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  1. 1. 1© HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 Dean Gould The evolution of brand journalism and its natural fit with university marketing Received (in revised form): 1st March, 2016 DEAN GOULD is the director of the Office of Marketing and Communications at Griffith University, Australia. He has been a media professional for more than 20 years, spending much of his career as a journalist and editor. Dean has been at the forefront of communications and media developments throughout that time, launching new digital and web products while pioneering different technology applications in newsrooms and marketing teams. He is focused on the ever-shifting communications behaviours of the consumer and how they can be met through innovative and nimble marketing approaches. Abstract Brand journalism is an increasingly used term among marketers but it is largely misrepresented. It is more than using the story-telling skills of journalists to hone a public relations pitch. Brand journalism is a challenge for an organisation to meet consumer information needs in an area in which the brand can be reasonably positioned as providing expert commentary. Universities are ideally placed to spearhead this evolution of mainstream journalism because of their established commitment to the public good and their natural affinity to editorial independence through the culture of academic freedom. Keywords brand journalism, marketing, content marketing, university marketing, editorial, public relations Dean Gould, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, The Chancellery (G34) Room 2.07, QLD 4222, Australia Tel: +61 7 555 27844; E-mail: INTRODUCTION Marketing has had many strange bed- fellows over time. ‘Brand journalism’ is simply one more relationship shared by this most promiscuous of disciplines. But let us not rush into a definition of ‘brand journalism’ straight off, because the context of the rise of this new content marketing tool is necessary to properly inform that definition. Marketing has embraced new channels and platforms, usually made available through the creation of a broader oppor- tunity. Newspapers, for example, were published for editorial reasons and advertising piggy-backed those audiences; the telephone was not invented for call centres but telemarketing arose out of its use; and the internet was created with the purest of intentions but is now awash with marketing messages. The singular difference in the advent of brand journalism as a marketing tactic is that it has evolved out of the demise, or at least malaise, of 21st-century journalism. ARISING FROM JOURNALISM’S ASHES The news media industry worldwide has been struck by massive cost reductions, redundancies and closures since 2005, accelerating after the global financial crisis of 2008. Just this year The Independent newspaper in the UK announced that it will cease publishing a print issue and, in Australia a major media company, APN News Media, has dozens of newspapers and websites on the market. Part of this has been due to external economic impacts but much has also been attributed to the structural change within the industry as JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 1 25-03-2016 10:12:25 AM
  2. 2. Gould 2 © HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 audiences fracture, news consumption habits shift and delivery channels evolve at increasingly rapid intervals. The News and Media Research Centre at the University of Canberra provides an analysis that ‘depicts a depressing picture of an industry being overwhelmed by enormous pressures and struggling to adjust to the new competitive environment’1 in its ‘State of the Newspaper Industry in Australia, 2013’ report. The National Union of Journalists in the UK cites: ‘more than 300 local newspapers have been closed in the past ten years.’2 And from the USA: ‘as life shattering as job losses may be for journalists, they aren’t our prime concern here. It’s the news poverty we — readers — are experiencing. If we project the recent decline forward, we’ll have one-half the number of daily journalists working in 2016 or 2017 as we did 16 years ago.’3 It is this dramatic recalibration of media that has fuelled the rise of ‘brand journalism’, which is best described as a journalistic-style content created by a non-traditional organisation in a way that meets an audience information demand and reasonably positions that organisation as providing sustained, expert commentary. With reduced outlets available to publish organisations’ news and content, they have started to use their own channels, to create their own audiences, to build their own newsrooms, to study their own metrics and to employ their own journalists. It may have started as ‘public relations’, been redefined as ‘communications’ and emboldened as ‘content marketing’, but now the most advanced examples of it have evolvedtocallthemselves‘brand journalism’. One of the oldest and most enduring illustrations of brand journalism is the National Geographic magazine, which builds compelling content around the idea of environmental