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Training held at the European Communication School (ECS) in London on 20 May 2019.

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Publicado en: Tecnología


  1. 1. 1 DMLG GAFANOMICS 20 May 2019 ECS, London
  2. 2. 2 1. GAFAnomics: from startups to behemoths 2. GAFA: infrastructure of a new economy 3. The network economy 4. Standing out in the network economy 5. Succeeding in GAFAnomics’ world 6. Digital sovereignty: GAFA and society DMLG
  3. 3. 3 DMLG GAFAnomics: from startups to behemoths
  8. 8. 8 Amazon Anytime Amazon Basics Amazon Go Amazon Prime Amazon Rekognition Amazon Robotics Amazon Web Services DMLG Calico DeepMind Google Duplex Google Glass Google Lens Loon Waymo Athena Building 8 M assistant Onavo Portal Project Libra Apple Card Apple Health Record Apple News Apple PAIL Apple T288 Amazon Google (Alphabet) Facebook Apple Workshop
  10. 10. 10 DMLG SOURCE: CASPER KLYNGE (TWITTER, 26/04/2019)
  11. 11. 11 DMLG GAFA, the Chinese way: BATX
  14. 14. 14 DMLG GAFA: infrastructure of a new economy
  15. 15. 15 DMLG Market cap of the world’s biggest Internet companies in May 2018 (in billion US dollars) SOURCE: « MARKET CAPITALIZATION OF THE BIGGEST INTERNET COMPANIES WORLDWIDE AS OF MAY 2018 (IN BILLION U.S. DOLLARS) » (STATISTA.COM, 2019)
  16. 16. 16 DMLG Uber has built out its whole set of services by calling out on GAFA’s infrastructure. Accessing users App distribution via app stores and interactions in messaging services. Driver’s navigating system Google Maps is used to both geolocalise vehicules and users, and offer drivers a navigating system. Data and servers management Data storage and management on Amazon Web Services first. Payment Google Wallet and Apple Pay are used to carry out transactions. Example: swift development of Uber through GAFA’s infrastructure SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  17. 17. 17 DMLG The network economy
  18. 18. 18 DMLG , the example
  19. 19. 19 DMLG Information Initially, Google has built out a network of connected information through its indexing system of Web pages, images, books, places, news, video, and so forth. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Connecting information to information
  20. 20. 20 DMLG Information User By creating its most used tools (Google Search, Google Images, Google News and Google Maps) and by acquiring YouTube, Google has allowed all of its users to access this goldmine of information by connecting them efficiently to websites, images, books, video (you name it) corresponding to their search. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Connecting users to information
  21. 21. 21 Information User By creating Gmail, Google+ or Orkut at the time, Google has given users the ability to connect with one another, and to interact though information sharing. DMLG SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Connecting users to users
  22. 22. 22 Information User Business By introducing Adwords, Google has given businesses the opportunity to precisely target users likely to be interested in their products, and to get in touch with them. Through AdSense, Google gives businesses the opportunity to connect with one another by displaying they respective ads. DMLG SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Connecting businesses to users
  23. 23. 23 Information User Business Device Through Android, Play Store and Google Chrome, Google gives users appropriate means to connect themselves to its ecosystem of information, users, places, businesses, services and applications. DMLG SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Connecting users to Google
  24. 24. 24 GAFAnomics companies build open networks Network: system linking multiple individuals, objects and information with one another. By taking leadership at a broad scale, GAFA become infrastructures to which other companies want to connect to create value. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  25. 25. 25 Distributed economyCentralised economy ● Access via connexions ● Distributed work ● Unit-based production ● Shared value ● Abundance management ● Proprietary assets ● Localised work ● Mass production ● Exclusive value ● Scarcity control DMLG The network economy: from centralisation to distribution SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  26. 26. 26 Selling products to distributorsPurchasing materials from suppliers In a centralisation model, the value flows along a value chain. Value is created and captured in a linear way, from suppliers to end customers, through traditional buying and selling mechanisms. DMLG From value chain... SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  27. 27. 27 VALUE CREATION CAPTURING VALUE 3 4 1 2 Companies use Google AdWords to engage end users. Companies index content: Google search grows in value. Google’s search engine is a value tool: access to any piece of information in one click. Collecting user data allows to optimise Google’s search engine. In a distribution model, value circulates within the value loop. Value is captured and created continuously by both companies and end users. Value flowing through the network can take different forms: service, time, money or data. DMLG value loop SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  28. 28. 28 SOURCE: « THE FOUR: THE HIDDEN DNA OF AMAZON, APPLE, FACEBOOK, AND GOOGLE » (SCOTT GALLOWAY, 2017) DMLG *In reference to the film « The Curious Case of Benjamin Button » which features a man who is born old and rejuvenates over the years, as well as Daisy, who lives a love story with him throughout his life. The « Benjamin Button » economy* Your new pair of shoes loses value when you have it on your foot. But publishing on Instagram that you wear your shoes adds value to the social network.
