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  1. 1. Prof. Kakoli K. Paul Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Odisha Presented by
  2. 2. AVAILABILITY OF FRESH WATER • Out of 70 percent of the earth’s surface water, only three percent is fresh water • Only about 0.01 percent of the world’s total water supply is considered available for human use • As population grows, requirements for basic personal use rise proportionately • Rapid population growth and increasing per capita consumption squeezed the world’s freshwater resources
  3. 3. WASTEWATER PRODUCTION • With rapid expansion of cities and domestic water supply, quantity of wastewater is increasing in the same rate as population increase • Estimated sewage generation is about 70-80 % of total water supplied for domestic use • Projected wastewater from urban centers may cross 120,000 MLD by 2051 and rural India will generate wastewater near about 50,000 MLD
  4. 4. What is the need to treat wastewater?
  5. 5. PROBLEMS WITH WASTEWATER • Contains high concentrations of excreted pathogens, potential to cause disease. Each year millions of people get infected by water bone disease due to poor water quality • May lead to environmental problems such as soil sickness, soil and ground water contamination and phytotoxicity • Proper investigation is necessary to remove the harmful bacteria and other micro-organisms from the wastewater before reusing in agricultural purpose
  6. 6. WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITY • Treatment of wastewater requires significant amounts of energy • Approximately high income countries treat 70% of produced wastewater, upper middle income countries treat 38%, lower middle treat 28% and low income treats only 8% of wastewater • Only 60% of industrial wastewater, mostly large scale industries, is treated. Remaining 40% goes to the rivers or ponds without any treatment and pollute the surface water • Existing treatment capacity is just 21 per cent of the present sewage generation, remaining untreated sewage is the main cause of pollution of rivers and lakes
  7. 7. Wastewater Treatment By Vermifiltration Fig. 1 Internal process and body parts of earthworm [Source: K. Samal, R. R. Dash, and P. Bhunia, “A comparative study of macrophytes influence on performance of hybrid vermifilter for dairy wastewater treatment,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 4714– 4726, Aug. 2018.
  8. 8. Fig 2: Role of earthworm
  9. 9. Vermifiltration is an eco-friendly sustainable low cost technology for the treatment of wastewater. Vermifiltration in inclusion of hydroponic macrophytes for removal of various pollutants from wastewater can be added low cost mitigation measure. Earthworm acts as the extraordinary waste and environmental administrator. Many investigators have found that earthworm efficiently biodegrade or bio accumulate organic and inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals, pesticide, micro pollutants in the medium in which it colonize.
  10. 10. Fig 3: Vermicompost
  11. 11. Advantages of Vermicompost 1) Accelerates Germination: Seeds sprout more quickly and healthier. 2) Increases number of fruits: More numbers of fruit yields 3) Accelerates flowering: Quick flowering takes place 4) Production of humic acids: Vermicompost helps to create humic acids and plant growth hormones It is major contributor to disease resistance and pest deferrence 5) Nutrients released slowly: As required, nutrients release slowly
  12. 12. In any biological treatment system, DO have a crucial role in treatment process. In vermifiltration system, DO of wastewater can slows down/speeds up the rate of each and every mechanism associated inside the system. Earthworms perform ingestion to add more DO to the treatment unit. Optimum DO present in the system works with aseptic conditions in entire bed and nullify the probability of growing dead pockets in filter bed. Reduction of dead pockets strengthens the treatment system by enhancing removal efficiency.
  13. 13. Initially, DO is lower in vermifilter and in later stage it increases until a steady state is achieved. Variation of DO is due to organic matters and nutrients that are already present in vermifilter. Earthworm contributes DO to the system and increases the treatment efficiency. The DO depends on hydraulic loading, practice of feeding, earthworm density and species of earthworm. The DO concentration is more in vertical flow vermifilter as compared to horizontal flow vermifilter.
  14. 14. Organic loading plays an important role by verifying the DO presence in the effluents obtained from vermifilter. In high temperature earthworm increases the activity of metabolism and respiratory and consumes high DO. Biological reaction, diffusivity of air of the bed material, and biodegradation of organic pollutant of effluent also affects the temperature of system. Optimal temperature required for vermifiltration ranges from 26-370 C.