awareness. A more recent example is Red Bull which now runs its own media service associated with extreme sports. Both will be explored in more detail, but it is important to note here that brand journalism is not a replacement for bona fide media coverage. There is still value in independent media embracing a story offered up by an organisation as worthy of being included in the nightly news bulletin or daily publication (for as long as they exist!). That third-party, objective endorsement based on the genuine news value of a story retains importance. It is simply harder to come by. Syndicated content and centralised distribution fill the radio and television news bulletins and the pages of newspapers and magazines (in print and online). The journalists at the front line are invariably overworked or stressed and less able to devote time to anything but the basics. UNIVERSITIES’ BRAND JOURNALISM COMPETITIVE EDGE Universities have had and continue to have generally strong and positive rela- tionships with the news media. They are interesting organisations, full of com- plexity and politics; they produce great stories through their research and they are often influential corporate citizens — so they have rich, inherent news value. That is one of the key reasons why brand journalism is particularly pertinent to universities. They offer genuine content, often across multiple disciplines rather than as a singular product. Brand journalism is still being explored as a concept, so the definitions being touted across marketing circles are not necessarily consistent. Many confuse ‘journalism’ with storytelling. There is no doubt that effective storytelling is important and an JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 2 25-03-2016 10:12:25 AM
  3. 3. The evolution of brand journalism 3© HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 essential marketing tool. But done well, that is just good writing. It does not nec- essarily relate to journalism and so should not be bundled into the new definitions any more than traditional journalism is coupled with text book writing. Storytelling is terrific but that is not what we see emerging with brand journalism. Others are relabelling old-school public relations (PR) as brand journalism. It is not. Good PR is able to leverage that third-party endorsement mentioned earlier but it is not brand journalism. ‘With brand journalism, you’re using your brand expertise to position yourself as an authoritative resource. Instead of promoting your products, you’re educat- ing and informing consumers about an aspect of the lifestyle [topic] you promote.’4 Many journalists and journalism educators might find this unpalatable. Journalism is supposed to be unsullied by brands. It is supposed to be independent and objective, unable to be bought off by corporate or commercial interests. That is the vision conjured by Joseph Pulitzer at the turn of the 20th century when he spoke of the essence of journalism, and it is still upheld as a principle today. The Fairfax Media Group’s editorial inde- pendence charter says, in part: ‘That the proprietor(s) acknowledge that jour- nalists, artists and photographers must record the affairs of the city, state, nation and the world fairly, fully and regardless of any commercial, political or personal interests, including those of any propri- etors, shareholders or board members.’5 The problem is that most media out- lets have permitted those journalistic principles to be diluted. Newspaper lift- outs on real estate contain nothing but glowing reports about properties to buy; broadcasters deliver serious-faced stories about who might win the network’s next reality TV show (as though it is news); insurance companies sponsor documenta- ries on floods and storms; media owners’ political preferences are enunciated with vigour during election campaigns. Journalism has been wallowing in the grey area between black and white for many years. And if we delve too deeply into the manufacture of news we could well find ‘the elite domination of the media and the marginalisation of dissidents … occurs so naturally that media news people, frequently operating with com- plete integrity and goodwill, are able to convince themselves that they choose and interpret news “objectively” and on the basis of professional news values’ but inevitably leading to a ‘pattern of manip- ulation and systematic bias’.6 Traditional journalism seems to have vacated the high moral ground some time ago. That is not to say that just because conventional journalism has hit hard times that this sets a new lower bench- mark for glorified PR to become a new stylised and self-labelled brand journalism. That is not the case at all. The centrepiece of brand journalism is sustainable expertise in a topic or subject area that the organisation can reasonably occupy. Words like ‘credibility’ and ‘con- sistency’ that were once held to the bosom of journalists are now the pillars of the bastard child, brand journalism. Indeed, brand journalism steps into a void perhaps created by traditional journalism’s current inability to be all that it would like to be. WHY BRAND JOURNALISM HAS FLOURISHED However this consumer need arose, there is a new desire among our information- thirsty communities to seek the sort of content that brand journalism delivers. ‘Brand publishing is now a staple of the modern marketing diet. This is why the JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 3 25-03-2016 10:12:26 AM