  29. 29. 29 SOURCE: « THE FOUR: THE HIDDEN DNA OF AMAZON, APPLE, FACEBOOK, AND GOOGLE » (SCOTT GALLOWAY, 2017) DMLG 1. Product differentiation – You must have a differentiated product in today’s world. 2. Visionary capital – Your business must have a bold vision that attracts cheap capital. 3. Global reach – The business must have a global reach for bigger numbers and diversity of the market. 4. Likability – Image matters and a business must be loved to excel. 5. Vertical integration – The business must control their destiny. They don’t have to own all aspects of the vertical but they must control it. 6. AI – To be relevant in today’s business world, you must collect, algorithmically analyse, and leverage consumer data. 7. Accelerant – Your business must attract and retain top talent. 8. Geography – Your business must be in close proximity to world class technical or an engineering teaching university. You must also be located in a progressive city that supports technology-based companies and has the economic foundation to support growth. The T algorithm, recipe to GAFA’s success
  30. 30. 30 DMLG Standing out in the network economy
  31. 31. 31 ● Magnetic company: grouping and managing very small units of value ● Real-time company: instantly adapt the value ● Infinite company: target the customer base to achieve a 100% profit margin ● Intimate company: the quality of the welcome is the norm Four approaches to stand out in the network economy SOURCE: FABERNOVEL DMLG
  32. 32. 32 Grouping and managing very small units of value Network companies are able to detect, organise and host very small units of value. They leverage excedentary capacities and value creation for users to capture and propose micro-transactions. Competitive advantage: efficiently deal with billions of small transactions. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Magnetic company DMLG
  33. 33. 33 Traditional economy Network economy Companies use raw materials to produce finished products sold to customers. Companies identify the available value, however small, and capture it. They transform this value and redistribute it to consumers and producers while taking some of it. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL DMLG Magnetic company: functioning
  34. 34. 34 A room or an apartment is not leveraged to its full capacity. Airbnb identifies these excedentary capacities and meets the demand for places to rent by offering them to renting. By leveraging excedentary capacities to a broad scale, Airbnb can today offer twice as many rooms as Hilton Worldwide can to a zero marginal cost. (2015) (2014) Leveraging excedentary capacities DMLG Magnetic company: use case (Airbnb) SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  35. 35. 35 DMLG Instantly adapt the value Network companies leverage user feedback in real time to instantly optimise their offering on the market and improve the value of their products. They always work with beta versions to meet user needs in real time. Competitive advantage: adapting instantly to the market. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Real-time company
  36. 36. 36 DMLG Traditional economy Network economy Companies manufacture and roll out new products on the market every two years. For months, they stay without information about how their products are used. Companies create a first reliable basic version of their products and constantly improve it by iterative development. They closely monitor how their products are used to meet their users’ needs in real time. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Real-time company: functioning
  37. 37. 37 DMLG Google leverages its network to identify clients’ emerging needs and create products accordingly. In 2000, search queries monitoring showed that users were looking for a photograph of Jennifer Lopez at Grammy Awards. To meet users’ expectations, Google came up with the idea of an image search engine. This is how Google Images was born. Real-time company: use case (Google) Beta version serving by chance SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  38. 38. 38 DMLG Target the customer base to achieve a 100% profit margin Network companies use softwares and services highly scalable in order to reach near-zero delivery costs when a critical user based is reached. Thanks to network effects and zero marginal cost, these companies can grow indefinitely in terms of revenue, with a low impact on costs. Competitive advantage: ability to evolve and be profitable quickly. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Infinite company
