2. It is an element
It is a non metal
ATOMIC NUMBER (the total
number of protons present inside
the element ) – 6
Mass Number – 12.01 amu
3. In our human body 18% is covered with carbon and most of the part is backbone ,
in the lungs (alveoli)
It is found as a gas like CO2 in the atmosphere
It is found as an organic matter in the soil
4. A substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical
elements . In such a way that the element are held together by chemical bond and
difficult to break
5. Atomic Structure : Arrangement of –vely
charged electrons around the nucleus
Protons = 6
Neutrons = 6
Electrons = 6
Few examples : Find out the atomic Structure
Hydrogen , Lithium , beryllium , Boron , sodium ,
calcium , Clorine, Argon ,Titanium , iron
7. The outer most shell is called valence shell
The outer most electrons is called valence electrons
For Carbon its : 4
8. They can be bonded in different forms.
They can form allotropes from carbons eg: idli
Carbons are poor conductors of electricity
They have low melting and boiling point
Have weak intermolecular forces
9. It refers to the formation of chemical bond
between 2 or more atoms , molecules , ions to
give rise to chemical compound
Ionic Bond : Transfer of electrons from one
atom to another . The electrostatic
attractions between the oppositely charged
ions hold the compound together.
Losing e- becomes +vely charged CATIONS
Gaining e- becomes –vely charged ANIONS
10. Covalent Bond :A covalent bond is formed when pairs of electrons are shared
between two atoms. It is primarily formed between two same nonmetallic atoms or
between nonmetallic atoms with similar electronegativity.
11. In this case the carbon has 4 electrons in the outermost shell which it must gain
or lose the 4 electrons
If I gained four electrons forming C4- anion . But it would be difficult to proton
to hold on 10 electrons . That is four extra electrons
if I lost four electrons forming c4+ cation . But it would require a large amount
of energy to remove four electrons leaving behind a carbon cation with six protons
in its nucleus holding on to just two electrons
12. Lewis structures are also known as Lewis dot structures or electron dot structures.
These are basically diagrams with the element’s symbol in the centre. The dots
around it represent the valence electrons of the element. Examples : chromium ,
cobalt , neon , Calcium , Hydrogen
14. In hydrogen Each hydrogen atom has a single
electron in the valence shell. It requires one more to
acquire the nearest noble gas configuration (He).
Therefore, both the atoms share one electron each and
form a single bond
15. Fro oxyfen Each oxygen atom has six electrons
in the valence shell (2, 6). It requires two electrons to
acquire the nearest noble gas configuration (Ne).
Therefore, both the atoms share two electrons each
and form a double bond.
16. Fro nitrogen Each nitrogen atom has five
electrons in the valence shell (2, 5). It requires
three electrons to acquire the nearest noble gas
Therefore, both atoms share three electrons each
and form a triple bond.
18. The phenomenon of the existence of the same element in different physical forms with similar chemical
properties is known as allotropy.
Types of allotropes:
--- Crystalline allotropes of carbon include diamond, graphite and, fullerene.
--- Amorphous allotropes of carbon include coal, coke, charcoal, lamp black and
Diamond has a regular tetrahedral geometry.
This is because each carbon is connected to four neighbouring
carbon atoms via single covalent bonds, resulting in a single
unit of a crystal.
These crystal units lie in different planes and are connected to
each other, resulting in a rigid three-dimensional cubic pattern
of the diamond.
1. Has a high density of 3.5g/cc.
2. Has a very high refractive index of 2.5.
3. Is a good conductor of heat.
4. Is a poor conductor of electricity
20. In graphite, each carbon atom is bonded covalently to
three other carbon atoms, leaving each carbon atom with
one free valency.
This arrangement results in hexagonal rings in a single
plane and such rings are stacked over each other through
weak Van der Waals forces.
1. Has a density of 2.25 g/cc.
2. Has a soft and slippery feel.
3. Is a good conductor of electricity.
21. C60, also known as Buckminsterfullerene, is the very
popular and stable form of the known fullerenes.
It is the most common naturally occurring fullerene and
can be found in small quantities in soot.
It consists of 60 carbon atoms arranged in 12 pentagons
and 20 hexagons, like in a soccer ball
23. Saturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have all carbon-carbon single bonds. These are known as
alkanes. General formula = CnH2n+2 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4.…..
24. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have at least one carbon-carbon double or triple bond.
Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon double bond are called alkenes. General formula = CnH2n
where n = 2, 3, 4…..
Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon triple bond are called alkynes. General formula =
CnH2n−2 where n = 2, 3, 4…..
26. Carbon chains may be in the form of straight chains, branched chains or rings
In cyclic compounds, atoms are connected to form a ring.
27. The compounds with the same molecular formula and different physical or chemical properties are known as
isomers and the phenomenon is known as isomerism.
The isomers that differ in the structural arrangement of atoms in their molecules are called structural isomers
and the phenomenon is known as structural isomerism.
28. Benzene is the simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon.
Physical properties: colourless liquid, pungent odour, flammable, volatile.
Cyclic in nature with chemical formula, C6H6, i.e., each carbon atom in benzene is arranged in a six-membered
ring and is bonded to only one hydrogen atom.
It includes 3-double bonds which are separated by a single bond.
Hence, this arrangement is recognized to have conjugated double bonds and two stable resonance structures
exist for the ring.
30. In the earlier days, the conventional names for organic compounds were
mainly derived from the source of occurrence & their properties. However,
organic chemists realized the need for a systematic naming for organic
compounds since a large number of organic compounds
This leads to setting up a system of nomenclature by "International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC".