  4. 4. Gould 4 © HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 term “brand newsroom” has been floating around advertising circles … — brands have recognised that in a social-media world, telling true stories is a better way to win hearts and minds than interrupting people with ads.’7 There are some impressive examples of brand journalism well and truly active across the world. Major sporting organi- sations have led the way in many respects. Major League Baseball, the English Premier League and the Australian Football League operate compelling news services covering all aspects of their sport. They employ hundreds of journalists and pro- ducers between them and by and large cover their sport or their ‘brand’ warts and all. ‘Consumers don’t really care who’s publishing as long as the content is impartial and consistent.’8 There are also other publishers in more diverse and competitive environments worth highlighting. ●● ANZ Bank launched its Blue Notes financial news website (https://blue- in Australia in 2014 and has steadily grown its subscriber base. Its mix of news, opinion and analysis follows a structure and gravitas that any self-respecting financial news website would be proud of. It is clearly branded as ANZ and the commentary features the key figures from the bank but not exclusively. For the elite financial target market Blue Notes is chasing, only authentic, original content will do. ●● Birchbox ( magazine) is a global online beauty store based in New York, but it also provides leading content for its target market. It is the other end of the scale from Blue Notes. It provides a sharp catalogue shopping experience but it also has significant content about how to use the beauty products and what the common pitfalls and advantages are, along with the latest trends. It is a destination for the reader that allows him or her to look at the products, see how they are best used and access style information. ‘Much consumer journalism is essentially a recommendations engine. Link that engine with the ability to act on the advice given and you have a solid business model.’9 ●● Red Bull, mentioned earlier, is the golden child of content marketing ( This company now makes more money out of its media and events than it does out of its energy drinks. It has positioned itself in the adrenaline and extreme sports market. It produces stories, videos, blogs and images across the sports, events and music that it wants to be aligned to. It even offers the Red Bull Content Pool of high-quality images, video, articles and interviews to mainstream media — thus ensuring that the Red Bull branded journalism seeps into the traditional newsrooms. ●● National Geographic (www.national-, as already stated, is perhaps one of the oldest and yet most overlooked examples of brand journalism. The National Geographic Society is a non-profit organisation and its mission is not to publish a magazine (as it has done since 1888) but to preserve and protect the planet. ‘Together with our donors and partners, we’ve helped protect 3 million square kilometers of critical ocean habitat, built 262 bomas to protect big cats, and made almost 12,000 grants to scientists and others in the field’, says its website.10 To promote that cause — that brand — it produces content … lots of it. National Geographic magazine is famous for its breath-taking imagery. But it now has its own television channel, websites,smartphone apps,books,movies JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 4 25-03-2016 10:12:26 AM
  5. 5. The evolution of brand journalism 5© HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 and a travel company,and all of it gener- ates and perpetuates content. Like Red Bull, it also creates a revenue stream via its brand journalism, because the con- sumer is willing to pay for this varied and authentic content that moves from neuroscience on one page to desert wildlife on the other.The key is in the quality — impartial, consistent, authoritative. Returning to the definition of brand journalism we used earlier, National Geographic is a classic example of ‘using your brand expertise to position yourself as an authoritative resource’. WHY UNIVERSITIES FITTHE NEW WORLD SO WELL It is into this compelling area of diverse content that universities fit so well. Some worthwhile examples of brand journal- ism emerging among higher education institutions include: ●● Harvard Business Review showcases brand journalism at its best. Its reputation is well-established as a world-leading publisher of business, management and leadership news and discovery. HBR began publishing in 1994 and is wholly owned by Harvard University. It bravely discusses global business issues, uses contributors and commentators from across the world, and employs 350 edi- torial staff across