  39. 39. 39 DMLG Traditional economy Network economy Companies must provide additional production to address a different customer. Their growth is limited by their production capacity and by the marginal cost of production. Companies distribute non-competitive goods and can reach different consumers for virtually no additional cost, providing them with an opportunity for infinite growth. In addition, they benefit from network effects and see the perceived value of their products increase with the number of users. This mechanism is easier to apply with intangible assets. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Infinite company: functioning
  40. 40. 40 DMLG Uber uses highly scalable software and services to achieve near-zero delivery costs when a critical mass of users is reached. The company does not own any of the vehicles it deploys, thereby eliminating many of the expenses incurred by traditional taxi companies (plate, vehicle, etc.). In addition, it has automated all stages of the service experience, outside the race itself. Uber can evolve and grow indefinitely for virtually no additional cost. Infinite company: use case (Uber) Evolution at zero marginal cost SOURCE: FABERNOVEL
  41. 41. 41 DMLG The quality of the welcome is the norm Networked companies use their knowledge of users to refine and personalise the experiences they offer to each customer. Large-scale customisation is at the heart of their products. By targeting and customising their products to each user, these companies create an intimate and long-term relationship. Competitive advantage: customer reception and comfort. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Intimate company
  42. 42. 42 DMLG Traditional economy Network economy Companies produce in mass an identical product that they sell to all their customers. Companies offer customised products and customisation options to each of their customers, creating an intimate and long-term experience. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Intimate company: functioning
  43. 43. 43 DMLG 75% of the content consumed on Netflix comes from targeted recommendations, which make it possible to create a unique catalogue of films for each user. Netflix is based on the analysis of its subscribers' behaviour and, thanks to powerful algorithms, defines a specific profile for each of them. Based on their tastes, habits, apparent state of mind and time of day, Netflix offers a tailor-made experience each time. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Intimate company: use case (Netflix) Targeted information to address the audience concerned
  44. 44. 44 DMLG Intimate company Magnetic company Real-time company Infinite company Networked company Leveraging networks to excel in the network economy By structuring themselves into networks, companies can automatically benefit from these four dimensions and play in the network economy. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL = +
  45. 45. 45 DMLG Succeeding in GAFAnomics’ world
  46. 46. 46 DMLG In a world dominated by GAFAnomics, traditional companies can either connect to existing networks or create their own networks. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL Creating own networks Connecting to existing networks
  47. 47. 47 DMLG Using of GAFAnomics as distribution channels The wide range of services created by GAFAnomics can be used to create new user experiences. The WAM (« The World Around Me ») augmented reality app is connected to the Google Maps API. Using GAFAnomics features to improve your services Plug in to SOURCE: FABERNOVEL, PLAY.GOOGLE.COM/STORE/APPS/DETAILS?ID=APP.WTINFOTECH.WORLDAROUNDMELITE&HL=FR « Plug-in » strategy: plug in to GAFAnomics Take advantage of the gigantic networks of GAFAnomics, the infrastructures of the 21st century meet demand and sell to customers reach and retain customer design products and services develop products and services recruit and manage talent streamlined operations
