending on whether (1) he is alone in a locked house, or (2) he had previously invited his friend over and left the back door to his house unlocked.In the above examples (1) and (2) are different context frames which, when applied to the sensory stimulus of hearing the bedroom door open, change the meaning of that experience for that person. The meaning that the person applies to the stimulus will cause them to modify their behaviour, to respond in different ways.Trying to change behaviour directly can be difficult, but we can change our perceptions, our Internal Representations of anything in an instant, and this change will in turn lead to changes in our states or behaviours.Reframing makes this process explicit so that we can do it with skill and volition.Context reframeContext reframing acknowledges the fact that any sensory representation is valid - given the appropriate context.A context reframe takes the ‘problem’ experience and places it in a context in which it is no longer a ‘problem’ or where that experience actually has a useful or positive benefit or even becomes an asset or a skill.He’s too mean with his money – And it’s that very skill which has allowed him to pay for a very fine education for each of his children.She’s slow – And when you find yourself absorbed in one of her books not only will you appreciate every single second she poured into it, you’ll also understand exactly why they fly off the shelves.It’s expensive – What would be really expensive would be buying the other one which costs 10% less but lasts half as long. This one – by comparison, is an absolute bargain!Meaning reframeContext reframing is indirect in that the change in meaning is achieved as a consequence of placing the ‘problem’ experience in an alternative context.In the commonly experienced context of every day road use the speeding driver may be considered by other drivers to be a reckless maniac. In the context of that driver being behind the wheel of a fire engine or other emergency vehicle and striving to deliver emergency aid as quickly as possible the meaning of his speed changes.In a meaning reframe the context remains static and the meaning is changed directly, and consequently our responses change.Some simple examples:-Problems become challenges, opportunities for action or opportunities for learning and developing new skills.Laziness becomes our ability to relax, to enjoy comfort and to calmly focus our energy exclusively and precisely on only things which most deserve our attention.Intrusive prying becomes curiosity, eager fascination or a healthy thirst for knowledge.Fear, by alerting us to and keeping us away from danger becomes a means of protection.
Reframing ExerciseTiming: about 10 minutesObjectives:< Participants become skilled in formulating context and meaning reframes and recognising when to use them.Procedure:Prior to the exercise, give some examples of context and meaning reframes. Ask the group for some examples of complaints and reframe them, asking whether your reframe is context or meaning based.As a group, individuals come up with examples of complaints.Other group members come up with reframes and ask the rest of the group if it is a context or meaning reframe.Examples:I'm always late for work."Isn't it great that you're so laid-back." (meaning)"So you miss the traffic." (context)Whenever the boss looks at me, I feel nervous."And isn't it great that he notices you – I've had bosses who didn't realise I existed" (meaning)I'm too soft."And I'm sure your family and friends appreciate your warm and trusting nature." (context)There are some excellent examples in the book Reframing by Bandler and Grinder. Note that some examples, like the first one here, can be reframed using either context or meaning.FAQ's"Some of these examples are just silly, and wouldn't work in the real world."That's right - to use reframing skilfully, the reframe, whether context or meaning, has to appeal to some value which is at least as meaningful to the 'complainer' as the value behind their complaint.
So, we’ve explored a little of what NLP is, how it relates to our roles as business analysis practitioners, and looked at three techniques that we can use straight away.
NLP is a framework based on modelling, it has a growing set of processes and techniques which can be combined and recombined in many different ways, and applied to almost any aspect of life. As such it is open and continually evolving.
There are four distinct certification levels recognised by all the main NLP licensing boards:< practitioner< master practitioner< trainer< master trainerFour main worldwide bodies that license NLP practitioners and above:> #American Board of NLP#> #Society of NLP#> #Association for NLP#> #International Association for NLP#
Developing a 2-day training course using NLP called ‘Influence for Business Analysts’, likely to run in December or January. What would you like to see on that course? How many would be interested in more information on that?
We are nearly out of time, and you may well have questions. If there is not enough time to answer them all before the end of this session, we can have a chat over a drink at the end of the day.
Make sure that I include twitter account, as well as other means of contact, on the thank you slide.
NLP for business analysts
mind-reading your way to project success