its many platforms and subsidiaries.11 Yet it unashamedly promotes Harvard products across its websites, Harvard academics feature among the content, and it has helped take the brand name of ‘Harvard’ across the world (as if it needed help). It has turned the authority and expertise of the Harvard Business School into a highly branded leading source of journalism. Not all brand journalism will reach the heights of HBR but it is a worthy aspirational goal that could help keep the emerging discipline on a focused pathway and out of the mire of relabelled public relations. ●● University of Melbourne launched ‘Pursuit’ in 2015 as an online platform to share the impact and breadth of its research( Vice Chancellor Professor Glynn Davis said at the time of the launch,‘as a public- spirited institution … it is important we share the impact and outcomes of our work with the community, locally and further afield’.12 Many universities pub- lish stories about research, but Pursuit wraps them in a more topical delivery, often complementing the daily news cycle.It is a content destination in its own right. Significantly, one of Australia’s leading journalists and editors, Phil Gardner, heads up Pursuit, which was labelled the ‘boldest step’ in marketing by University of Melbourne. It does not have 350 journalists like HBR, but it does indicate substantial investment. Pursuit evolved out of the university’s latest marketing campaign ‘When Great Minds Collide’, and is complemented by advertising, print, and online and social media arms. ●● Griffith University created its ‘Know More In Sixty Seconds’13 campaign in 2014 and to date has more than 80 one- minute video vignettes posted that have received more than 400,000 views. Like Pursuit, ‘Know More In Sixty Seconds’ was part of a wider ‘Know More. Do More’ campaign that inte- grated multiple marketing channels.The essence of the 60-second videos is to encourage knowledge as a shareable commodity and to market the breadth and intellectual dynamism that a university offers. Each one-minute delivery hones in on an interesting fact, ranging from the physics of a sunset to the demise JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 5 25-03-2016 10:12:26 AM
  6. 6. Gould 6 © HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 of the Easter Island peoples to what happens to online accounts after death. They are akin to micro-news features and are delivered by academics, students and alumni, with plans to extend them further into the community.The videos use Griffith colours and have modest branding, in a similar fashion to ANZ Blue Notes, but they do not overtly promote the university’s wares. It is the content that delivers the message. These university-based examples, like the other non-university endeavours, are much more than an organisation talking about itself. In each case, the team behind the brand journalism targets audiences, gets to know the demographics of its readers/viewers, and crafts messages by channel, by topic, by design to best suit the various audience segments. They are immersed in the pursuit of engaged com- munities and, in many cases, are juggling content around multiple communities and channels, just like a regular news- room. ‘If you do brand journalism for a big corporation, you’ll probably find that you have many different audiences and that they have different needs at different times, so the brand journalism you produce for them must be carefully targeted and developed from an understanding of not just who they are but what they are interested in at a given time.’14 Univer- sities could be seen as ‘big corporations’ in many respects and they offer such diverse content and use of channels that audience segmentation is part and parcel of their daily marketing conversations. But it is not content alone that makes brand journalism an enticing channel for universities. There are other powerful cultural reasons that draw the two together. Universities and journalism share a commitment to a greater good and a belief in independent thought. The first cultural driver can be referred back to Professor Davis’s comment about his university being a ‘public-spirited institution’. Most universities would hold to similar principles and see the value in investing in public discourse. They have histories that embed them in honest and open debate. ‘The university has three functions: one is to preserve knowledge; another to spread knowledge and the third to advance knowledge.’15 At a time when a profession such as journalism is under siege, it is therefore not surprising to see publicly-minded organisations like universities stepping into the breach. A robust and free media is a central pillar to democracy, and universities have a role to play in preserving and advancing journalistic knowledge, especially as market forces hinder its development commer- cially. But 21st-century universities also have to be pragmatic and accountable. Brand journalism gives them a double- barrelled opportunity — invest in and perpetuate decent journalism while pro- moting the institution’s brand. There is a marketing return on investment that is justifiable. That