  48. 48. 48 DMLG Audi x Amazon Walmart x Google Goldman Sachs x Apple Audi has entered into a partnership with Amazon to install residential charging stations for future owners of the Audi e-tron SUV. Walmart and Google are teaming up to compete with Amazon on voice commerce. With this partnership, Walmart customers will now be able to order and have their orders delivered to their homes via Google Assistant. Both companies want to launch a credit card that is compatible with the Apple Pay payment solution. This will first be tested by Apple employees before a more global roll-out. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL, « AVEC LA E-TRON, AUDI ENTAME SON OFFENSIVE ÉLECTRIQUE » (LES ECHOS, 18/09/2018), « WALMART PARTNERS WITH GOOGLE FOR VOICE-ASSISTED GROCERY SHOPPING » (CNN.COM, 02/04/2019), « APPLE, GOLDMAN SACHS TEAM UP ON CREDIT CARD PAIRED WITH IPHONE » (WSJ, 21/02/2019) « Partner » strategy: partner with GAFAnomics Establish exclusive partnerships to create a competitive advantage
  49. 49. 49 DMLG SOURCE: FABERNOVEL, « SNAPCHAT WILL PROBABLY BE GLAD IT TURNED DOWN FACEBOOK'S $3 BILLION — BUT IT WAS DEFINITELY A BOLD BET! » (14/11/2013, BUSINESSINSIDER.COM) Unless you can radically and beneficially transform an existing value proposition, competing with the entrenched effects of GAFAnomics networks and data is too resource-intensive. By refusing Facebook's acquisition offers, Snapchat came to compete head-on with the social network, which ended up simply copying the now famous « Story » format. If Snapchat remains a popular application, Instagram has largely taken over and surpassed Snapchat in popularity on Stories. « Compete head-on » strategy: directly compete with GAFAnomics Facing GAFAs on their playground
  50. 50. 50 DMLG This strategy requires a large initial investment in technology to achieve critical mass, but it can pay off. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL, « THE CHINESE TAKEOVER OF INDIAN APP ECOSYSTEM » (02/01/2019, FACTORDAILY.COM), « HOW TIKTOK IS REWRITING THE WORLD » (NYT, 10/03/2019), « ALIPAY SIGNS LONG-TERM DEAL TO BECOME UEFA NATIONAL TEAM FOOTBALL SPONSOR » (UEFA.COM, 09/11/2018) By acquiring the famous application (200M users), the Chinese company ByteDance has enabled its domestic social network TikTok (Douyin in China) to benefit from a unique traction force to establish itself in new markets such as India —39% of the 500M active monthly users are Indian— with an innovative social network offer. By signing an agreement with UEFA, the Chinese giant Alibaba is hunting on the Western lands of the GAFAs to showcase its innovation capacities and experience (900M users), positioning itself as a direct competitor of Google (Android Pay), Apple (Apple Pay), Facebook (FaceCoin) and Amazon (Amazon Coin) on payments. TikTok Alipay « Differentiate » strategy: differentiate yourself from GAFAnomics Compete by addressing virgin territories
  51. 51. 51 DMLG Traditional companies will get the best return on investment by working with GAFAnomics to seek new business opportunities. Volvo x Uber Apple x IBM Google x Levi’s Volvo Cars has partnered with Uber to develop and market autonomous vehicle services in the future. Partners in the enterprise market since 2014, Apple and IBM continue their collaboration by bringing their respective AI technologies closer together. With the Jacquard project, Google and Levi's have worked together to bring innovative textiles with tactile detection features to the market. SOURCE: FABERNOVEL, « VOLVO CARS FOURNIRA À UBER DES DIZAINES DE MILLIERS DE VÉHICULES COMPATIBLES AVEC LA CONDUITE AUTONOME » (VOLVOCARS.COM, 20/11/2017), DEVELOPER.APPLE.COM/IBM, ATAP.GOOGLE.COM/JACQUARD « Co-innovate » strategy: co-innovate with GAFAnomics Act hand in hand with GAFAnomics
