Levels of organization of life

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Levels of organization of life

  1. 1. Levels of Organization of LifeDavid Suescún Pelegay Página 1
  2. 2. Levels of Organization of LifeFirst, we are going to see a scheme of the levels of organization of life.⇒ Subatomic particles. ⇒ Atomic particles. ⇒ Organelles. ⇒ Cell. ⇒ Tissue. ⇒ Organ. ⇒ System. ⇒ Organism. ⇒ Family. ⇒ Population. ⇒ Biocenosis. ⇒ Ecosystem. ⇒ Biosphere.And now, we are going to see each one with careful.David Suescún Pelegay Página 2
  3. 3. Levels of Organization of LifeThe subatomic particles are the smaller part of anything. It is composed by: Electrons: The electron is a subatomic particle, which has a negative mass. Protons: The proton is a subatomic particle, which has a positive mass. Neutrons: The neutron is a subatomic particle, which has a negative mass.Now, we are going to see the characteristics of each subatomic particle. Load Load (numbers) WeightElectron ∗ 9,1 ∙ 10 1,602 ∙ 10 -Proton ∗ 1,6 ∙ 10 1,602 ∙ 10 +Neutron 0 1,6 ∙ 10 0Coulomb*= The coulomb is the unit of electric charge. It is defined as the chargetransported by a steady current of one ampere in one second.The subatomic particles are the base of everything. This is an image of an atom of helium. The green balls are the neutrons, the red balls are the protons and the yellow balls are the electrons.David Suescún Pelegay Página 3
  4. 4. Levels of Organization of LifeThe atomic particles are formed by the union of subatomic particles.The atomic particles are the atoms and the molecules. We are going to see each one: Atom: The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of neutrons, electrons and protons. The atom has to parts: the nucleus, which contains the neutrons and the protons, and the cortex that contains the electrons. An example of atom is !". Molecule: A molecule is a neutral group or two or more atoms. An example of molecule is $ % & ". This is a molecule of water.David Suescún Pelegay Página 4
  5. 5. Levels of Organization of LifeThe organelle is a specialized subunit inside a cell, everyone has an specific function.Every organelle has an specific function:Name FunctionNucleus Contains DNA*, controls the activity of the cell.Chloroplast Make photosynthesis, traps energy from sunlight.Golgi apparatus Sorting and modification of proteins.Mitochondria Energy production from the oxidation of food substances.Vacuole Storage water. Help to maintain homeostasis.Centriole Anchor for cytoskeleton, helps in cell division by forming spindle fibers.Lysosome Breakdown of large molecules.Nucleolus Ribosome production.Ribosome Translation of RNA* into proteinsDNA*= Deoxyribonucleic acid.RNA*=Ribonucleic acid. An animal cell. Within the cytoplasm, the major organelles and cellular structures include: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (6) Golgi apparatus (7) cytoskeleton (8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytosol (12) lysosome (13) centriole.David Suescún Pelegay Página 5
  6. 6. Levels of Organization of LifeThe cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organism. It is thesmallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the buildingblock of life. Humans contain about 100 trillion cells; a typical cell size is 10 ( and atypical cell mass is 1 monogram.The cells could be classified into: Eukaryotic: The eukaryotic are cell which contains a nucleus. The eukaryotic cell could be: Animal eukaryotic cells: The animal cells don’t have a vacuole, because the reserves of water are bigger. Plant eukaryotic cells: The major difference is that this type of cells has vacuole to store water. Prokaryotic: The prokaryotic are cells which don’t contain nucleus. This are three examples of cells: (up left) is an animal cell, (up right) is a plant cell, both of them are eukaryotic, the image at the left is from a bacteria, don’t contain nucleus, and it is prokaryotic.David Suescún Pelegay Página 6
  7. 7. Levels of Organization of LifeA tissue is group of cells.A tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a completeorganism. A tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the sameorigin, that together carry out a specific function. The tissue could be classified intofour parts: Connective tissue: Are fibrous tissues. They give shape to organs; blood and bone are examples of connective tissue. Muscle tissue: Are made up of contractile tissue of the body. This tissue moves to produce forces and cause motion, locomotion. The heart is a muscle tissue, allowing pumping the blood. Nervous tissue: These tissues are only used in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and in the PERIPHERIAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, are used to transmit information. Epithelial tissue: Are formed by cells that cover organ surfaces such as the skin, the airways, and the digestive tract. These tissues help to protect organism from bacteria.This image shows the different types of tissue looked thought a telescope. Thecomposition is different.David Suescún Pelegay Página 7
  8. 8. Levels of Organization of LifeThe organs are group of tissue.Usually there is a main tissue (parenchyma) and sporadic tissues (stroma). Forexample, the main tissue in the heart is the myocardium; a group of organs cooperateto form systems.This image shows the principal organs of our body.David Suescún Pelegay Página 8
  9. 9. Levels of Organization of LifeA system is a group of organs.These organs work together to make a specialized job.In the human body, they are many systems, the principal are: Circulatory System: Is the system which pumps blood. Digestive System: Is the process which the food breaks down to be digested. Endocrine System: Is the communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands… Excretory System: Gets rid of waste in the body; contains the digestive, respiratory and urinary system. Nervous System: This system collects, transfer and process the information with the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system. Respiratory System: Are the organs used for breathing, the lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and diaphragm. Skeletal System: Is the structural support and protection: bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons. Urinary System: Are the organs that maintain the fluid balance and excretion of urine. This is an image that shows the different systems of the body.David Suescún Pelegay Página 9
  10. 10. Levels of Organization of LifeAn organism is a group of systems.An organism is any living being. In at least some form, all organism could response to astimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homeostasis as astable whole. This are organism.David Suescún Pelegay Página 10
  11. 11. Levels of Organization of LifeA family is a group of organism.Are group of living being that are like to the living being of its family. This is a classification of the families.This the Simpsons family tree.David Suescún Pelegay Página 11
  12. 12. Levels of Organization of LifePopulation is a group of families.David Suescún Pelegay Página 12
  13. 13. Levels of Organization of LifeBiocenosis is a group of population.Biocenosis describes the interacting organism living together in a habitat.David Suescún Pelegay Página 13
  14. 14. Levels of Organization of LifeAn ecosystem is a group of biocenosis.An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in aparticular area, as well non-living beings.The ecosystems could be very small or very big. These are examples of ecosystems.David Suescún Pelegay Página 14
  15. 15. Levels of Organization of LifeThe biosphere is a group of ecosystems.The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of lifeof Earth.The Earth as a biosphere.David Suescún Pelegay Página 15
  16. 16. Levels of Organization of LifeDavid Suescún Pelegay Página 16