  15. 15. Earthworm presents in the vermifilter buffer their own temperature by themselves. The exothermic reaction performed by earthworm increases the temperature. The rise of temperature in vermin system is due to the heat generated from the oxidation of organics. The water which are supplied constantly help to push to a certain temperature for suitable application of microbes.
  16. 16. Pyrolysis, incineration, land filling, shredding, composting, pulverization etc are commonly practiced for biomass management. But for macrophyte biomass management still vermicomposting is a sustainable method as it requires minimum or zero energy with non- hazardous ecofriendly byproduct. Vermifiltration produces comparatively less amount of sludge. Vermifilter bed trap all the solids present in wastewater by digestion. Earthworm cast (excreta) are mainly composed of soil and gets converted into carbon dioxide and water during decomposition.
  17. 17. In case of integrated macrophyte vermifilter, the top surface of the treatment system is covered with macrophyte leaves which help earthworm as they are sensitive to sunlight and rain. The macrophyte root tips and young laterals release oxygen by creating a oxidized protective layer on the tissues of the root surface. In macrophyte filter system during clogging also earthworm help to restore its efficiency and the operation for a long term. The processes which contribute for the clogging of the system are large amount of sludge production, chemical precipitation, plants root growth, suspended solid accumulated, gas generation.
  18. 18. To control clogging in the integrated macrophyte filter the earthworm plays vital role. The root system of macrophyte provide a large surface area for various bacteria like autotrophs, heterotrophs, nitrifiers. The macrophyte root system and gut of earthworm increases the diversity of microbes in the filter bed. Usually the removal of phosphorus is done by adsorption and through uptake by plant. The fungus and plant in the filter develop a symbiotic relation in which macrophyte (plant) provide carbon and in return get phosphorus and minerals from fungus. The pH of the filter system is controlled by earthworm. Also algae present in the system uptake phosphorus in form of orthophosphate.
  19. 19. Macrophyte or hydroponic planting add oxygen to the system and help in uniformly distribution of microorganisms. Also, they absorb the organics through their root system. Macrophyte integrated system help in maintaining porosity in top and bottom zone of the filter. Literature study found still vermifiltration has some limitations. Present research need to focus to counteract the limitations for efficient removal of pollutants. Hence, in order to make this treatment system as an eco-friendly, efficient, and sustainable process more investigation should be done on optimization of design and operating parameters and integrating with appropriate plant-earthworm species.
  20. 20. Treatment of emerging pollutants in wastewater
  21. 21. Emerging pollutants are chemicals and compounds that have recently been identified as dangerous to the environment, and to the health of human beings. “Emerging” may be because of the rising level of concern.
  22. 22. Emerging pollutants even in trace amount can cause adverse health effects Emerging Contaminants are consistently being found in groundwater, surface water, municipal wastewater, drinking water and food sources.
  23. 23. Emerging pollutants include a variety of compounds such as antibiotics, drugs, steroids, endocrine disruptors, hormones, industrial additives, chemicals, and also microbeads and microplastics. There is a link between these pollutants and wastewater. Municipal, industrial, and domestic wastewater are, in fact, a primary pathway for their wide diffusion in the aquatic environment. They include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, herbicides and endocrine disrupting compounds
  24. 24. Emerging contaminants are synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals or any microorganisms that are not commonly monitored in the environment but have the potential to enter the environment and cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects. They may be perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, etc.
  25. 25. Following are conventional pollutants: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, pH, etc. Chemicals of emerging concern can include nanoparticles, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, estrogen-like compounds, flame retardants, detergents, and some industrial chemicals with potential significant impact on human health and aquatic life
  26. 26. MORINGA OLEIFERA IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT: A CASE STUDY (Study performed by MTech-R) • Hard to afford the costs of imported chemicals for water and wastewater treatment • Moringa Oleifera (MO) can be non-toxic and hence recommended for its use as a coagulant in developing countries • Added advantage over the chemical treatment of water because it is biological and reported as edible and can be used in the rural areas where no other facility is available for the wastewater treatment.