explains an institutional motiva- tion for moving into the space of brand journalism, but this distils all the way down to the individual academic, as the second cultural driver. The practice of ‘academic freedom’ at universities aligns with the dearly held concept of ‘editorial independence’ in journalism. Universities are well-used to informed academics saying and doing as they please within their area of expertise, even if it is ‘off brand’. And while that might seem paradoxical for branded journalism, it is evidence of an institutional courage of conviction — evidence that universities can cope with diverse and contrasting opinions and live with discordant views. ‘Academic freedom means that both faculty members and JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 6 25-03-2016 10:12:26 AM
  7. 7. The evolution of brand journalism 7© HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 students can engage in intellectual debate without fear of censorship or retaliation.’16 It has a ring to it similar to that of the Fairfax editorial charter cited earlier and this natural affinity gives true brand journalism, when practised by universities, a layer of protection from becoming ‘spin’ or a marketing tagline. It will not stop university marketing departments blurring the lines, but we also do not have news journalism practised in purity anywhere these days either, so it is an imperfection we should highlight, monitor and be aware of rather than be afraid of. BENEFITS AND BRICKBATS Brand journalism can be traced back to the 19th century in some forms. It has examples throughout the 20th century but is now being actively pursued as a ‘new’ discipline, driven by marketing teams often with substantial resourcing. It is an area that carries some inherent risks. It requires considerable investment and a sustained strategy. It should be recognised that not all marketers buy into this rise of brand journalism, of course. Some are rejecting it outright. Ironically, they see it as mar- keting spin put on PR communications. Opponents’ arguments are summed up here: If your purpose is to increase ROI (return on investment) for a business by obtaining more customers,you’re not in the journalism game. And calling your branded content “journalism” is detrimental because it may come across as deceptive to readers ... It doesn’t matter if your ‘brand newsroom’ is stocked with current or former journalists. Brand journalism ...there is no such thing.17 This view, however, does not take into account the very powerful commercial interests that exist across the ‘journalism game’ already. Each media organisation is well and truly focused on ROI and expanding audiences (customers). Sadly it is the diminishing returns that have led to the downsizing of most news organ- isations. Profit is not a dirty word in journalism and should not be treated as such in brand journalism either. It takes an existing or aspiring authority and expertise of an organisation and positions it within the context of that subject area. Universities are in the fortunate position of having expertise across numerous disciplines but, like the Harvard Business Review, would be well advised to narrow their focus for a successful venture into this environment. Telling stories online about your uni- versity is not brand journalism. Telling stories through the university’s channels about a topic aligned to your organisa- tion’s DNA is more likely to be brand journalism. Doing it once or twice or with vigour for six months only is not journalism either. That is blogging. Brand journalism requires a regular frequency that engages an audience and makes your content worthwhile to their lives at an interval that suits them — possibly daily, maybe weekly, certainly no less than monthly. The benefits can be considerable, though. ●● You have some control over how your university is represented. This is essen- tial in the fast-paced world of social media, online publishing and 24-hour news cycles. ●● You have transparent measures of who consumed your content,when and where. ●● You can add to the institution’s reputa- tion for academic expertise in particular areas by making the same sort of topics available more generally. ●● You preserve, spread and advance knowledge — the three functions of a university. JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 7 25-03-2016 10:12:26 AM
