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Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 1
Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy
Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oa...
Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 2
Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy
change. The following five factors are cha...
Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 3
Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy
the therapist. They need to try their insi...
Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 4
Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy
My Pastoral Practice
This person centered ...
Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 5
Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy
RESPECT
Unconditional
Positive
Regard
CONG...
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PERSONALITY THEORY by Derrick Givens

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PERSONALITY THEORY by Derrick Givens

  1. 1. Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 1 Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy Rather than viewing people as inherently flawed, with problematic behaviors and thoughts that require treatment, person-centered therapy identifies that each person has the capacity and desire for personal growth and change. Rogers termed this natural human inclination “actualizing tendency,” or 1self-actualization. He likened it to the way that other living organisms strive toward balance, order, and greater complexity. According to Rogers, "Individuals have within themselves vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes, and self-directed behavior; these resources can be tapped if a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided." The person-centered therapist learns to recognize and trust human potential, providing clients with empathy and unconditional positive regard to help facilitate change. The therapist avoids directing the course of therapy by following the client’s lead whenever possible. Instead, the therapist offers support, guidance, and structure so that the client can discover personalized solutions within themselves. Person-centered therapy was at the forefront of the 2humanistic psychology movement, and it has influenced many therapeutic techniques and the mental health field, in general. Rogerian techniques have also influenced numerous other disciplines, from medicine to education. Six Factors Necessary for Growth in Rogerian Theory Rogers identified six key factors that stimulate growth within an individual. He suggested that when these conditions are met, the person will gravitate toward a constructive fulfillment of potential. According to Rogerian theory, the six factors necessary for growth are: 1) Therapist-Client Psychological Contact: This first condition simply states that a relationship between therapist and client must exist in order for the client to achieve positive personal 1 Self-actualization is the final stage of development in Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This stage occurs when a person is able to take full advantage of his or her talents while still being mindful of his or her limitations. The term is also used colloquially to refer to an enlightened maturity characterized by the achievement of goals, acceptance of oneself, and an ability to self-assess in a realistic and positive way. Self-actualization can be explored in therapy. 2 Humanistic psychology “Third Force” (humanism) is grounded in the belief that people are innately good. This type of psychology holds that morality, ethical values, and good intentions are the driving forces of behavior, while adverse social or psychological experiences can be attributed to deviations from natural tendencies.
  2. 2. Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 2 Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy change. The following five factors are characteristics of the therapist-client relationship, and they may vary by degree. 2) Client Incongruence or Vulnerability: A discrepancy between the client’s self-image and actual experience leaves him or her vulnerable to fears and anxieties. The client is often unaware of the incongruence. 3) Therapist Congruence or Genuineness: The therapist should be self-aware, genuine, and congruent. This does not imply that the therapist be a picture of perfection, but that he or she be true to him- or herself within the therapeutic relationship. 4) Therapist Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR): The clients’ experiences, positive or negative, should be accepted by the therapist without any conditions or judgment. In this way, the client can share experiences without fear of being judged. 5) Therapist Empathy: The therapist demonstrates empathic understanding of the clients’ experiences and recognizes emotional experiences without getting emotionally involved. 6) Client Perception: To some degree, the client perceives the therapist’s unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding. This is communicated through the words and behaviors of the therapist. Therapy Carl Rogers originally called His therapy non-directive, because he felt that the therapist should not lead the client, but rather be there for the client while the client directs the progress of the therapy. As he became more experienced, he realized that, as "non-directive" as he was, he still influenced his client by his very "non-directiveness!" In other words, clients look to therapists for guidance, and will find it even when the therapist is trying not to guide. So he changed the name to client-centered. He still felt that the client was the one who should say what is wrong, find ways of improving, and determine the conclusion of therapy -- his therapy was still very "client-centered" even while he acknowledged the impact of the therapist. Nowadays, though the terms non-directive and client-centered are still used, most people just call it Rogerian therapy. One of the phrases that Rogers used to describe his therapy is "supportive, not reconstructive," and he uses the analogy of learning to ride a bicycle to explain: When you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can't just tell them how. They have to try it for themselves. And you can't hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go. If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn. It's the same in therapy. If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you,