  27. 27. • It was found that MO is most widely used plant for the removal of pathogens, physicochemical and heavy metals from the wastewater • Use of several natural plants in wastewater (i. e. phytoremediation) is sometimes costly, it needs large setup as well as availability of aquatic plants is not so easy as compared to MO
  28. 28. Methodology Moringa Oleifera seeds purchased from local market were grounded using grinder 50 mg of MO seed powder was added in 1 liter of treated municipal wastewater and it was stirred at 150 rpm for 45 min. The stirred sample was allowed to settle for 20 minutes
  29. 29. • To know about the surface topography, composition and phase identification, SEM and XRD analysis of MO seed powder were performed • To study the changes in the parameters of sample, physico- chemical analysis of treated municipal wastewater with MO seed powder was performed • For the optimization of MO seed powder in the dissolution process, DOE (design of experiments) and to know about the dissolution mechanism, several kinetic models were applied
  30. 30. ANALYSIS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED POWDER  SEM analysis of Moringa Oleifera seed powder • Particle size of MO seed powder was not uniform • Some particles were big and others were small sized having fibrous structure with honeycomb like pores or cavities on them • Potassium (K), carbon (C), calcium (Ca) and oxygen (O) found in magnificence amount through EDS analysis
  31. 31. XRD analysis • Potassium (K) (438 cts.) detected in higher concentration from XRD analysis as compared to oxygen and carbon compounds • Indicates the amorphous structure of MO seed powder • It contains significant amount of potassium • After the addition of MO seed powder in treated municipal wastewater effluent its physicochemical characterization were again performed.
  32. 32. OPTIMIZATION OF MO SEED POWDER  Design of experiment (DOE) for dissolution of potassium • Based on combination of the four process parameters (i.e., pH, temperature, time and dose of solute) DOE was performed • Levels of the studied process parameters (A, B, C and D refers the coded value of pH, temperature, time and dose of solute respectively) affecting dissolution process of potassium employed in the experiment taken as 2
  33. 33. DISSOLUTION KINETIC MODELS • To study the release mechanism of solute in the solution form mathematical models are necessary • From the main and interaction effect plot it was found that for the best optimization process desirable values are pH = 7.5 Time = 67.50 min Dose of solute = 52.50 mg /l Temperature = 47ºC • Zero order, first order and shrinking core models has been used for the dissolution kinetic modeling
  34. 34. • Study found that the dissolution kinetics of potassium can be described by the Shrinking Core Model with diffusion control process because it gives the best fit of curve of having highest R2 value (0.977) among all other models. • Regression coefficients of dissolution kinetics for different models Models Temperature 17º C 27º C 37ºC 47ºC Zero order 0.924 0.894 0.765 0.581 First order 0.963 0.894 0.765 0.560 Higuchi 0.961 0.923 0.806 0.580 Chemical reaction control shrinking core 0.930 0.950 0.943 0.848 Diffusion reaction control 0.939 0.977 0.960 0.819
  35. 35. • In the dissolution experiments, the dissolution reaction is extremely dependent on temperature • According to the highest regression coefficient (0.977), best desirable temperature for the dissolution process of potassium as per the shrinking core model is 27° C • Dissolution process is temperature dependent, indicates the mechanism of dissolution of potassium follows diffusion through a semi-permeable product layer • Highest dissolution rates were obtained at high temperature
  36. 36. • With the increase in temperature, equilibrium or saturation point of the dissolution process achieved at early time period • At 17° C, 27 ° C and 37° C equilibrium state of dissolution process occurs after 90 minutes • At 47° C, after 70 minutes of dissolution process equilibrium point of potassium dissolution in treated municipal wastewater occur • With the increased in temperature active site of the solute increases hence it dissolve more potassium in the early time stage • Surface of the particle creates active sites until a reaction front is established, and through which the ions of the medium and the potassium from MO seed powder start to diffuse • This is followed by a progressive conversion period, when the concentrations of potassium progressively increase until reaching stabilization indicating the end of the reaction.
  37. 37. WASTEWATER RESUSE • Rich in nutrients • Lack of available fresh water