  8. 8. Gould 8 © HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 The future of brand journalism, however, is more likely to lie in strategic collaborations than in every higher education institution trying to reinvent the HBR. There is an economy of scale to such an approach but it is also a more powerful way to connect with the audience — and journalism, brand or otherwise, should always be focused on the audience. The evolving projects from the Google News Lab indicate that we are already heading down this path. Google is unsurprisingly already onto the opportunities in this space and has developed multiple tools for ‘your news- room’, ranging from demographical data to maps to historical information. News organisations such as The Washington Post, New York Times, Buzzfeed and Mashable are already using these services. They are also available to brand journalism enter- prises. ‘Whether your project involves virtual reality, drones, data journalism, or something no one has thought of yet, we want to hear from you’, says Google News Lab,18 with a particular focus on supporting new media start-ups. The significance for brand journalism is that objective data and capacity are now a click away. The depth of knowledge that once required dozens of journalists or research departments is now available to all through collaboration with Google. It is not the only data aggregator that is offering partnerships, but it is one that cannot be ignored. It has its own news service, partnerships with the European Journalism School, is providing tactics and tools for attracting and verifying citizen-generated content, and has a bank of images and videos on offer. Like most things about Google, it already seems omnipresent in this space. The search engine and data giant may well be the ultimate brand journalism practitioner. REFERENCES (1) Papandrea, F. (2013) ‘State of the newspaper industry in Australia, 2013’, News and Media Research Centre, University of Canberra, available at: research/faculty-research-centres/nmrc/ publications/documents/State-of-the- Newspaper-Industry-web-publication.pdf (accessed 25th January, 2016). (2) NUJ (2015) ‘Roll call of newspaper closures and job losses’, National Union of Journalists, available at: roll-call-of-newspaper-closures-and-job-losses/ (accessed 25th January, 2016). (3) Doctor, K. (2015) ‘Newsonomics:The halving of America’s daily newsrooms’, Nieman Lab, Nieman Foundation Harvard, 28th July, available at: newsonomics-the-halving-of-americas-daily- newsrooms/ (accessed 25th January, 2016). (4) Malthouse, S. (2014) ‘Why brand journalism is the future of content marketing’, Epiphany United Kingdom, 5th February, available at: why-brand-journalism-is-the-future-of-content- marketing/ (accessed 28th January, 2016). (5) Sydney Morning Herald (2012) ‘Fairfax Media Charter of Editorial Independence’, Sydney Morning Herald, 19th June, available at: http:// charter-of-editorial-independence-20120619- 20l4t.html (accessed 28th January, 2016). (6) Chomsky, N. and Herman, E. S. (1988) ‘Manufacturing Consent:The Political Economy of the Mass Media’, Pantheon Books, New York. (7) Snow, S. (2013) ‘As brands start building digital newsrooms, what do they need to succeed?’, Poynter Institute, 30th July, available at: http:// building-digital-newsrooms-what-do-they-need- to-succeed/219506/ (accessed 18th January,2016). (8) Lush, J., Hayes, N. and Mitchell, S. (2015) ‘Brand newsroom 62: Traditional vs brand journalism’, Lush Digital, 18th November, available at: journalism/ (accessed 28th January, 2016). (9) Bull,A. (2013) ‘How Red Bull stole journalism from big media’, Brand Journalism UK, available at: articles-on-brand-journalism/how-red-bull- stole-journalism-from-big-media-and-what-big- media-needs-to-do-to-steal-it-back/ (accessed 26th January, 2016). (10) National Geographic Society website (n.d.) ‘Helping the world’, National Geographic, available at: (accessed 26th January, 2016). JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 8 25-03-2016 10:12:26 AM
  9. 9. The evolution of brand journalism 9© HENRY STEWART PUBLICATIONS 2397-0626 JOURNAL OF EDUCATION ADVANCEMENT AND MARKETING VOL. 1, NO. 2, 000–000 SPRING 2016 (11) Harvard Business Publishing (2015) ‘Moves us forward’, Harvard University, available at: CorpBrochure0909.pdf (accessed 28th January, 2016). (12) Mumbrella (2015) ‘University of Melbourne builds online content platform led by former Herald Sun journalist’, Mumbrella, 29th September, available at: www.mumbrella. online-content-platform-led-by-former- herald-sun-journalist-32159 (accessed 28th January, 2016). (13) Campaign Brief (2014) ‘Griffith University launches “Know More In Sixty Seconds” campaign via JuniorCru’, Campaign Brief trade magazine, September, available at: university-launches-n.html (accessed 28th January, 2016). (14) Bull, A. (2013) ‘Brand Journalism’, Routledge, New York. (15) Reeves, J. (1937) ‘Scholarship: An accomplishment and a profession’, The Quarterly Review of the Michigan Alumnus, Vol. 43, pp. 628-633, available at: https:// iAAAAMAAJ&lpg=RA1-PA629&ots= sMlPITisFu&dq=%22Scholarship%3A%20 an%20accomplishment%20and%20a%20 profession%22&pg=RA1-PA629#v= onepage&q=%22Scholarship:%20an%20 accomplishment%20and%20a%20 profession%22&f=false (accessed 28th January, 2016). (16) Nelson, C. (2010) ‘Defining academic freedom’, Inside Higher Ed, 21st December, available at: https://www.insidehighered. com/views/2010/12/21/defining-academic- freedom (accessed 29th January, 2016). (17) Petulla, S. (2014) ‘Why you need to stop using the term brand journalism’, Contently, 13th October, available at: strategist/2014/10/13/why-you-need-t- stop-using-the-term-brand-journalism/ (accessed 28th January, 2016). (18) Google (n.d.) ‘Using technology to push the boundaries of media’, Google News Lab, available at: (accessed 29th January, 2016). JEAM0012_GOULD_1_2.indd 9 25-03-2016 10:12:26 AM