  3. 3. Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 3 Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy the therapist. They need to try their insights on their own, in real life beyond the therapist's office! An authoritarian approach to therapy may seem to work marvelously at first, but ultimately it only creates a dependent person. There is only one technique that Rogerians are known for: reflection. Reflection is the mirroring of emotional communication: If the client says "I feel like crap!" the therapist may reflect this back to the client by saying something like "So, life's getting you down, hey?" By doing this, the therapist is communicating to the client that he is indeed listening and cares enough to understand. The therapist is also letting the client know what it is the client is communicating. Rogers felt that a therapist, in order to be effective, must have three very special qualities: 1. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client. 2. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the client feels. 3. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client. I came across a video clip of Carl Rogers interview on Person-Centered Therapy. Roger describes an encounter with a soldier in the South African Army. By watching this video, you will:  Understand the logical stance behind the person- centered approach.  Learn Rogers’s core conditions necessary to bring about change in psychotherapy.  Identify Rogers’s key contributions to psychology and psychotherapy. Greater Substance Carl Roger’s personality theory have given me greater substance from each encounter. By substance I mean: a high perception of the concerns of the client, an intense focus on what the client is communicating to me, and a clear picture of the client’s thoughts and emotions. Practicing empathy, congruency, and unconditional positive regard only opened the door to receiving greater revelations of what is going on in the minds of the clients. P Person centered C Congruence E Empathy UPR Unconditional Positive Regard
  4. 4. Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 4 Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy My Pastoral Practice This person centered approach to therapy, only confirms and supports my own practices. During encounters I submit to the emotional and conversational journey of the patient. This allows them to place my hand upon their emotions. By during this I allowed them to navigate our conversation. I am still influencing the client in spite of "non-directiveness." I am able to move more empathically, and be more present with them. During some of my most recent encounters, the patients have allow me to enter into their important memories. In some of my last verbatims, I have indicated that I became a student to my patients as I benefited from the new discoveries during our conversations and the sheer experiences of the patients. The Personality Theory Consistency with My Theological Understanding Let’s apply Roger’s three therapist qualities to the pastoral abilities of Christ. (Matthew 15:21) And Jesus went away from there into the country of Tyre and Sidon. (Matthew 15:22) And a woman of Canaan came out from those parts, crying and saying, Have pity on me, O Lord, Son of David; my daughter is greatly troubled with an unclean spirit. (Matthew 15:23) But he gave her no answer. And his disciples came and said to him, Send her away, for she is crying after us. (Matthew 15:24) But he made answer and said, I was sent only to the wandering sheep of the house of Israel. (Matthew 15:25) But she came and gave him worship, saying, Help, Lord. (Matthew 15:26) And he made answer and said, It is not right to take the children's bread and give it to the dogs. (Matthew 15:27) But she said, Yes, Lord: but even the dogs take the bits from under their masters' table. (Matthew 15:28) Then Jesus, answering, said to her, O woman, great is your faith: let your desire be done. And her daughter was made well from that hour. Reference: http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/person-centered http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
  5. 5. Derrick PERSONALITY THEORY SEMINAR P a g e | 5 Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy RESPECT Unconditional Positive Regard CONGRUENCE EMPATHY (Matthew 15:28) Then Jesus, answering, said to her, O woman, great is your faith: let your desire be done. And her daughter was made well from that hour. Jesus was able to enter into her world, feel her pain and great empathy for her daughter. He said, “Let Your Desire Be Done.” He withheld any judgment against her and saw a person in need. UPR: (Matthew 15:23) But he gave her no answer. And his disciples came and said to him, Send her away, for she is crying after us. Giving her no answer is compared to pausing during an encounter. Displaying a non-directiveness that permitted her to engage further with Him. If Jesus did not accept this Canaanite woman without judgment or a willingness to experience her, He would have permitted his disciples to send her away. And He would have not accepted her worship. CPR: (Matthew 15:26) And he made answer and said, It is not right to take the children's bread and give it to the dogs. To be children of Abraham is the condition of worth. He called her a dog, the cause she did not meet the condition. This was the judgment. However, in verse 28 a greater condition of receiving blessing from God is revealed. The condition of faith. You cannot come to God without meeting this condition. (Matthew 15:24) But he made answer and said, I was sent only to the wandering sheep of the house of Israel. Jesus was bluntly honest with her. This honesty contributed to her fight to receive from God and her statement of faith in verse 25 and her exploring her attitudes and thoughts about being called a dog in verse 27.

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