  52. 52. 52 DMLG Traditional companies can join forces to succeed in this new economy. MAPS.ME x HOT BMW Group x Daimler AG Disney x Fox x NBC MAPS.ME and Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) have teamed up to create a new feature that allows crowdsourcing of local data critical to humanitarian interventions. BMW Group and Daimler AG have announced an investment of more than €1 billion in a mobility services joint venture with a vision of electric, automation and on-demand mobility. In 2007, The Walt Disney Company, Fox and NBC jointly launched Hulu, a streaming service to compete with existing networks. Hulu now has more than 28 million subscribers. SOURCE : FABERNOVEL, « MAPS.ME AND HUMANITARIAN OPENSTREETMAP TEAM PARTNER TO CROWDSOURCE DATA FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE » (MEDIUM.COM/@DIMITRYOPHOTO, 06/09/2017), « HULU SUBSCRIBER BASE GROWS TO 28 MILLION » (CNN.COM, 01/05/2019), « BMW GROUP ET DAIMLER AG INVESTISSENT PLUS D'UN MILLIARD D'EUROS DANS UNE COENTREPRISE DE SERVICES À LA MOBILITÉ. » (PRESS.BMWGROUP.COM, 22/02/2019) « Co-innovate » strategy: co-innover without GAFAnomics Act hand in hand without GAFAnomics
  53. 53. 53 DMLG Digital sovereignty: GAFA and society
  54. 54. 54 Governments DMLG CompaniesCitizens Contract for the Web SOURCE: CONTRACTFORTHEWEB.ORG
  55. 55. 55 DMLG ● Ensure everyone can connect to the Internet SOURCE: CONTRACTFORTHEWEB.ORG ● Keep all of the Internet available, all of the time ● Respect people’s fundamental right to privacy Governments CompaniesCitizens
  56. 56. 56 DMLG
  57. 57. 57 DMLG
  58. 58. 58 DMLG « From what I’ve learned, I believe we need new regulation in four areas: harmful content, election integrity, privacy and data portability. » ~Mark Zuckerberg SOURCE: « FOUR IDEAS TO REGULATE THE INTERNET » (FACEBOOK NEWSROOM, 30/03/2019)
  59. 59. 59 DMLG ● Make the Internet affordable and accessible to everyone SOURCE: CONTRACTFORTHEWEB.ORG ● Respect consumers’ privacy and personal data ● Develop technologies that support the best in humanity and challenge the worst CompaniesCitizens Governments
  60. 60. 60 DMLG SOURCE: « THE WEB CAN BE WEAPONISED – AND WE CAN'T COUNT ON BIG TECH TO STOP IT » (THE GUARDIAN, 12/03/2018) « Two myths currently limit our collective imagination: the myth that advertising is the only possible business model for online companies, and the myth that it’s too late to change the way platforms operate. On both points, we need to be a little more creative. » Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web founder
  61. 61. 61 DMLG ● (Softbank Group) ● (Facebook) ● A̶q̶u̶i̶l̶a̶ ̶d̶r̶o̶n̶e̶, Athena satellite ● (Google) ● (Starlink) ● (Airbus, Softbank Group, Bill Gates, Greg Wyler/OneWeb) Connectivity projects
  62. 62. 62 DMLG SOURCE: PAVEL DUROV (TWITTER, 13/04/2018)
  65. 65. 65 DMLG ● Be creators and collaborators on the Web SOURCE: CONTRACTFORTHEWEB.ORG ● Build strong communities that respect civil discourse and human dignity ● Fight for the Web Companies Governments Citizens
  66. 66. 66 DMLG Value is shifting from knowledge stocks to knowledge flows. As the world speeds up, stocks of knowledge depreciate at a faster rate. Abandon stocks, embrace flows SOURCES: « THANK YOU FOR BEING LATE: AN OPTIMIST'S GUIDE TO THRIVING IN THE AGE OF ACCELERATIONS » (THOMAS FRIEDMAN, 2016), THE SKILLS REVOLUTION (MANPOWERGROUP, 2017) The difference now is the life cycle of skills is shorter than ever and change is happening at an unprecedented scale
  67. 67. 67 DMLG « But you can't just tap flows one time. You have to contribute to them as well to really be "in the flow." "We can't participate effectively in flows of knowledge—at least not for long—without contributing knowledge of our own," the authors* note. "This occurs because participants in these knowledge flows don't want free riding 'takers'; they want to develop relationships with people and institutions that can contribute knowledge of their own." » SOURCE: « THANK YOU FOR BEING LATE: AN OPTIMIST'S GUIDE TO THRIVING IN THE AGE OF ACCELERATIONS » (THOMAS FRIEDMAN, 2016) *Authors Hagel, Seely Brown, and Davidson in a Harvard Business Review essay entitled "Abandon Stocks, Embrace Flows."
  68. 68. 68 « Content builds relationships. Relationships are built on trust. Trust drives revenue. » ~Andrew Davis, marketing keynote speaker and best-selling author DMLG SOURCE: « BIGGER SUCCESS. LESS CONTENT » (ANDREW DAVIS, UBA TRENDS DAY 2017)
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