Concept of Employee Engagement
• Concept of employee engagement was first put forward by the Psychologist
Kahn in 1990.
• Definition : Employee engagement is a heightened emotional and
intellectual connection that an employee has for his/her job, organization,
manager, or coworkers that, in turn, influences him/her to apply additional
discretionary effort to his/her work.
• Engagement refers to an intrinsic, deep-rooted, and sweeping sense of
commitment, pride, and loyalty that is not easily altered.
• EE was equated with – Job satisfaction, Job involvement, Commitment,
Organizational Citizenship behavior…
• It’s all about energy...People often confuse job satisfaction with employee
• But that burst of energy felt actually comes from being engaged in work — not
just with how satisfied someone are while they’re there.
• Engagement suggests a Dynamic work place relationship
Highly engaged employees will
remain motivated despite adverse
circumstances, such as limited resources,
equipment failures, time pressures, and so on.
“They act as though they have ownership in the
“How do you know if someone is engaged?”
• Org. Behaviour
• Job Involvement
• Job Satisfaction
• Notion of Flow
• Individual Level-PASSION
• Group Level- SET theory
Employee Engagement as a Construct
Factors that drive Employee-Engagement
• Before that few Questions…….
• Employees today have increased bargaining
• How do we measure Engagement?
• Time has Changed, really?
• Now lets have a look at the factors….
• Unrealistic expectations
• Lack of coaching, feedback, and support
• Incompetent leaders whom people don’t respect
• Constantly being underappreciated and devalued
• Lack of basic pleasantries such as “hello” or “thank you”
• Lack of support from manager
• Having to do work that doesn’t appear to add value
• Seeing managers who are not actively engaged
• When manager takes credit for employees work
• When employees have no idea what direction the organization is
• Not being respected
• When they go above and beyond but their efforts are never
• When they have to keep climbing over or around barriers to get
what you need to do their job
• Over burdensome processes.
• When a supervisor asks for an employee’s opinion and then
makes him or her feel stupid
• When a supervisor holds a meeting to get employee feedback
and suggestions and doesn’t follow up
• When boss never asks for input
• Lack of appreciation or compliments for a job well done
• Criticism that isn’t constructive
When people are treated with respect they engage and work harder to
achieve goals of an organisation.
Areas where employee experience respect and disrespect.
Elements of sustained Employee
Autonomy: employees need to have autonomy to make
decisions and “own” aspects of their work
Challenge: employees need to feel challenged with
Feedback: employees need to receive feedback
Manager support: employees need to have a manager
Aligning EE with Culture
Organization culture needs to align with the
For example, feedback is an organizational requirement
for engagement. If company’s culture dictates whether
employees give meaningful feedback or not. Do they feel
comfortable telling the truth? Or would they rather
sugarcoat their opinions so they don’t rock the boat?
important if business strategy requires employees to
learn and innovate.
Aligning EE with Culture
Employee engagement programmes
2. PEEP (Proactive Employee Engagement
3. PROPEL (Professional Excellence Role
Enhancement Ownership Culture Personal growth
Employee Engagement and Learning)
Aligning EE with
Well - being
Well-being is an employee’s quality of life – how “healthy” she is
physically and emotionally and whether she’s improving and living the
best life she can.
“The way management treats associates is exactly how
the associates will treat the customers”.
- Sam Walton founder
• Reebok was looking to reinforce its new mission “to get consumers moving.”
They figured the best way to do that was to first get their employees in motion.
In an effort to align their people with their vision, the athletic apparel brand
converted one of their warehouses into a CrossFit workout center, exclusively for
• Participants collectively lost over 4000 pounds during 2011. Globally, 1000
Reebok employees are now CrossFitters.
• This initiative helped build engagement on many levels. Reebok didn’t just sell
a lifestyle, it lived it. To deliver the full customer experience, they promoted a
culture of health and wellness within their organization, making employees
stakeholders in the company’s vision and mission.
• The hotel group’s high employee retention and long tenure speaks volumes in an
industry known for its high employee turnover. The focus on employee
development and promoting from within plays a large part in this. Another
interesting practice, connected to development, is how they empower their
employees (whom they call associates), to listen carefully to each other and guests,
to be able to solve problems and create new solutions, rather than following scripts
of what to do, making the guest feel special and heard.
• Many organisations share this commitment to employee development and are
therefore able to trigger that inner motivation that comes from knowing that you’re
growing and developing. Besides, continuous development is crucial in order to
successfully deal with the constant change all organisations face.
Examples of EE
• Google have been very intentional about creating the culture they want. One aspect of that
culture is their focus on transparency. The idea is to break down barriers, encourage
creativity and collaboration. And employees, as a result, are feeling empowered by that
transparency. Culture comes down to behavioral habits and Google, by creating a culture of
transparency and freedom, creates habits of creativity. Formalizing that people spend 20% of
their time doing something outside their normal work function, facilitates a creative culture.
Ultimately culture is about “how things get done” and should not be left to chance, it’s too
powerful a force not to take control over – and Google has done this well.
• Organizations that focus on transparency engaging employees more than those that don’t.
Employees want to be a part of something where there are no hidden agendas and they are
experiencing an honest perspective whether that is good news or not. Informed employees
feel valued and engagement typically follows.
Benefits of Engaged Workforce
• Increased productivity
• Increased profitability
• Higher-quality work
• Improved efficiency
• Lower turnover
• Reduced absenteeism
• Less employee theft and fraud
• Higher rates of customer satisfaction
• Higher employee satisfaction
• Reduced lost-time accidents
• Fewer Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) complaints
• The Paradox:
• Too little focus on sustaining an engagement culture can yield
• Employees may withdraw psychologically or physically;
• However, too much of an engagement culture can also have bad
consequences, including burnout, disengagement, and other negative
psychological and behavioral outcomes (e.g., not adapting to the changes
required for the company to succeed).
Burnout is most often thought of
as a state of exhaustion, of being
overwhelmed with “ no way
It accompanies or is a response
high stress caused by relentless
dedication to challenging work
(a) a state of exhaustion; subsequently followed by
(b) a sense of detachment –what we call disengagement – from work;
(c) resulting in less overt behaviour that is characteristic of
got any Solutions ????????????
• Deloitte university press articles and videos on Employee
• Employee Engagement in Context - Mark Gatenby Chris Rees
Emma Soane Catherine Truss
• Carrots and Sticks Don’t work . - Paul L. Marciano
• Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice, and
Competitive Advantage - William H. Macey, Benjamin Schneider,
Karen M. Barbera, and Scott A. Young