32. For the Root Word:
The Root Word of IUPAC
name indicates the number of
carbon atoms in the longest
possible continuous carbon
chain also known as parent
chain chosen by a set of
Example: root word -
33. There are 2 suffix:
1.Primary suffix: It is used to indicate the degree
of saturation or unsaturation in the main chain.
It is added immediately after the word root of
Example: 1 Suffix -
34. 2. Secondary Suffix :
it is used to indicate the main functional
group in the organic compound and is
added immediately after the 1o suffix in
the IUPAC name
Example : 2 Suffix -
35. Prefix : The prefix is used to indicate the side
chains, substituents and low priority functional
groups (which are considered as substituents).
The prefix may precede the word root or the
infix of IUPAC name. Make sure it has less
priority number while naming
36. Infix : The infixes, like cyclo, spiro, bicyclo, are added between the prefix(es) and root word in
the IUPAC name to indicate the nature of parent chain.
* The "Cyclo" infix is used to indicate the cyclic nature of the parent chain.
* The "Spiro" infix is used to indicate the spiro compound.
* The "Bicyclo" infix is used to indicate the bicyclic nature of the parent chain.
The infixes are some times called as primary prefixes
Example: Infix –
37. 1) The first step in giving IUPAC name to an organic compound is to select the parent
chain and assign a word root.
2) Next, the appropriate primary suffix(es) must be added to the root word to indicate
the saturation or unsaturation.
3) If the molecule contains functional group or groups, a secondary suffix must be added
to indicate the main functional group. This is optional and not necessary if the molecule
contains no functional group.
4) add prefix(es) to the IUPAC name, if there are side chains or substituents on the
5) Finally Prefix the root word with the infix "cyclo" if the parent chain is cyclic; or with
the infix "spiro" if it is a spiro compound; or with the infix "bicyclo" if the compound is
40. Combustion means burning of carbon or carbon-containing compounds in the presence of air or
oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, heat and light.
CH3CH2OH + O2 -----> CO2 + H2O
Saturated hydrocarbons give clean flame while unsaturated hydrocarbons give smoky flame. In
limited oxygen, even saturated hydrocarbons give smoky flame.
41. Oxidation is the reaction caused by contact between substances and oxygen molecules.
In the below example we are using alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium
dichromate are oxidizing alcohol to acids , that is adding oxygen to the starting materials .
Hence its known as oxidizing agent
42. Combustion is the complete oxidation of organic compound into carbon dioxide
and water molecules in presence of oxygen gas whereas
oxidation is the addition of oxygen in a compound or addition with an element.
43. The reactions in which two molecules react to form a single product having all the atoms of the combining
molecules are called addition reactions.
The hydrogenation reaction is an example of the addition reaction.
In this reaction, hydrogen is added to a double bond or a triple bond in the presence of a catalyst like nickel,
palladium or platinum.
44. The reaction in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced or substituted by different atoms or
group of atoms is called substitution reaction.
In the below example Chlorine is added because it shows faster reaction and can be replaced with other
CH4+Cl2+Sunlight → CH3Cl+HCl
46. C2H5OH )
It is a colourless liquid having a pleasant smell.
Ethanol is liquid at room temperature
It is commonly called as alcohol and is the active ingredient
for all the alcoholic drinks because it’s a good solvent
Ethanol is soluble in water
47. C2H5OH )
It is used in medicines such as tincture iodine, cough syrups and many other
Consumption of diluted ethanol in small quantity causes drunkenness. Long term
consumption can leads to many health problems
As a solvent in the manufacture of paints, dyes, medicines, soaps and synthetic rubber.
. As an antifreeze in radiators of vehicles in cold countries.
48. C2H5OH )
Reactions of ethanol:
1. Reaction with Sodium:
Ethanol reacts with sodium to produce hydrogen gas and sodium ethoxide. This reaction
supports the acidic character of ethanol.
2C2H5OH + 2Na → 2C2H5ONa + H2(↑)
2. Dehydration reaction:
Ethanol reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid at 443 K to produce ethylene. This reaction
is known as dehydration of ethanol because, in this reaction, a water molecule is removed
from the ethanol molecule.
CH3CH2OH + conc H2SO4→ CH2=CH2+H2O
It is commonly called as acetic acid and belongs to group of
The melting point of Ethanoic acid is 290 K and freezes
5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar and
widely used as preservative in pickles
Reaction with ethanoic acid:
1. Esterification Reaction:
Esters are more commonly formed by reaction of acid and an alcohol
When a carboxylic acid is refluxed with alcohol in the presence of a small quantity of
conc.H2SO4, a sweet-smelling ester is formed. This reaction of ester formation is called
When ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in presence of conc.H2SO4, ethyl ethanoate and
water are formed.
CH3COOH + C2H5OH → CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
(reaction taking place in presence of Conc.H2SO4)
These are used as flavouring agents in perfumes
On treating with sodium hydroxide(alkali) the ester is converted back to alcohol and
sodium salt of carboxylic acids . This reaction is called as Saponification
CH3COOC2H5 → C2H5OH + CH3COONa
(reaction taking place in presence of Conc.NaOH)
Its used in preparation of soaps
2.Reaction with base:
Ethanoic acid (Acetic acid) reacts with metals like sodium, zinc and magnesium to
liberate hydrogen gas. It reacts with a solution of sodium hydroxide to form sodium
ethanoate and water.
3.Reactions with Carbonates and HydroCarbonates:
Carboxylic acids react with carbonates and bicarbonates with the evolution of
CO2 gas. For example, when ethanoic acid (acetic acid) reacts with sodium
carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, CO2 gas is evolved.